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Entered tecordinf to Act of OonroM, In the yew im. 
la tho a.rk'. Omo. or U.. ULinct Court of llu. UnltoU 8ut,. f„, tho Southern 
DlitrlctofNew York. 




In presenting the scconJ volume of this liistory no remark neenis 
necessary; yet to avoid a misconcoption on tlie part of gome, it may 
be well to stato explicitly timt the not*" in thin eililion, embracing 
all citations of authorities, arc the work of tho translator, exceptinff only 
the few occasional notes to which the name of Charlevoix is added in 
italics. Tt, may also be added, as a guide to tho reader, that tho orthog- 
raphy of proper names in tho text is that given by Charlevoix. In tho 
notes it is given as found in tho autograph of the individual. 

I am indebted to Dr. John Torrey for valuable assistance in ideiiti- 
fying some of the plants described by tho author, and to Mr. Park- 
man and his jjublishers, and to the Sulpiiians of Paris for the use of 
the portraits of Menendez and Olier presented in this and tho i)reviou8 

The new edition of Chaniplain's Voyages, edited by tho Abb6 Laver- 
diere, who kindly put his proof sheets at ray sorvico, has boon of great 
assistance; and I owe to him also an account of his discovery of Cham- 
plain's tomb. 

J. G. 8. 




State of Qaeb4<c in 1010. Mr. de riiam])1ain Joins his alliM In an expedition af^alnat 
tlio IriKiuoiH. The scttltinient of till' Dutch in Nt'v Netlmrland. tVmtiniiaiion of 
Mr. d« Cliamplaln'a ox|)<'(lltion. Indian want of precaution in wo r. lni|iiinturt« 
of medirinc-mt'n. Uotli'ctlon on this |K)lnt. IHscovcry of a Iiiku to wliii'h Mr. do 
Champlain glvcH IiIh name. Lake of tho Uli>fl(iiHl Sacrnnifiit. The anil's und the 
IrixpioiN nKKtt nod rccognlr-f each other. They en^aKO. Victory of llie allien, and 
Mr. de ('hainplain'H share therein, ('raelties of the vIctorH. lirreption of the 
Montngnez in their viilaKO aft- their victory. Mr. de ('hnni]<laln retumii to 
France. Name of New France (jfiven to Canada. Second ex|H'dition of Mr. do 
Champlain and IiIh anil's a^ningt the Iroquois. Vigorous defence an<l defeat of the 
latter. The Count do SolDSons puts himsi'lf at the head of Ciinndian afTuirfi. Ills 
death. Tho Princo succeods him, and assumes the title of viceroy of New France, 
The llecollect Fathers arrive at liuobec Champlaln's third expoditinn against 
the Iroquois. How to act with Indians. Attack on tho InKjuolH fort. ClminplaiM 
Is wounded and forced to retreat. He winters in the Huron country against his 
will. A Recollect Brother renders a great service to the colony. New France Is 
greotly neghwtod. Marshal de Montmorency viceroy of New France. The Iro- 
quois undertake to destroy the French olony. The Canada Company is sup- 
pressed. Quehec fortified. The Duke do Ventadour viceroy of New Franco. Five 
Jesuits arrive in Canada. A Recollect Father drowned, and his Huron companions 
BUHp«-cted of causing Ids death. The Jesuits meet great opposition In Canada. 
Wretched state of the colony. Company of a Hundred Associates for the settle- 
ment of New Franco ; its privileges, and what it undertakes. Hostility of tho 
EugliHh. They demand tho surrender of Quebec. Champlaln's reply. Tlie Eng- 
lish cnpturi. A French squadron. Mr. de Champlaln's emborrussment. Quelx?o 
again summoned by the Engli. )>. Conditions on which the place surrendered. 
Oood luago. Most of the Bettlers remain in the country. Emery do Caen, coming 
to the relief of Quebec, is captured by the English. A French Calvinlst projector 
and guide of the English expedition. He dies frantic. Bad faith of the English 




admiral. Somo adviso against doraanding tho restitution of Canada. Reply to 
their arguments. Clinniplain's ojiinion. Canada restored to France. In what 
condiiion. Why the English neglected Acadia. 


De Cliamplnin appointi-d govornor-general of New France. Character of the Hurons. 
The Company of a Hundred Associates will not permit the return of tho Hecollccts 
to Canada The I'onduct of the Kiiglish had made the Indians regret the F"rench. 
Several Jesuits arrive at Quehec. Success of their first labors. Protestants 
excluded from New France. Judicious choice of tho first colonists. Character of 
the first miswionaries. Settlement in tho Huron country projected. Do Ciiamplain 
wihhes to oblige tho IncMans to take misisionaries with them. They refuse. Why 'i 
Good and bad qualities of the Ilurons. Origin of the tribe. Extent and nature of 
their country. Why do Chnmplnin wished to plant a settlement there and tho 
missionaries to make it a c("ntral point. Two Jesuits procer 1 thither. A third 
follows. Hardships of tlie journey. First permanent Huron mission. Difficulties 
'n converting these Indians. 'I'heir conduct towards tho missionaries. Efforts of 
the medicine-men to previ nt tie progress of the faith. Other difficulties. Won- 
ders wrought, and their effect. Conduct of the missionaries. What passed at a 
council. New persecution, apjjeascd at first. The Word of God begins to bear 
fruit among the Hurons. Why the baptism of some chiefs is deferred. Why tho 
tribe becomes more docile. Character of other Indian nations. Progress of reli- 
gion. Collegi of Qui'bec founded. First effects. Death of Mr. do Champlain. 
His cliiracter and eulogy. The Chevalier de Montmagni succeeds him. Seminary 
for Indian boys projectiHl. Number of ndssionaries among tho Hurons. The 
colony languishes through the fault of tho Company of a Hundred Associates. 
The Iroquois deceive the Hurons by a jirctended peace. War renewed. Various 
missionary expeditions. Tho Iroquois insult Three Rivers. Epidemic among the 
Hurons. Interest in Franco for tho conversion of tho Indians. Foundation of 
Sillery. Edifying conduct of the peojile of Quebec. Establishn.ent of the Hos- 
pital and Urjuline ntnis. Their reception. Their fervor. Courage of Madame de 
la Peltrie, fi mdress of the Ursulines. First lalxirs of the nuns. The colony still 
neglected by the Company of New France. The war between the Hrrons and 
Iroquois continued. The firet Iroquois Christian. Position of the Huron mission. 
Singular adventure of Father Jerome Lallomant. Sufferings of the missionurie& ; 
their occupatirms ; manner of ins;ructing. Reflections on the conversion of 
Indians. State of the missions at I'liree Rivers, Tudous.wc, and around the Gulf. 
Tho pretended worship of tho cross :iinong the Qaspe Indians. Noble conduct of 
the Hurons. Their reward. Defeat of an Iroquois party. Many Iroquois prison- 
ers baptized at death. Scheme of the Iroquois to draw the French away from the 
Hurons. They treat with tho former in bad faith. Embarrassed position of the 
governor-general. The settlement of Montreal projecte<l, Begun. Tradition as 
to the ancient inhabitants of that island. 





Fort lUcliclicu. Numerous conversions among tlio Ilnrons. A famous Ilurnn chief. 
Ilia calling to Oiiristiauity. Ilia baptism and furvor. UctU'Ction en Indian 
harangues. Missionary excursion to the Saiilteurs or Cliipiiewas. Tlio Dutch 
supply tlio Iroquois with arms and ammunition. Siipinenens of the llurons 
Many surprised liy the Iroquois. Several taken, and with them Father Jegues 
and two otiier Frenehmcn, who allow themsidves to be captured. Their treat- 
ment. Al)andoned to the fury of a war-party whom they met. Father Jogues 
agiiin refuses to escape. Tiic prisoners tortured in three villages successively. 
Their piety and fervor. All spared but three chiefs, wiio die as Christian heroes. 
Tiie Dutch apply for tho Frencli j)risouers. Hcfused. Martyrdom of Hene Goupii. 
Fatlicr Jogues avails himstdf of liis captivity to malie tho true (iod known to the 
Iroquois. Wonderful conversion of ono of these Indians, followed by several 
others. The Neutral nation destroyed by the Iroquois. Fruits of grace in Una 
nation. Judgment of Ood on a Huron village. Noble conduct of a Huron Chris- 
tian, and its results. Information given to the governor general by Father Jogues. 
Ineffectual eflbrts made for his delivery. Hears that his death is fixed upon. A 
Dutch olRcer ofifurs to save him. lie accepts tlio ofler. His escape. He arrives in 
England, and is stripped by robbers. U'acl:e5 France. Solicits permission from 
tho Pope to say Mass witli his mutilated hands. Tho Pope's reply. The character 
of this missionary. His return to Canada. What lie learns there of his mission. 
Fervor and sanctity of tlie Hurons. Jliraculous conversion of an .\lgonquin chief. 
Fervor of tho Algonquin missions. Calumnies the Jesuits in Franco. 
Tho New Franco ComiMiny justifies them. Father Uressani exposes himself to a 
great danger. Taken by the Iroquoi". Sufferings during his captivity. Delivered, 
and goes to France. Sad state of the colony. Tlie governor-general endeavors to 
make peaco with the Iroquois. What occurred between him an.l some Hurons. 
The la* .er agree to treat. The Ircxjuois seem favorable. Public audience given 
to their deputies, and what occurn-d. Peace ratified by the cantons. Father 
Brcssani retuniE to the Hurons. Death of Fathers Enemond Masse and Anne do 
Nolle. The Sokokis endeavor to break tho iieace. Tho IrrKjuois ratify it again. 
Father Jogues visits tho Iroquois twice. Hostilities renewed between th(' Iroquois 
and Hurons. Extent and situation of the Iroquois country. Origin of their name. 
Peculiarities of each canton. Fruii-trees. An'aiuls and diamonds. Tlie Inxjuois 
attack a Huron village, Noble conduct of three Hurons. Progress of religion 
during the ijeace. Father Jogues, ;. 'turning to the Iroquois, is almndoned by hia 
guides. He is received by the Mohawks as if he been a prisoner of war. 
What prejudiced tho Inillana against him. His deatli. His murderer io con- 
verted. The Mohawks reuew ilie war. Singular i\dventure of an Algonquin 
Christian woman, and he.- escape from thi- hands of the Iroquois. Who were tho 
Abenuquis. Tliey ask and obtain a missionary. Their character. Ileception of 
Father Dreuillettes by the Capuchin Futliers. The first laliors of this missionary. 
Mr. de Montma^ui recalled. Mr. d'AiUebout succcods him. Character of both. 



State of the colony In 1648. ^liRmnnagement of the Hurons. The Huron town of St. 
Joseph destroyed by tho Inxjuois. Heroic di'atli o. the Jesuit Father Anthony 
Daniel. ProJL..t of an alliance between the Knglish nnd Fi'ench colonies ia 
America. Deputation of tho Jesuit Father Dreuillottea and the Sieur Qodefroy, 
councillor of tho (.'')uncil of Quebec, to Boston. Apathy of the Hurons. Two 
Huron towns destroyed by the Iroquois. Fathers do Brebeuf and Lallemant taken. 
Various engagements between the Hurona and Iroquois. Fathers de Brebeuf and 
Lallemant burnt. Dispersion of the Ilurons. Most retire to St. Joseph's Isle. 
Their sufferings there. Their fervor. Rashness of tho Hurons of the town of St. 
John. A town destroyed by the Iro<juoi8. Heroic death of Father Gamier, tho 
pastor. Death of Father Chabanel. Hurons conspire against all the missionaries 
The iirmness of two of these Fathers disconcerts their plans. Singular interposi- 
tions of Providence in favor of the Christians. New misfortunes befall the Hurons. 
Sev(!rol descend to Quebec. Their reception. What became of the rest. Desti- 
tution of the former. Their rasiu'.ess. Untoward expedition, in which many 
Cliristlans perish. Account of an Algonquin burnt by the Iroquois. Fervor of 
the Christians. The use of liquors begins to produce great disorders in some mis- 
sions. Mr. de Lauson apiwinted governor-general of New France. The governor 
of Three Rivers killed by the Iroquois. Ravages of these savages in the North. 
Progress of the faith among the Abt'naquis nations. Father Butrux starts north- 
ward with a presentiment that he will not return. He is killed by the Iroquois. 
Several missionaries return to Europe. Progress of the colony of Montreal. New 
negotiations for peace. Capture of Father Poncet by the Mohawks. His sufferings 
and delivei.inco. His perils in returning to Quebec. Peace concluded. Father 
lo Moyno goes to Onondaga to ratify the treaty. Fervor of the Huron captives 
among the Iroquois. Danger of Father 1' Moyne from tho perfidy of the Mohawks. 
Piety of the Hurons on Isle Orieans. Tho Mohawks endeavor to break off the 
peace. They renew hostilities and assassinate a Jesuit lay-brother. Exiiloit of an 
Algonquin squtw. The Moliawks make peace again, and a missionary is given to 
them. Two other missionaries go to Onondaga. Tuey settle there. Fruit of their 
first labors. Destruction of the Eriez nation by the Iroquois. Project of a F.-ench 
colony at Onondaga. Hostility of the Mohawks. T!i<'y carry off part of the 
Hurons from Isle Orleans. Adventures of tho Ottav.-as after the destruction of the 
Hurons, Missionaries are given to seme of them. Thoy are attacked by tiie 
Mohawks. Father Qarreau mortally wounded. Tl.e French reach Onondaga. 
Their recei)tion. A part of the Hurons on Isle Orl.c.'ns offer to give themselves to 
the Mohawks, and repent. Pride of the Mohawks. Dilemma of the Hurons. A 
whole tribe sirrendors to tho Mohawks. The Ononda^as come to Quebec for the 
same purpose. Reply made to them. 



^'^y£AV6'A'^ OF JVm? FJiAIVCE . 














Afteh 1"io foundation of Quebec, and Madarao de 1609-15. 
Guerehovil • 3's refusal to unite witli Mr. de Monts, the ^-^ — y— ^ 
latter had still influence enough to form a new company. 
Messrs. de Champlain and do Pontgrave adhered to his 
interests more strongly than ever, and embarked in IGIO — 
the latter, to continue tlie trade at Tadoussac ; the former, 
to visit and advance his settlement at Quebec. 

He fomid every thing there in as good a condition as he stnto of 
could reasonably expect. He had caused barley and I'oio!'" 
wheat to be sowed the year before, and the crop of both 
grains had been abundant. He had also planted vines ; 
but his people pulled them up during liis absence, and in 
fact there was no pi-ospcct of their thrivuig. All the set- 
tlers were in good health, and seemed contented. The 
Indiana living in the neighborhood were the Algonquins.' 

' Formerly called Algoumekins. — Cha/rlevoix. 



1609. The Montagncz wcro lower down towards Tadonssac ; nnd 

""""v— ' it was the more easy fur tlio French to form an alliaueo 

with these two nations, as, far from being a luuden, the 

French aided them in their necessities, wliieh were at 

times extreme, especially when hunting failed them, as 

happened quite frequently. 

Mr. do But the greatest advantage which these savages cx- 

(f.ios 1,1 war pected from the French, was to bo aidi'd by them against 

"^iijUiuna."' tho Iroquois. In tlie year 1009, Champlain, who had wui- 

tered at Quebec,' having been joined there in tho spring 

by Pontgravi? when a party composed of Hurons, Algon- 

quius,' and Montagncz, was preparing to march against 

' Clmmplaln, Voyages (fid. 1013), 
pp. 177-304. 

' He left Quebec, Juno (t. «., May) 
7, to meet Dupiint-Urave ut Tuilous- 
sac (ib., p. 20r)) ; and then having 
concerted with liini an expedition to 
tlio Iroquois country, returned to 
Quebec, wlienco ho sot out, Juno 
(May) 18, and wont up to a rivir 
whicli he calls St. Mary's, and which 
Mr. Ferland thinks the St. Anno do 
la Perado (ib., p. 208 ; Ferlund, i., p. 
150). Hero he met a jjarty of Hu- 
rons and ono of Algonquius, with 
whom he returned to Quebec. 

" Tho Algonquins and Montagnais 
weru tribes of tlie same stock. The 
former tribe has indeed given its 
name to the whole family of kindred 
tribes occupying a groat part of 
North America. As to the pos- 
itive locality of the Algonquins 
and Montagnais there are most 
remarkable differences of opinion. 
Charlevoix here places tho Algon- 
quins near Quebec, and tho Montag- 
nais lower down, near Tadoussac. 
De la Potlierio (Histoire do I'Ame- 
rique Septentrionale, i., p. 294) puts 
the Montagnais on the Saguenay, 
and Algonquins, to tho numb(!r of 
fifteen hundred, between Quebec and 

Sillery — a statement utterly improb- 
able — with others at Throe Uivers, 
Saguenay, nnd inland (p. 29(1); al- 
though he admits the Ottawa to have 
been their original country (p. 288). 
More recent historians agree as littlo. 
Mr. (iurncau (Histoire du Canada, 
i., p. 80) places tho Algonquins on 
the St. Lawrence, from a little below 
Quebec to the St. Maurice, with one 
tribe at Montreal ; tlie Ottawas, on 
the river of that name ; and tho 
Montagnais, on the Saguenay and 
Lake St. John. The Abbe Ferland 
(Cours d'Histoiro, p. 91) puts the Al- 
gonquins around Quebec and up tho 
St. Lawrence to St. Peter's Lake ; 
and the Montagnais, on the Sague- 
nay and two or three other rivers. 
According to do Laet, tho Indians 
from the Saguenay to the gulf of 
the St. Lawrencj were the Cana- 
dians (lib. ii., eh. 8). Lescarbot (His- 
toire de la Nouvello France, p. 237) 
says the people of Oaspe and Chaleur 
Bay called themselves Canadacoa. 
Sagard, in his Histoire du Canada (p. 
152), and Chamjilain (Voyages, 1033, 
p. 131) place theCnnadianstliere. The 
present Naskapees most probably rep. 
resent these Cnnailians. Tho Mon- 
tagnais, according to Sagard (Ilis- 



this common enemy, allowed himself to be porsuftded to 1609. 
accompany them. Ho did not d()ul)t, that with three ""-"v— ' 
nations on his side, still quite imnierous, and interested to 
remain inseparably united to the Freneh, he would find it 
easy to subdue sueeessively all those which might under- 
takt^ to oppose his designs, and to all ap])earaneo his pro- 
ject was certain of success ; but he did not foi-csee tiiat the 
Iioijuois, who alone for some time held their own against 
all th' Indians for a hundred leagues around them, would 
soon bo bucked by neighbors, jealous of France, and soon 
to become more powerful than ourselves in that part of 

It was, in fact, in this same year that Henry Hudson, Settlement 
an Englishman, but then in the service of the Dutch East Dm.h in 
India Company, sailing with orders to make a now attempt oriund. 
to find a passage to China north of America, after seeking 

toire ilii Canada, p. 27), were so called 
by the French from the fact that 
they iniido their winter hunt in the 
mountains. lie places them around 
Qu<'bcc (lb., p. l(i!)), and alludes to 
theia repeatedly a") the nearest : 
Champlain also (Voyages, ed. UiSli, 
p. l;!l ; ed. lOiy, Laverdiere, p. lO'O. 
Fatlier Masse labored at Quebec, and 
Champlain gives Montaguais prayrs 
by him (Voyages, 1032, Doctrine, etc., 
p. 16). The earliest Jesuit Helations 
give the same district to the Mon- 
tagnais (delation, ICIS, p. 11 ; IC;!;!, 
pp. .'3, 8, 1", etc. ; 1031, pp. 12, 41)). 
The Rohition of U>-'!> even spenks of 
them as being as far up as Three 
Rivers ip. 21). None of these early 
writers speak of Algonquins near 
Quebec or Three Kivers, except 
as camping for u time. Tlic Al- 
gommequins (ChanipUiin, Voyiiges, 
edition 1013, pp. 109. '.iU.j)— Al- 
goumoquins (Sagard, Grand Voy- 
age, p. 70 ; Ilistoiro du Canada, p. 
801 ; Brobeuf, Relation des Hurons, 
1C35) — were clearly on tho Ottawa 

River, which Champlain calls the 
Oreat River of tho Algonquins. Un- 
der the general name Algonquins 
were coinprisetl the Iroquet, Petite 
Nation, and Algon(iuins de I'lele; 
the next tribe Ix-yond being the Ni- 
pis-^ings (Epicerinyen : Haj^ard, His- 
toire. J), i');} ; Orpnd Voyage, p. 74 ; 
Champlain, Vc.ynge (1013), p. 311). 
For the origin of the war against 
tho Iroquois, Beo Perrot, Mccurs 
et Coustumes do Sauvnges, p. 0. 
In Chnmi)lain'8 expedition, oa we 
eliall see, tho Ilurons and Algon- 
quins came down, and t!ie Mon- 
tHijn.tis went up, to the Sorel. The 
Montagnais ptill subsist, but have 
fallen down the St. Lawrence to 
tho Saguenay. i'he Algonquins and 
Nipissings are now represented by 
the little community at the Lake of 
tho T'vo Mountain3. 

' Mr. Fiiilliin, in liis Ilistoire de la 
Colonic Franraise (i., pp. 130-40), se- 
verely criticises Chainplain's engag- 
ing in this war, but there is much to 
excuse him. 




TIio nntoli 

ill Now 

it in vjiin, landoil on Capo Cod ; tlioii ronthmod to rdngo 
tlio const, tihvii^H k<'('|iiii|^ Hoiitliwiml, mid iit 10^ N. discov- 
enul a great bay, wliicli lio ontortul. Ho porceivod n rivor, 
wliich lio UHcondcd for Kixty icagut's, j^'ivinf^ it tho namo of 
Manliatto, that of tlm iulialiilants of tlio country.' 

Tlic next year, some uierclmntH of Aiiisterdam sent 
ships into tliis river, to trade there." In 101.'), a fort was 
built wlioro tlie city of IMaidiatte now stands ;' and this 
wholo country assumed tlie name of New Netherhiml.* In 
tho course of tiino tho Dutch huilt Fort Oran<,'e, niiicli fur- 
ther north." lliehard Hhune, tho author of " JJritish Amer- 
ica," pretends that Hudson sold that country to tho Dutch, 
without the consent of tho kiu}^ of Gri'at Britain, his 
sovereif^n, but that Sanmol Argall, when governor of Vir- 
ginia, expelled them ; that thoy obtained of James I. 
merely liberty to water there ou their way from Brazil ; 
and that since that time thoy have had no sottlomcnt 
there.' But apart from the improbability of this account, 

' For Hudson's voyafjes, boo Col. 
N. Y. Hist- Soo, siTies 1, vol. i. ; 
Berios'J. vols, lii. ; U'Ciillnjrhnn's 
Ni'w ?<'i'tlicTlainl, i., p. i'3. Hon. H. 
C. MuriiJiy, llciiry Hudoon in Hol- 
land, IMll ; J. M. Hoail, Jr., Hist, 
Enquiry 1 Sflii. He roncbi'd llii; coast 
at tlif iiioutli of till" Penobscot. It 
is not stated that lie landed on ("niX! 
CihI. IIi^ went down to tlio C'lu'tia- 
peako, entered the Delnwnro, and 
on tlio yd of September rounded 
Sandy Hook, and eiiturcd "Tho 
Great North Kiverof New Notlier- 
land." Hudson did not call tho 
river Manhattan. It \va.s so called 
in l'iI4. Jlenate is an Alnfonquin 
word, nienning islimd, and was the 
univor.^al Fr.'ncli name for the island 
where New York stands. It was 
also applied to Lonj? Island. Zeis- 
ber^'er, Spelling U(X)k, p. 23. Tho 
Alliuiiy Kecords (xviii., p. 348), 
liku De Lact (p. TO), make it to 

have boon given by tho Dutch from 
a tribe living thero. 

» Do Lttct, Novua Orbis, p. 70 j 
N. Y. Colonial Documents, 1., p. 211 ; 
O'Callaglmn, New Netherland, i., p. 
08 • liiodhend's, New York i., p. 44. 

' By Corstiaensen. 

* The name Now Netlicrlond wa« 
first given after tho exploration of 
Adrian IMock, Hendrick Corstiacn- 
Bcn, and Cornelis Jacobson Mey, in 
1014 : O'Callaghan, Now Netherland, 
i., p. 73. 

» The fort at Albany was built on 
an island, in 1014 : O'Callaghan, 
New Netherland, i., p. 76. 

« Ulome, Tho Present State of his 
Majesty's lies and Territories in 
America (London, 1087), p. 20'3. For 
a discussion of the pretended Argall 
claim, see Folsom, in New Y'ork 
Historical Collection, ii., p. 333. It 
rests on Plantageuet's New Albion 
(Force's Tracts), ii. p. 18. 




tlio ftutlior coiilriidicts liimm^If; for ho iminoiliiilcly siiys 1609. 
tluit in l')()l coiniuiHHidiK'ra sent by Kiii^ Clmili s II. took ^-"^f"— ' 
from them tlio city of l\lHiilmttim, which tlicy ciilli'il New Tiif Dnicii 
AiiiHtt'rdum ; iiiul that tliiitcon yours aftiT, Sir lloluiit Neiiiir'iuuil 
Carr took from thorn tho fort aiul town of Orungo, which 
V/ttH iiftcrwards calh'd Ail>iiiiy.' 

It is, niorcoviT, certain tliat tlio Dutch ii)) to that tiino 
posscssoil a good part of tliat province ; tiial tiiey liad as 
neif,'hbors on tho west tho Swedes, who had called Now 
Sweden what now bear.s tho nanio of New Jersey ; jind 
that New Netlierland Hulmi.sted under that name till the 
reign of Charles II. Then tho English, who had often 
troubled tho Dutch there, obliged them to yield it up in 
exchango for Surinam ; giving, however, private indi- 
viduals settled there liberty to remain, as most in fact 
did.' Charles II. gave tho domain to tho Duke of York, 
his brother,' and subsequently his successor ; and from 
that time Now Netlierland changed its name to New York. 
Orango was styled Albany ; but as a great many Dutch 
families remained there, they continued to call ii Orango, 
and tho French in Canada give it no other name. Above 
this city there is a fort and town on tho border of the Iro- 
quois cantons, and called Corlar,* ironi which these In- 
dians are accustomed to givo tho name of Corlar to tho 
governor of New Y'ork. 

To close this digression, the necessity of which will bo 
seen hereafter, tho Dutch, while masters of this province — 
one of tho most fertile in North America — never declared 
openly against us, as the Englisl. have sinco done on 

' Blomo (The Present State) says 
thirteen days, not years. 

' New >'';therlaud Biirrenilered, 
Sept. 0, 1G04. See Articles of f'li- 
pitulntion in O'Callaghan, New Netli- 
erland, i., p. 533. It was recaptured 
by the Dutch in 1073, and the next 
year given, up in return for Suri- 

' March 22, 1664. When Charles 
II. recovered it from Holland in 
1674, he issued a new grunt to his 

< Schenectady, called by the In- 
dians Corlar, from one of the leaders 
in the settlement in the i)lace, Arendt 
Van Curler, as to whom see O'Calla- 
ghan 's Now Nothorland, ii., p. 323. 



1609. every poHHililo ooonHion : Imt by Riving nriiiH nnd animn- 
'-* T •-■ niticiii to tlio Inxiiiois, with wlmni Mr. do ('liiiini)liiiii Iiiul 
uiifortnimtcly cmliroiliMl liiiiiscif in 'oclmlf of liis allicM, 
tht'y t'liiilili'il tIu)S(i Hiiviif^^t'S to do IIS f,'rnit injury, iiiul 
compelled UH to MUiiply tlio other Indians with fire-arms, of 
•wliieh g(K)d policy rc><iuirod that they sliould not h'arn tho 
UHO. "We niiist, however, do Mr. do Champlain tlie jnstico 
to say. that his intention was solely to hnniMe the Inniuois, 
in onK'r to Kuectu'd in nniting all tho nations of Canada to 
our idlianco by a solid puaco, and that it in not his fault if 
circunistani"(>s which hu could not forosco turned events 
quite diirerently from wluit ho had believed, 
cimm- 15" that as it may, ho cnd)arked on tho river with his 
^rxpc.rni," allies.' ITo then entered a river, long known ns tho lUver 
"iroqiwin!" "^ ^^^^ Iroipiois, because those Indians {j;eneridly descended 
it in order to make their inroads into *he colony, but which 
now bears tho name of Sorel. After ascending; it fifteen 
leaf^ies, ho readied the foot of a rapid' which it was imjios- 
siblo to pass in boats. Neither this difiiculty, nor the bad 
faitli of the Indians — who had assured him that lie could 
go to tho Iroquois without any obstacle — repelled him. 
He sent back his boat to Quebec, and continued to follow 
his allies with two Frenchmen, who would not leave him.' 
The rapid passed, they began to advance with a little 
lie wur- more precaution. They canqicd early, and intrenched 
themselves on the land-side with a strong abatis of trees; 
for it is not the Indian custom to fortify on tho water- 
side, as they aro never attacked in that direction. Care is 
taken only to arrange tho canoes on the bank of the 
lake or river ; and the surprise must bo complete indeed, 
if they have not time to embark and get out of pei'il 
before the intrenchment is carried. As soon as they have 

■Wnnt of 
III til 

' Ho left Qiiplioc with them, Mny ' Now known oa tho ChnniWy 

28, 1009 : Champlain, Voyages (t;d. IJapids.— C/^«Wt'r. Ciiamiilain, Voy- 

1013), p. 211. The date is really, ages (cd. 1013), p. 214 ; Laverdiero'B 

however, June. See Lavcrdiure's ed., p. 184. 

ed , p. 178. • lb., p 217. 



cnrftinpcd, it Ih ouHtonmry to Bond out HooutH, but it is nl- 1609. 
moHt entirely for form's Hiiko. Tiio Hcoats do not go very '-^- y ^' 
fur; 101(1 iiH Hoon us tluy nturn uilhout Htiin^r any tiling 
all rcHt very cinittly. Tiny ntver tliink of pulling,' Kcnti- 
nols at tlio entrance of tho camp, wli(>ro no one watclu^fl. 
ThoHo savages are iluily th« dupes of this foolisii confi- 
deneo, but they do not correct the error. Tiio Iroquois 
olono UH*^ more circumspection in war, and there is no 
doubt that it is one of the principal causes of tlu^ superi- 
ority which tht>y have acquired over the onemiea who 
have never yielded to them in valor, and might easily 
Lave crushed them by nundjcrs. 

Ciianqdain in vain warncul his allies of the peril to which imiio<itiiros 
thoy exposed themselves by such irregular conduct. All "' ■'"f"'""' 
the rv[Ay they made him was, that pcoj)lewho had labored 
all day needed rest at night. Nevertheless, when th(>y 
thought themselves near the enemy, ho induced tliom to 
make their scouts more exact in the discharge of their 
duties, to march only by night, and not light any lircs by 
day. What contributed the more to this security, which .so 
troubled the French, was the confidence of the Indians in 
their medicine-men, whom Champlain stylos Pilotois' and 
Ostemoy. The first thought of the one who accompanied 
the army was to make a little cabin of skins, as soon as thoy 
landed to encamp. He covered it with the same skin that 
served him as a garment ; then he entered it, stark-naked, 
and the warriors came and ranged themselves around him. 
Ho began then to utter words unintelligible to all, said to 
bo a prayer to invoke the god of war. A moment after, 
ho announced that the divinity had come at his call, and 
made known the information which ho had received from 
him. He at last rose ; for all this time he had remained 

' Chamiilain, Voyngos (ed. 1013), p. 221 ■, Lavonlirre's rdition, p. 187. 

p. 220. Tlicir first halt was on St. Pilotois is a fiasciue word : Uiard, 

Tori'sa Island ; LavcrdiiTc's edition, Relation (1(111), p. 17. The word 

P- l!^5- oslcmoy, given by Lescarbot, aout- 

'Cbamplain, Voyages (cd. 1013), nwt/t.isMicmac. ; Lavtrdiure, p. 187. 



1 609. prostrate on tho grouncl. He cricrl out ; he worked him- 
^-""f""^ self up ; he seemed beside himself ; and the perspiration 
Impostures streamed from every part of his body. 
ju«!j or». rpj^^ cabin, too, sometimes shook ; and those present 
never doubted but tliat this movement was caused by the 
presence of the spirit. They took great care to call the 
attention of Mr. de Cham plain to this pretended wonder ; 
but he had seen the medicine-man shake the poles, and 
laughed at them. They told him, one day, that he was 
going to see fire come out of the top of tho cabin ; but he 
looked in vain : the fire did not appear. It would perhaps 
have appeared, had Mr. de Champlain been less attentive ; 
for these impostors usually take precautions to provide 
themselves Avith all needed! to light a fire. The language 
employed in those invocations has nothing in common 
with any Indian language, and consists probably only in 
uncouth sounds, produced on the spot by an excited ima- 
gination, and which these charlatans had succeeded in 
passing off as a divine language. They take different 
tones : sometimes they swell their voice ; then counterfeit 
a shrill, tiny voice, like that of our puppets : and this 
is supposed to be the spirit addressing them.' 

For the most part, just the contrary of what they pre- 
dict occurs ; but they lose none of their credit on that 
account, and always find some means of escape to save 
their honor. It is ever the case, that men so ingenious in 
deceiving others are surprisingly easy to be themselves 
deceived on points where it is most important for them to 
avoid being misled. They are not only never on their 
guard against illusion, but seem to rash headlong into it. 
Antiquity, learned and wise, plunged on this point into 
tho same and grosser extravagances than our Indians. 
The knowledge of the true God, and the incontestable 
principles of a divine religion, did not shield the chosen 
people, the depositaries of Truth. It was neither savages 

' CLamplaiu, Voyages (ed. 1013), p. 221. 






nor infidels who said, " Speak unto us pleasant things : 
see errors nnto us." (Is. xxx. 10.) 

To return to our warriors. All the country which Mr. 
do Champlain traversed in this exiDedition seemed to him 
yery beautiful, and is really so. The i.slands teemed with 
stags, fallow-deer, and other like animals, which kept 
up a bouutiful supply for the army. CJroat numbers 
of beavers were also seen, the proximity of the Iroquois 
not permitting hunters to stop long there to take them ; 
so that, by favor of war, these amphibioiis crejitures en- 
joyed profound peace. Fish, too, swarmed, not only in 
the river, but also in a great lake through which it runs, 
and io which Mr. de Champlain gave his own name, and 
which still preserves it. It is more than twenty leagues 
long by ten or twelve wide at the middle, and in shape 
approaches an oval.' 

About the middle of this lake, very high mountains are 
discovered on the south and west,' the more distant of 
which, lying some twenty-five leagues off, seem almost 
perpetually covered with snow. The valleys between 
them are very fertile, and at the time I speak of were all 
inhabited by Iroquois.' Now \ liere are none except at the 
south, and it was there that our warriors designed to 
make an irruption. On leaving Lake Champlain, another 
rapid must ba passed ; after which you enter a second 
lake, which is only four or five leagues long, and is called 
Lake St. Sacrement.* The place to which the Indians 
wished to go was still fui'ther ; but the enemy spared 



Lake St. 

' Chamiiiain (Voyages, ed. 1013, pp. 
22;i-4) says, eighty or one hundred 
leagues in extent. 

' Chami)lain gays, east and south. 
What Charlevoix says, Champlain 
apphes to those on the east (p. 2:20). 

" The Indians told Champlain so 
(Voyages, ed. 1013, p. 220), but noth- 
ing 8UU1US to sustain it. Laverdiuro 

thinks the Hurons meant the Mo- 
begans, conquered by the Mohawks : 
Champlain (lCi;i), p. 191. 

* Lake George — in Mohawk, Andi- 
atarocte. Champlain gives it no 
name. The French term was given 
by tlie missionary, Father Isaac 
Jogues ; Relation do la Nouvello 
France (,1646), p. 15. 

^^mr.i C^r-rx-tM .'ricjina^ by oHnf^-arii 111 Ttcu-l ^\ X^" __ 




Tlio two 

them a part of the march, and by mere chance met them 
on Luke Chaniplaiu. 

For some time the allies daily inquired of the French 
commander whether he had not seen Iroquois in lus 
dreams. His constant reply in the negative troubled 
them greatly. At last, -whether ho wished to relieve their 
minds, or really dreamed it, from constantly hearing the 
thing talked of, he told them that during his sleep he 
thought ho had seen Iroquois drowning in the lake, but 
that he attached no importance to the dream. They did 
not think so, and no longer doubted of their victory. 
Some days after, the enemy whom they expected to sur- 
prise in their village, appeared about ten o'clock in the 
evening. The joy on both sides was great, and evinced 
by loud cries.' 

Indians never fight on the water, unless surprised or too 
far from the shore, which was not the case here. Our 
braves ace-^'-dingly made for the shore as soon as they 
saw the position of aflairs. Both parties at once set to 
work to intrench, and this was soon done." Then the Al- 
gouquins sent to ask the Iroquois whether they wished to 
fight at once ; but the latter replied that it was too dark, 
that they could not see each other, and must wait till day- 
light. The allies agreed, and all slept soundly' after tak- 
ing due precautions. The next morning, at daybreak, 
Champlain placed his two Frenchmen and some Indians 
in the woods, to take the enemy on the flank.* The Iro- 

' Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1613), 
pp. 227, 228. Hf gives his dream as 
real. The place where they found 
the Iroquois he describes as "uu 
bout d'uii cap qui advance dans le 
lac du coste de I'occident" (p. 228) ; 
43° and some minutes (p. 232). Fcr- 
land thinks it Ticonderoga ; Laver- 
diere, Crown Point. 

' Champlain's allies did not land 
or erect a barricade. " Ours also 
kept all night their canoes ranged 

side by side, tied to polos, so as not 
to drift, and to fight all together if 
need bo ; and we were an arrow- 
shot (from the shore) towards the 
(deep) water on the side of their bar- 
ricades :" Voyages (ed. 1013), p. 228. 

' Or rather danced and sang all 
night : lb., p. 22!). 

* Champlain says that ho and his 
Frenchmen were each in a canoe of 
theMontagnais,and that they lauded 
in the morning. 



qnois were two Imnflred atronj?, all pii^lcod, (Ictovminotl 
men,' who counted surely on nmking short work of thin 
handful of Algonquins and Hurons, whom they did not 
suspect of haviuf^ taken the field to m^et them. 

They were, however, mistaken. TIu^ allies were not in- 
ferior to them in numbers, but had allowed only a part of 
their warriors to bo seen. Both sides were as yet armed 
only with arrows, and those on our side bcsed all tlicir 
hopes on the fire-arms of the French ; and they recom- 
mended Champlain to fire at the cliiefs, whom they 
pointed out.' These chiefs, three in number, were dis- 
tinguished by birds' feathers or tnils, of a larger size than 
those worn by their soldiers ; for all wear them as a gen- 
eral rule, each one arranging them according to his fancy. 
The Algonquins and Hurons first sallied from their in- 
trenchments, and ran two hundred paces towards the 
Ii'oquois.' "NMien they came in sight of the enemy, they 
halted and divided into two bands, leaving the centre free 
to Mr. de Champlain, who came forward and put himself 
at their head.' 

His figure and arms were something new for the Iro- 
quois, whose surprise knew no bounds, when, at the first 
shot of his arquebuse, in which he had put four balls, they 
beheld two of their chiefs fall dead, and the third danger- 
ously wounded. At this first success the allies raised loud, 
cries of joy, and some discharge of arrows followed — not, 
however, producing any great result. Champlain was 
about to load again, when, one of the two otluir French- 
men having also brought down some Iroquois, all were 


They en- 

Pcfcnt of 
the Iro- 

July 30. 


' " Who came slowly towards ua 
with a gravity and assurance that 
pleased me much." — Vhainplai/i. 

' Described. 

' Champlain makes the Iroquois 
como out tirst (p. '22'J), and ou the 
mst page says : " As soon as we 
landed, tliey bfgan to run some two 
hunured paces," etc. 
VoT,. II.— 2 

* ■' Marching some twenty paces 
ahead till I was within thirty paces 
of the enemy, when they perceived 
me and halted to regard me, and I 
them. As 1 saw them moving to 
firo at us, I raised my arquebuse and 
aimed directly at one of the threo 
chiefs:" Champlain, Voyages (ed. 

1613), p. yao. 

! I 




Cruelty of 
Uie victor:!. 

thrown into disorder and thought only of flight. Thoy 
woro liotly [jursuod, several killed, and somo made pris- 
oners. On the side of the allies none wore killed, and 
only fifteen or sixtecui wounded, wiio soon recovered.' 
The enemy, in their flight, abandoned uuiize flour, which 
the victors sadly needed, their provisions having entirely 
failed. They began by appeasing their gnawing hunger ; 
then they spent two hours dancing and singing on the 
battle-field. At last they took up their hoP' ard march ; 
for among these tribes the victors are o . the retreat as 
soon as the vanquished, and froquentlj in as great dis- 
order and haste as if pursued by a victorious enemy.' 

After eight leagues' march, our braves halted, and tak- 
ing one of their captives, reproached him Avith all the 
cruelties which ho had been guilty of to their clansmen 
■who had fallen into his Lands, and told him he must expect 
similar treatment ; adding, that if he had courage, he would 
show it by singing. He at once intoned his death-chant, 
then his war-song, and all others that he knew, but in a 
sad tone enough, says Champlain, who had yet to learn 
that all Indian music has a lugubrious strain. His 
execution, attended with all those horrors of which we 
shall speak hereafter, amazed the French, who in vain 
used every effort to arrest it. Nevertheless, after some 
time, seeing that the French commander was displeased 
at their want of courtesy, they told him that if he wished 
to finish the wretch and shorten his sufferings, it was his 
to say so. One shot fi'om his arquebuse requii-ed no second 
to close the scene. 

As soon as the man was dead, the Indians opened 
liim, threw his entrails into the lake, cut off his head, 

' Champlain, Voynges (cd. t0i3), » Champlain, Voyages (cd. 1613), 

p. 231. Tlio third, wounded by p. 233. After giving the latitude of 

Champkiin, waa apparently not a the place, he adds, " and it waa 

chief ; and he doc3 not say that his named Lalie Champlain" (p. 233). 

companions shot any, though one Tho Mohawk name is Cauiataga- 

fired : ed. 1032, p. 153. ronte. 



arms, and lopis, scatlorcd liis liiiil)s on one siilo and an- 1609. 
other, witliout touching the trunk, altliouyh it was tlio ^— "r-—-' 
custom to eat at least a jiart. Thoy kept only the scalp, 
•which thoy put with the rest, and the heart, wliich Ihoy 
cut into .small pieces and gave to the prisijuers to eat. 
Among these was the dead man's own brother. They put 
it in his mouth as in tho others, but he s|iat it out at once.' 

Tho next night, a Montagncz having dreamed that tliey Rpocpiinn 
wero pursued, tho retr(>at became a perfect tliglit, and they tniriKZ in 
no lon^'er halted anywhere till they wero out of all danger. 'f,l[,(,V ' 
Tho 'ilgonquins remained at Quebec, the Hurons returned 
homo, and tho Montagnoz to Tadoussac, where Mr. do 
Chaniplain folhnved them.' Tho moment they discerned 
the lodges of their village, they cut long jioles, on which 
thoy tied the scaljis which fell to their share, and carried 
them in triumph. At the sight of this, tho women ran 
out, and jumping into the water, swam out to the canoes. 
Thoy then took tho scalps from their husbands' hands and 
tied thorn around their necks. Tho warriors had ofTered 
one to Cimmplain, and made him a present of some bows 
and arrows from tho Iroquois spoils, the only ones then 
permitted, bogging him to show them to tho king on his 
arrival in Franco, to Avhich he had told them he was about 
to sail.' 

Ho had hoped to find a ship at Tadoussac ; but there cimmpinin 
being none there, he went up to Quebec. Pontgrave "^iru'ieo. 
i),rrived there soon after, and they embarked together in 
tlie month of September, 1C09,' leaving tho colony under 

• All did : Cimmplain, Voyages 
(ed. ICIO), p. 234. 

' The allies ]iartpd company at 
Cliambly Rupiils — the Algontiuins 
and Ilurons going to their own 
country, and C'liam|ilnin returning 
■with tho Montagnaig The panic 
took place just as tho Montagnais 
reached the mouth of the Sorel : lb., 
p. 236 ; ed. 1632, p. 154. 

• lb., p. 237 ; Sagard, Hist., p. 4')(5, 

* Chaniplain says nothing of not 
finding a vessel at Tadoussac. He 
went to meet Dupont Uravt' there, 
and botli went to Queliec tngether, 
put Captain Peter Chavin of Dieppe 
in command, returned to Tadoussac, 
sailed tlience Sept. T), and arrived ut 
Conquet in Brittany October 8; Vuy., 
p. 238. 


nisTonv OF new rnANCB. 

i6og. tlio onlors of PicjTO Clinvin, a wortliy nmn. Cliiuiipliiin 
*~*"v— ' was well rcci-ivcd l)y tlin kiii^', of whom lio liiul nn aiuli- 
Tlio iinino pncy lit Foiitiiiiit'ltlciui, to ri'iulcr iiii account of tlic conili- 

Fiunou lion ill wliicli lie Imd left New Fniiicc. It was at this 

tumuiu.' ti'»t' that that name was f,'iveTi to Canada,' ^Ir. »hi Monts 
was making' his hist cd'orls, ("specially with ]\Iadanio do 
Gucrciicviili', to recover liis |iiivile<jro. He did not suc- 
ceed, as .[ iiave stated : hut his associates, of whom Mes- 
eieurs lo Gendro and Collier were the leadinj^ men, did not 
abandon him ; and as the Hcttlement of Quebec Jiad been 
made in the name of their company, which always recog- 
nized liim as their diief, ho e(iui]iped two shipH, giving 
comnuind to Messieurs de ("hainpluiu and do I'ontgrave.' 

Clinm- They embarked at Hontleur on (he 7th of March, 1010, 
PiuUx|i!lai- but had scai'ccly gone to sea, when Chaniphiin fell sick 

tioii ui;iiiii>t ^ ^ ^ L ' L ^ i tj i-ii- ii" 

tlio ho- and had to ne taken aslioro. rioon att(>r, his vessel Iiaving 
quum. |,ppj^ forced to put back, he was able to resume command. 
He weighed ancjior' April 8, and on the 20th reached Ta- 
doussac. Ho left it on the '28th, after assuring the Mon- 
tagnez that he was come to fnllil his promise of the year 
before, to accompany them again in war against the Iro- 
quois. In fact, they had waited liis return to take the 
field ; and he had scarcely reached Quebec when they 

' Cliami)lnin, Vnynpfca (I'd. 10!31, 
p. 2I!8 ; but tliiTc is not a wnnl (iboiit 
New Franco in Clinniiiliiin Iilto, and 
lie pivcs (p. l(ili) a coniniisHion of 
IGOHiii wlijchtlic nam(! occurs twic 
Charlevoix is cleurly in error. Tliu 
first ufi! of tlic nuinc known is on 
tlio copper f;lobe of Kii]ilinisyiius 
Uipius, l)elniif;;ing to Uucliiiiglmm 
Sniitli, es(|., dated 15 1'i, in w hich the 
country is called Vcrraznua nice 
Nova Gallia. See Historical Maga- 
zine, vi., p. 20;i ; ix.. p. 10!). It ap- 
pears next in Curtier's Brief liecit 
(1515), p. 40, vorto: ' Iluchelnga & 
Cunndn, aultretnent appelh'e par 
nous la nouvello Fraucu ;" and from 

Mr. d'Aveznc's not noting nny vari- 
ance, tlio \vordH iiiut't appear in all 
the manuscripts of the second voy- 
age. Uiard (Uelation do la r.'>.u- 
vi'lle Franco, ijiicb. ed., p. 2) ascribes 
the name to Vorrnzani. Mr. Fai!- 
lon (Ilistoirc delaCiilonie FnwH'uiso, 
p. 511) discusses the question, but 
not witii his usual felicity. 

» Cliniiiplain, Voyages (od. ICU!), 
pp. ZW), 2 10. Mine, du Uuerchoville 
is not mentioned. 

' C'hnilovoix's date is correct. 
C'hamulain says April ".ti, but tlio 
context bhows the error. Soo La- 
vordiere's Cluimplain, Voyages (ed. 
1013), p. 200. 



caiiu) in to the number of mxty wftrriors. Tlio Al.-^oiuiiiins 1609. 
were also in rciuliiu'MH ; iiiul nil iiiimcdiiitoly jn'ofcrdinl '—"y— ' 
towiinls Siti'fl UivfT, \vlii'rt> (itlicr Iiidiiiiis liiul iinmiiscil to 
nssciiihlo. (.!liiiini>laiii followed closo, in ii ImrU ; but ho 
did not lind tlio muuber of warriors that hu was led to 

Hi! loarnod at tlicsamn tirno that a party of ono hundred 
Iroquois was not far oil'; and he way told that if ho wished 
to surpriso tlicni, tht'ro was not a niomciit to lnsi> — that he 
must leave his bark and cnd)ark in canoes. Ho consented. 
Four Fronchnion foUowcul him ; the otht^rs remaining to 
guard the bark. The allies had not paddled for nioro 
than lialf an hour, when they si)ranj^ ashon^ without ft 
word to the Freneli, and leaviiifj; their canoea unj^uarded, 
bef,'an to run at full speed throuf,'li the woods. Chainplaiu 
was <j;reatly end)arrassed. Ho soon lost si[,'lit of the In- 
dians, who had not evin j^iven him a guide. Ho had to 
ninrcli through a swampy tract, where he went into tho 
■water at every step. Mosipiitos and otlier like insects 
blinded him and darkened tlie air, and there was no beaten 
path. After running some time at hazard, fearing every 
moment to lose the way, he knew iv i what course to take, 
when lie perceived an Indian moving in the same direc- 
tion. He called him and begged him to be his guide. 

Some moments after, an Algoncpiin chitif came to beg The Iro- 
liim to quicken his steps, as they were engaging the Iro- tmiatl. 
quoia. He redoubled his speed, and ere long heard tho Uelemie? 
cries of the combatants. Our allies had found the enemy 
in quite a good intrenchment, and in attem2)ting to force 
it had been repulsed, with loss. They recovered courage 
at the sight of the French, and returned to the charge as 
soon as they came up. The cond)at became very furious, 
and Clianq)lain on arriving was struck by an arrow, which 
pierced the tip of his ear and entered his neck. This wound 

' Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1G13), Sorcl with the Montagnais alone, 
pp. 241-8. Champlaia went to tho and met the Algouiiuins there. 



Tlin Iro- 

qnni* nro 


Tlii'ir B'loi 


(lid ni»t, liowcvor, prcvont liiw fiririR, as Idiif,' as liis powder 
and lialls liiHtfd ; and liis own men Nupportt'd liini well, 
aUlll)U^ll oni; of tin in wari wcnindtul in tli« ant.. 

Tho Iro(j)ioiH, who woro not }X't uccnHtoinod to dofcnd 
tlit'niHt'lv«'H a^'ainst firi'-aiiuM, licj^'an to Hl'ickcn tlnir vol- 
leys, and sou),dit to cover tlu'insclvcrt from tlio arcpit'lniscs, 
wliifh had l)rouf,'ht Hovoral down; hnt our nun, who liiul 
not counted on ho long n rt'sistanco, soon ran out of am- 
munition. Then (Mianiplain jyroposcd to the aUics to 
assaidt the intrenchnuMit. Ah they rehslied tho ailvice, ho 
put himself at tiieir liead, witii his four Frenchmen, and in 
spito of tho vigorouH defence of tho boHiej^ed, th«y Hoon 
made a pretty Vi'ulo breach. At thin juncituro, n young 
man of St. 'Malo, named des Prairies, wliom Chaniplaia 
had left in his bark, camo up with live or six of his com- 
rudea. TIiIh timely rc-enforcement enabled tho assailanta 
to withdraw a little to rest, while tho now-comcrs kept up 
a fire on tho enemy. 

Tho Indians noon renewed tho assault, and tho French 
placed themselves on their winf,'s to support them. The 
Iroquois could not stand so many redoubled blows. 
Almost all woro killed or taken. Some, in endeavoring to 
reach tho bank of tho river, wcro thrown in and drowned. 
Tho aftair being completely ended, another party of 
French came up, who wished to console themselves for 
having had no st.'iro in tho victory by sharing tho booty. 
They seized tho v. .(.ver-skins that covei'od tho Iroquois 
whom they saw atretched on tho ground, and tho Indians 
were shocked at it.' The latter, on their part, began to 
wreak their usual cruelties on the prisoners, and devoured 
one of those who had been killed, which horrified the 
French. Thus these savages gloried in a disinterested- 
ness which they were surprised not to find in our nation, 

> Clmni|)liiin, Voyages (wl. 101.1), for taking tilings from "des morts 

pp. 24i)-r)t. He iIdcs not say llio la- plains de Biing, quo k'B sauvages no 

dians wcio allocked, Imt that tliey vouloi«t prtdrc la peine de dcspou« 

ridiculed {no mociuoiot} tho French iUer." 


and cojjld not hoo that there in niucli 1<'RH wmnp in strip- i6io. 
pin<( tlid (li'iiil tliiiii in fccdiiij,' mi llnir flfsli like wild ^^"v^^ 
blasts, antl viuliiliii}; nil tin' Ihwh of liiimiiiiit}- \>y tifli^^ht- 
ing to toniicnt in tlin numt nnwortliy uumuur ciuaiiicH no 
lun^or iililo to dofind tlioniHolvcK. 

Cliiiiiipliiin iiskcd tlnMii for ono of llnir juiwonorR, ftnd 
ilu\V gavi) ono wilii a (^'ood ^^rac(\' llu also iuiliicinl tlio 
IIuroiiH, who wtro ^oiiiK hack to llit'ir own country, to 
taki) a rr(!nc'hnmn along, ho that ho might learn tlnir 
lani^uagt) ; hut it was on condition that Im HJiould take to 
France n youri^,' Huron, to bring thcni hack tidings of a 
kingdom of widch ko many marvels had been told tluim. 
He really took ono over the Hamo year,' bringing him back 
tho next Hpring. Ho conducted him to Montreal, where i6ii. 
he clioso a place for a setthanent which he designed estab- 
lishing,' but which ho did not begin, being obliged to 
return to Frantu", where tho king's death Ixad completely 
ruined Mr. do Monta. 

That, by losing his master, lost all his re- Tim rotmt 
maining cretlit, and was no h)ng(!r in a condition to under- ',„ils Vimi- 
take any thing. Ho exhorted Champlain, wlio had never I'on.i'oi c'lf- 
forsaken him, not to lose courage, and to seek some '""[^J^."*' 

I Clmmplain, Voyages (od. lOlU), 
p. 25(i ; ed. l(i;!'.', pp. ir)0-04. 

' This Indian lio euiiscqucntly 
called Siiif^niiii : C'linniplain, V'oy- 
BRea (ed. I(ii;!», p. 2HS ; LcHcnvljot, 
liv. v., c. .5. Chutiipluin, hearing of 
the dialh of Henry IV. and troubles 
in Franco, nailed from Quebec, Aug. 
8, leaving du Pure in command at 
Quebec, and reached Ilontleur, Kept. 
27, 1010: Voyages (Uil:!), pp. 2G1- 
70 ; Laver<li('re, p. 2','l). On Dec. ','!) 
lie signed, ut I'uris, a contract of 
marriage with Helen UouUe, daugh- 
ter of N'ieliolii.-i Hunlli', secretary of 
tho king's chamber — his betrothed 
being thin only twelve years old : 
Chroniiiuc de lordrc des Ursulincs ; 
LaverUicru'B Cliampluin, p. 245. Ho 

sailed again from Ilonfleur, Mr.rch 1, 
1(11 1 ( Voyag., ed. l(!i;i, p. 271) ; Lavor- 
diero's ed., ]). 231), and after a voy- 
age of great danger from icebergs, 
reached Tadonnsae, May lit (il).,2ti2), 
and by the 281 h woa at Saut St. 
Louis (\h., 285 ; Luverdiere's ed, p. 
2>1 ; cd. 10;J2, p. 107). 

' Champluin, Voyages (ed. 1013), 
pp. 285-7. On this occasion he named 
St. Helen's Island, apparently in 
honor of liis wife ; and after meet- 
ing Several bands of U'e.Htern In- 
dians, returned to 'rudoussac and 
endiarked for France, Aug. 1 1 (ib., 
!>. yi;i), ai. 1 readied Hochelle, Sept. 
10, lUU (ib., p. oil: Laverdiero, p. 
205 ; ed. 10^2, p. 181). 



niSTOuy OF new France. 

Tho Priiico 

do Coiiilii 



1612-13. powerful protector for his young colony. Yielding to Lis 
■"^ " counsel, Chamj^laiu aiipliod to Charles do Bourbon, 
Comto de Soissons, who received him very favorably, 
accepted the proposal made to him to become tho Father 
of New France, obtained from the queen-regent all author- 
ity necessary to maintain and advance what had been 
already done, and appointed Chami)lain himself his lieu- 
tenant, with full, unrestricted power.' 

The death of this jirince, soon after, did not disturb 
affairs in America, as the Prince de Condu accepted tho 
position and retained Cliamplaiu in the office with which 
the Count de Soissons had honored, him.' Charaplain 
had, however, somo trouble, caused by difficulties made by 
the St. Malo merchants in regard to trade ; and this kept 
him in France all the year 1C12. Ho sailed again on tho 
6th March, 1G13, in a vessel commanded by Pontgrave, 
just retui'ned from Acadia, and they anchored before Que- 
bec on tho 7th of May. They found the settlement in such 
good condition, that deeming their presence unnecessary, 
they ascended to Montreal.' After some stay there, Pont- 
grave descended to Quebec, and Champlain made an ex- 
cursion on the great river of tho Ottawas (Outaouais) ;* 

' ConimisiEion, Octobur 15, 1013. 
Cham|)lain, Voyages (ud. 10;52), p. 
228. In it tho Count do Soissons 
Btylcs liimsplf lioutenant-gcncral in 
tho country ol' Now Franco. — Charle- 
voix. Champlain (ed. 10K3), Qiiatri- 
emo Voyago, p. 07 ; ed. 10o2, p. 209. 
The date of tlio patent of viwroy to 
Cliarles do Uouvbon, Count de Sois- 
Bons, jieor and grand master of 
France, is Oct. 8, 1012. Moreau do 
St. Mery, Lois et Constitutions des 
Colonies Fran(,aise, Menioires de la 
Socii'te Hist, do Montreal, p. 105 ; 
Laverdiere's Champlain, Voyages 
(ed. lOli}), p. 285. Ho died, Nov. 1, 
1013, aged forty-seven. 

' Henry de Bourbon H., Prince de 
Conde, first prince of the blood, peer 

and grand master of France, was 
made viceroy, Nov. 20, 1013. He was 
arrested in 1(!10. Henry was the 
fatlior of the great Conde. Cham- 
plain, Quatrieme Voyage, pp. 7, 8. 
Champlain's now commission is dated 
Nov. 23, 1013. 

' Quat. Voyage, pp. 0-13 ; Laver- 
diero, p. 287. 

* Laverdiere, pp. 13-33. He went 
as far as the Algonquins do I'lsle, 
commanded by Tessouat, at the pres- 
ent He des Allumettes. Ferland, 
Cours d'lliistoire, p. 104 ; Laverdi- 
liro's Champlain (1013), p. 307. He 
made tlio excursion, deceived by 
Nicholas de Vignau, who pretended 
to Imvo seen the North Sea. Quor 
trieme Voyage, p. 15. 



after which ho rejoined Pontgrave, with wliom ho em- 1614-15. 
barked for St. Malo, anclioring there in the latter daj's of ^-"^^^"^ 

He there conchided a new agreement of association Tiie Keooi- 
with morcliants of tliat town, Rouen, and llocholle. The ut yuobeo. 
prince, who had assumed the title of viceroy of New 
France, approved it, obtained a royal patent for the asso- 
ciates, and gave it his confirmation. Mr. de Champlain 
then, feeling no doubt but that a colony in which so many 
wtulthy men had become interested, and which had at its 
head the first prince of the blood, would soon assume a 
solid form in the material order, thought seriously of giv- 
ing it spiritual succor, of which it had been hitherto 
entirely destitute. He asked and obtained four Recollects,* 
M'honi his company joyfully agreed to supply with all 
necessaries, and he undertook in person to carry them to 
Canada. They arrived on the 25th of March' at Tadous- 
sac ; but without stopping there, landed a few days later at 
Quob(?c, M'hence Mr. de Champlain ascended immediately 
to Montreal.* 

There he found Hurons, with some of their allies, who 
drew him into a third expedition against the Iroquois." It 

' He does not mention Pontgrave. 
ITo embarked near Saut St. Louis, 
Juno ^T, in tlic sliip of de ilaison- 
nouve, and rei\chod St. Blalo, A.iig. 
26 : II)., p. T) 1 ; Laverdiire's od., p. o'J2. 

= Clminplain, Voyages, etc., depuis 
lOir), jiisi]u'a la fin do 1G18 (Paris, 
101!)), p. 7; Laverdiire's Cliamplain 
(1019), p. 4 ; Sugard, Ilisioirc du 
Canada, p. 11. ClinTnplnin Foystbat 
he applied for them. Siigard omits 
all allusion to Champlain in the 
ter. These first nussionaries wero 
Father Denis Janiay. commissary; 
Fathers John d'Olbeau and Joseph 
le t aron, with Brother I'acitipus du 
Plcssis : II) ; Le Clercq, Etablis-e- 
ment de la Foi, i , p. ;'.G. The facul- 
ties granted by the nuncio, Guy Ben- 

tivoglio, in the name of Pope Paul 
v., March 20, 1018, and the king's 
permission, are in Sagard, pp. 12, 18. 
Lo Clerc(],i.,pp. 37, 44. 

' They left lIonHeur, April 24, and 
arrived May 25, 1015 : Canada Doc, 
series 2, v. i., p. 2 ; Sagiird, ilist. du 
Canada, pp. 12,;5G ; Le Clercq, v. i., p. 
50. Champlain (Voyages, etc., IGIO) 
has August for April. 

* Ciiamplain did not go up in the 
first boats, but 8toi)ped at Quebec : 
Voyag(!8 (ed. 1010), p. 10. Father le 
Caron went up ahead to Riviere des 
Prairies, and said the first Mass 
offered in Canada, June 24 : Laver- 
diure's Champlain (KilO), p. 11. 

' '• The Sieur du Pont and I con- 
Bidered that it was very necessary to 



1615. is ovidcnt that by this compliance he took the time course 
^■^"y^"-^ to gain the friendship of the Indians, and know widely a 
Chum- country where they were about to establish a trade useful 
cxpciiiiii.ii to France, and Christianity among a great number of idol- 
iroqiioia.' atrous tribes ; but he exposed himself greatly, and did 
not reflect that this easy condescension to all the wishes 
of these savages was no way to secure the respect due to 
the rank with which ho was invested. Ho had, too, duties 
more important, than thus like a knight-errant trav- 
ersing forests and lakes Avith Indians, who did not even 
maintain courtesy towards him, and by whom ho was in 
no position to make himself feared. He might easily 
Lave sent in his stead some Frenchman capable of care- 
fully observing every thing ; while his own presence at 
Quebec would have much more advanced the colony, and 
given it a solidity which he too late repented no^. having 
secured to it. 

This was not all. Seeing himself obliged to go down to 
Quebec, he asked the Indians to delay their departure till 
his return, which would be speedy ; but they, forgetting 
their promise to him not to start without him, soon 
wearied of waiting, and set out with some Frenchmen' who 
had remained at Montreal, and the Recollect, I'ather 
Joseph le Caron.' This religious wished to avail himself 
of the opportunity to adapt himself to the mode of life of 
these nations, to whom he purposed announcing Jesus 
Christ, and to learn their language more promptly, by 
putting himself in the necessity of speaking it. Mr. de 

assist them, both to ohligo them moro 
to love us and to facilitate my enter- 
prises and discoveries, which to ap- 
pearance could not be made but by 
their nv ans, and also that this would 
be a road and preparation to come 
to Christianity :" Voyages, pp. 1:3, 
14. Laverdiere's edition (p 14) de- 
fends Champlain against Charlevoix 
and Foillon. 

' Sagnrd, Histoire du Canada, p. 
27. Champlain (Voyages, ed. 1019, 
p. 16) regrets the departure of the 
twelve Frenchmen, as only four or 
five could handle fire-arms ; and in 
such enterprises, " the best arc not 
too good." 

' Le Clercq, Etablissement de la 
Foi, vol. )., pp. 72-7 ; Sagard, Ilia- 
toiro du Canada, p. 27. 




Champlain, with whom he had come to Montreal, had not 
approved his design ; but Father le Caron's zeal blinded 
him to all other considerations.' 

Mr. de Chami>lain might have considered himself re- iiow t-y aot 
leased from his engagement; and his experience should 'jiun's?" 
have taught him, that to secure the esteem of these bar- 
barians, it is good not to allow them to despise us with 
impunity. You must oven, outwardlj', give conteinpt for 
contempt, if you would repress their insolence. They do 
not understand acting otherwise from virtuous motives — I 
mean such as are not enlightened by the truths of the 
gospel. As they often see Europeans act solely from 
interest or stUl more censurable motives, it seldom occurs 
to them that any consideration can be entertained for 
them from more noble views. Moreover, there are no men 
in the Avorld more prejudiced in their favor, or capable of 
profiting by every thing to be confirmed in this good 
opinion which they have of themselves. The only thing, 
then, that can here excuse Mr. de Champlain for running 
after the Hurons, who did not deign to wait for him, is to 
say, that he did it apparently not to abandon to their dis- 
cretion a religious whom his zeal rather than his prudence 
had induced to follow them. 

Be that as it may, he embarked with two Frenchmen champlain 
and ten Indians, whom he found on aiiiving at Montreal ;' and makes^ 
but using all diligence, he overtook the Hurons only at " '^reat. '*' 
their village." He found them forming a large war-party, 
of which they ofl:ered him the command ; and he accepted it 
the more readily, as, besides the two Frenchmen who had 
come with him, Father Joseph had brought ten* others, 

' Champlain, Voyages (ed. lG19),p. 
11, verso, 13 ; Laverdieru's cd., p. 
18 ; Lo Clercq, Etablissement de la 
Foi, i., p. 73. 

» July 9, 1015 : Vovagos (cd. 1019). 
p. 17. 

' The first village of the Ilurons, 
or Attigouautau (Attignoouantan, 

the bear tribe), as Cliamplain here 
calls them, which lie reached waa 
Otoiiacha — probably Toancho (La- 
verdiero, p. 20)— where ho arrived, 
August 1, by tlie way of the Ottawa 
and Lake Nipissing : lb., p. 24, 
' Twelve : Laverdiere's Cham- 




^ :i 

in New 

1615. wlio awaited him. Without delay they marched on the 
"""^""^ enemy," who were so intrenched that it was not cawy to 
Chwtipiain approach them. Besides occupying a kind of fort, quite 
well constructed, they had obstructed the a]iproaches by 
groat abatis of trees, antl had raised galleries around from 
which they could fire down on an enemy without exposing 
themselves. Accordingly, the first attack succeeded so ill, 
that it was not deemed expedient to try a second." 

They next attemjited to set fire to the abatis of wood, in 
hope that the flames would reach the fort ; but the be- 
sieged had piuvfdel for this by laying in a great supply of 
water. A machine was then prepared higher than the 
galleries, on which the French arquebusiers were stationed. 

plain (1019), p. 19. The Hnrona as- 
sembled their forces at Cahiagui', a 
palisaded town (p. 2C). 

• They crossed the Severn near its 
mouth, went up Lake Shncoe and 
Talbot River, n*id thence by .1 port- 
age jinssi'd to Balsam Lake, and do- 
Bcended the chain of lakes and the 
Otonalx'e and Trent to Qiiinte Bay, 
where they reached Tiake Ontario 
(Lac des Entouohonorons), in view of 
the Thousand Isles. Compare For- 
land, Cours d'llist.,i., p. 174; Cliaia- 
plnin, pp. 31-5 ; Parkraan, Pioneers 
of France ; Langton in Trans. Lit. 
and Hist. Soc. Quebec, new series, 
part ii., p. 08. They crossed the 
lake, a distance of fourteen leagues, 
and then concealing their canoes, 
marched twenty-five or thirty leagues 

" The Entouohonorons were in a 
town with four palisades. Cham- 
plain describes his attack, the mak- 
ing of a cavalier, his own wounds, 
and tlip misconduct of the Hurons : 
Voyages (ed. 101!)), pp. 37-47. The 
siege lasted from Oct. 10 to Oct. 17. 
See N. Y. D(KV History, p. Ill, for a 
tnmslation of Chaniplain's narrative, 
Ms map, and view of the Eutwoho 

noron town. Historians differ as 
to their identity. Mr. Ferland (p. 
174), Lavordiero (Clmmplain, 1019, 
p. .3.3), and Parkman (Pioneers, p. 
375), suppose them to be the Sen- 
ecas ; but the (^ho«outouaro//on (evi- 
dently Chonontouarorton), a tribe ly- 
ing between the Hurons and Entwo- 
honorons (Champlain, Voyages, 1019, 
p. 30), arc more probably the Sonon- 
touaronon or Senecas , and it is hard- 
ly safe to identify the Sonecas with 
the Entwohonorons, as the first stop 
in locating the town. The Entwo- 
lionoron had been compelled to re- 
move some forty or fifty leagues (p. 
79), and are perhaps the Wenroronon 
subsequently driven by the Iroquois 
across into Canada. Marshall, fol- 
lowed by Brodheaa and Clark, makes 
the town near Lake Onondaga ; 
O'Callaghan and Parkman, Lake 
Canaudaigua. Sagard, unfortunate- 
ly, had not access to papers to give 
le Caron's account of this wintering 
with tlio Hurons, and ho seldom al- 
ludes to Champlain. In his diction- 
ary (Verbo Nations) h(! has Les Yro- 
quois, Sont«)ulioir<)non, Aguierho- 
non, Onontagueronon, but does not 
allude to the Entuuohonorou. 





Tliis man<ieiivre clisooncorted the enemy somewhat, ami ifuj. 
they would perhaps have succeeded in reducing them, had ^-"v— ' 
the Hurons done their duty ; but their great number had 
rendered them so presumptuous, that it was never pos- 
sible for the commander to make them fight in order. 
Moreover, ho was severely wonndtsd in the h'g and knee ; 
and this accident having made the Indians pas^s from au 
excess of presumption to discouragement, they had to 
retire with loss and shame. 

Tlie retreat was quite well made, and although they no is obiig- 
were pursued, not a man was lost. The yonngest and "^'^^ith the' 
l)ravest had placed the weakest and the wounded in the 
middle, the latter carried in baskets ; and in this way they 
made twenty-five leagues without stopping.' Mr. do 
Champlain was soon cured ; but when he wished to start 
back to Quebec, he could never obtain a guide, as he had 
been promised, and with whom ho could not at all dis- 
pense. The Hurons even added insolence to their refusal." 
He had therefore to make up his mind to winter with these 
savages ; but no one was better able to adopt his own 
course or turn all to account. He visited all the Huron 
towns, and some of those which the Algonqiiins then had 
in the neighborhood of Lake Nipissing. He reconciled 
some neighboring nations with the Hvirons ; and as soon 
as the rivers were navigable, learning that they wished 
him to engage in a new expedition agair^t the Iroquois, 
he gained some Indians whom he had attracted by his 
kind manners, and embarking secretly with them and 
Father Joseph, arrived at Quebec, July 11, lOlG,' where 
all had given him and the Recollect Father up for dead. 
"While Mr. de Champlain had been engaged in his excur- 
sions to learn the condition of the country. Father Joseph 

' Champlain, Voyagea (ed. 1619), July 9 : Canada Doo., ii., pp. 1, 3. 

p. 47. Sagard (Ilistoire dii Canada, p. 31) 

' lb., p. 48. Bays le Caron left the Huron village, 

' Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1019), May 20, but dooB not mention Cham- 

p. 115. The Recollect Memorial says plain. 





1617. had also gone from village to village to lay tlio plan of the 
iiiissions Avhicli ho proposed to establish among the 
Hurons, and he had turned ever^ moment to profit in 
stnd ving the language. But he had no time to mcke gi'eat 
progress, this study not being a matter of one )r two 
years, give it wliat application you will.' 
A Recollect Mr. de Champlain and Father Joseph did not remain 
rcmierHft ovcr a month at Quebec after their return. They em- 
nto''to''tiii) barlcod,' Avith the Superior of the Mission, to return to 
France, and there remained in the colony only one priest, 
Father John d'Olbeau, and Brother Pac-ficus Dxiplessys, 
who had been appointed to instruct the children of the 
French and Indians recently settled at Three Rivers, and 
where he rendered, the next year, a still more essential 
service to New France. Our allies, by I know not what 
discontent, had plotted to make away with the French. It 
seems evident, howciver, that they came to this resolve 
only in their fear that Mr. de Champlain, just returned 
from France/ would take summary vengeance for the 
death of two settlers' whom they had nuirdered, perhaps 
to rob. The fact is, that they assembled at Three Eivers, 
to the numbci' of eight hundred," to dehberato on the 
means of cutting off all the French at once ; that Brother 
Pacificus was warned of their design by one of them ; that 
he gained several others ; that he gradually brought all 
tlus rest to take steps towards a perfect reconciliation, and 
that he undertook to negotiate with the commandant. 

' Aa to le Caro I's Huron niiBsion, 
Bee Sagnrd, Ilistoire du Canada, pp. 
27-o0, l)ri(.'tly, and le Clercq, E;>ib- 
lissement, i., pp. 7'3-88. Lo Curon 
returned in March, 1017, and cele- 
brated the first marriage with the 
usual ceremonies ; the parties being 
Stephen Jonquest and Anne Hebert : 
Sagard, p. 41. 

» July ','0. They reached Honfleur, 
Sept. 10, lOlG : Champlain, Voyages, 
1015-8 (e<l. 1019), p. 178 ; Sagard, 

nistoire du Canada, p. 31 ; Le Clercq, 
Etablissomi^nt, i., p. 100. 

^ Cliamplain sailed from Honfleur, 
May 24, 1018 (p. 123), and reached 
Quebec, June 27 (p. 138). 

* A loflssmith and Cliarles Pillot, 
kiUed in April, 1017. Tlio lock- 
smith had lieaten an Indian, wlio 
killed liim and his companlun in e- 

' Sagard, Hist, du Canada, p. 42. 
He gives no date to the Indian plot. 



Mcninvhilc, Mr. do Chanipliiin insisted on haviiif^ the niur- 1617. 
derciH of the two Fiouchmen. They sent him one, and he ^--v^-' 
the least guilty, with nmch furs to cover the dead.' They 
had to accept this kind of satisfaction ; the thing was 
anangod, and the Indians gave two of their chiefs us 

Chanj[)lain did nothing scarcely but go and como be- tho colony 
twoon Quebec and France,' to obtain sujiplies, which were nogil^'dkX 
seldom furnished to the extent he called for.* The court 
took no interest in Now France, leavhig it in the hands of 
individuals of limited views, with no other object but 
trade, who sought only to fill their stores with furs, cared 
very little for all else, making but reluctantly advances for 
settlements in a colony in which they took no interest, and 
seldom making them in season.' The prince thought he 
did much in lending his name ; and besides the troubles of 
the regency, which then cost him his liberty, and the in- 
trigues set on foot to deprive him of his title of viceroy" 
and annul the commission of Marshal do Themines — to 
whom ho had confided Canada during his imprisonment,' 
— the want of concert among the associates, the commer- 
cial jealousy which embrcjiled the merchants with one 
another, — all these often threatened to smother the young 

' That is to say, imlc'mnify tbo 
relatives. — CI«irhroi.r. As to this 
pp. 12o-IJ7 ; tJHgard, Histoire, pp. 

' Two boys, Nigamon and Tebachi, 
were given : Le Clercq, Etablisscv 
tnent, i., p. 1'.23 ; Ciiainplain, p. 137. 

' He sailed from (Jui'lier, July 20, 
1018, and readied IIonH.'ur, 28th 
August: Voyages 1015-8, pp. 157, 
158. The IJerolU'Cts I'uiil and Pu- 
ciflous iiccompanied them ; lb. ; i^a- 
gard, Histoire, p. 49. 

• Champlfiin, Voyages (ed. 1032), 
p. 110 ; lit' Clcrcq, Etablisseraent de 
la Foi, i., pp. 108-11. 

' Sagard, Histoire du Canada, p. 

32 ; Le Clerrq, Etablissement do la 
Foi, i., pp. 00, 109-71 ; Cliiimp', 
Voyages (ed. 1032), pp. 217, 218. 

' The Prince de Conde was arrest- 
ed by Themines, at the Louvre, in 
September, 1010, and confined three 
years at Vincennes. Themines was 
made marshal of France. 

' Marshal Pons de Lansiere-The- 
mines-Cardaillac. He obtained the 
rank of king s lieutenant in New 
France from the • leen regent. Ho 
died governor of llrittany, Nov. 1, 
1027, aged seventy-four, ('hamplain 
explains how Tlu'mines came to ob- 
tain the position, and he considered 
it as held only during Conde's im- 


MiirBlml do 

ronci Vieo- 

roy (if Nuw 


i6zo, 1. colony in its cradle." And wo cannot too greatly aduiiro 
till) courage of Mr. do Ciianijilaiu, who could not take a 
stt'i) without mooting fiosh obstacles, who expended his 
own onorgics without ever dreaming of seeking any real 
personal advantage, and who never renounced an onter- 
l)rise for which he had constantly to endure the caprices 
of some and the opposition of others. 

In 1(520 the prince, for eleven thousand crowns, trans- 
ferred his vicoregalty to his brother-in-law, tho Marshal de 
Montmoronci.' Tho now viceroy retained Chaniplain as 
lieutenant, ami confided tho management of tho colonial 
all'airs in France to Mr. Dolu, the grand audiencier, wlio.^o 
zeal and probity ho know. Then Champlain, satisfied 
that New France was about to assume another aspect, 
took out his family. Ho arrived in tho month of May,' 
and found at Tadoussac Rochelle traders, who, to the 
damage of the company and against tho express orders of 
the king, were trading with tho Indians. They had even 
done worse, for they had sold these savages fire-arms, a 
thing previously wisely avoided.* 
The Iro- The ue>t year the Iroquois ajipeared in arms in the 
3"rt!fk"'io ■^'ei'y centrt of the colony. These savages, fearing that 
Kreiicfioo- *^^i<J^il'l the French multiply in the country, the Hurons 
and Algonquins by their aid would regain their superiority 
over tho league, resolved to free themselves of the French 
before they had time to fortify themselves more strongly. . 
They accordingly raised three large parties to attack us 
separately. The first marched towards Sault St. Louis, 
where they found some Frenchmen guarding the passage. 
They had been warned, and though few in number, with 
the help of some Indian allies, they repulsed the enemy. 


' Advis au Roy but les Affaires de 
la NouvnUi; France, p. 7. 

' Tin; Duke do Montmorency held 
the position till 1024. Ho joined 
(lawton in hisi revolt ngainHt Louis 
XIII., w.'.s taken at the battle of C'as- 
telnaudary, and executed, Oct. 30, 


• Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1032), 
part ii., p. 1. 

* Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1032), 
part ii., p. 2. The Recollect convent 
at Quebec was founded this year 
(1020), Jimo 3, and dedicated to Our 
Lady of the Angels : Memorial, p. 4 ; 
Sairard, Hist., p. 50. But see p. CO. 



Several Iroquois wore killed; some romaiuod prisoners; 1622. 
the rest oHcaped. Our men, however, leivrniuf,' that these ^— "'v^"' 
fugitives were carrying oflf the Eeoolleet Father, "Wilhiim 
Poulain, gave chaHo. Unable to overtake them, they ro- 
leaseil one of tlieir prisoners, giving him his liberty, and 
charging him to propose the exchange of the missioiMry 
for one of their chiefs. This man arrived at the moment 
when all preparations wore made to burn the religious. 
The proposition which he bore was accepted, and the ox- 
change made in good faith.' 

The seccmd com- embarked in thirty canoes, ap- Tii' Luuada 

proached Quebec ,id proceeded to invest the Recollect Bupprcssod! 
convent on the St. Charles River, where there was a little 
fort. Not during to attack this place, they fell on some 
Hurons not far ofT, surprised several, aad burnt them. 
They then ravaged the neighborhood of the convent and 
retired." The memoir from which I draw this does not 
say what became of the third party, but it adds that the 
Iroquois had sufficiently declared their intention to exter- 
minate all the French. Mr. do Chanq)laiu was far from 
having sufficient strength to repress these savages. Hence 
ho dciMued it his duty to lay before the king and the Duke 
■ ' ' Montnioreuci the necessity of relieving the colony, and 
the disregard shown to that time by tho company of his 
repeated instances to induce them to faltil their obliga- 
tions. He accordingly, Avith the consent of the most not- 
able inhabitants, deputed Father George le Baillif to his 
majesty, to whom that rehgious was personally known. 
He was very well received by the king, and obtained all 
he asked.' Tlie company was suppressed, and two private 
individuals, William do Caen and his nephew, Emeric de 
Caen, entered on all their rights.* 

' Lo Clerai, Etablissi'inent do la 
Foi, i., p. 200, TLo event belongs 
evidently to 1628. Sagard makes 
no allusion to the circitmstiincc, but 
notes I'oulain's arrival in 161'J (p. 49). 

■' lb., p. 20U. 

Vol. 11. —3 

' Sagard, Histoire du Canada, p. 
73 ; Le Clercq. Etablissement, i., p. 
17'J. Both give tlie address, dated 
August 18, 1021, with tho letter to 
tho king. 

• This new company, called tho 



State of 

1623-25. Mr. do Cliarapluin lofirned tlio fact by a lottor of tho 
viceroy, who oujoiucd hiiii to sustuiu tlioso iiiorcliiiiits 
duly.' Ho at tlio Hamo time received n letter fioiu tlio 
kiug liiiiKself, by wlii(!li UIh majesty assured liini that ho 
was well satisfied with his services, and exhorted him to 
givo continued jn-oofs of his fidelity.' This favor did not 
increase his fortune — and it may in trutii be .4aid that this 
was what least occupied his nund — but it gave him an 
authority needed more than ever thou, esj)eci'illy on 
account of differences arisinj. daily between tho factors of 
the old company and those of tho SieurK de Caen, and 
■which might load to unpleasant results. With all tho 
efiforta made to people Quebec, it could number in 1()'22 
only fifty souls, including women and children." Commerce 
was not very open ; but a successful trade was always 
carried on at Tadoussac, and another had been opened at 
Three Bivers, twenty-five leagues above Quebec. 

William do Caen came Lo tlie spot himself, and although 
a Cahinist, ho lived quite well with all. He had confided 
the direction of his afluirs to the Sieur de Pontgrave, but 
that director's health obliged him to return to France in 
1G23.' This was a real loss to New France, which owes 
much to him. The same year, Mr. do Champlain was 
warned, on good authority, that tho Hurons were thinking 
of abandoning om* alliance and joining the Iroquois.' 

It Is forti- 

Montmorency company, consisted of 
William and Eze<'liifl de Caen and 
William Kobia, mercliauts ; Francis 
de Troycs, president of the truivs- 
urers of France at Orleans ; Jacques 
do Troyes, merchant ; Claude lo 
Ragois, Arnould de Nouveau, Pierra 
de Verton, and Francis Ilervi' : Fer- 
land, Cours d'llistoire, i., p. 200. 

'This was done in 1(121: Mont- 
morency to Champlain, Feb. 2,1021, 
in Champlain (ed. 10;j2), part ii., p. 8, 
and le Clercq, Etablissement ile la 
Foi, i., p. 172. 

» Cbamplaiu(ed. 1632), part ii., p 8. 

" Sagard says (Histoire, p. 160) : 
" All tilings consiilennl, all the build- 
ings of Now France consisted of the 
little fort, the merchants' house, 
Widow Ilebert's house, and our little 
convent." Champlain (Voyages, ed. 
1032, )>. 76) says that when he left 
Quebec, in 1024. it had only fifty-one 

' Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1632), 
part ii., p. 02. 

» C'hamplain (ib., p. 54) speaks of a 
plot to cut the French off. Le Clercq 
(Etab., i., p. 247) speaks of fears that 
the IlurouB would join tho hwiuois. 



This ol)liii;o(l liiin t(3 Hoiid buck to tliom Fiitlior Tosc])!) In 1623-25. 
('.iron, whom Katlicf Ni<'hohiH Yii'l and llrothcr (iiihriol ^"^^"""^ 
Siif,'luirt,' who liiul just arrivcdl from Fraiioo, choHo to 
nccoini)an3-. Tho next yoar tho commandant hnilt tlio 
fort of Qiiehoo with stono." Ho apparontlv dosif^nicd to 
put an end to hin trav(>ls, and dt^voto himself entirely to 
tlio govenimeiit of his cohniy ; Init he had scarcely lin- 
ished tho fort, whou ho returned to Franco with his 
family.' Ho found tho Marshal (hi IMontmorcnci n("f^oti- 
ating a sale of his viceroyalty to his nephew, Henry 
do Levi, duko do Vcntadour,* and a bargain was soon 

This gentleman had retired from court, and had oven Tho Duko 
tal-.on holy orders. It was not to plunge anew into ,Vnirvi(o- 
worldly turmoil that ho took tho direction of the affairs of '"J-j,', 
New France, but to effect tho conversion of the Indians ; 
and as his spirit lal directors were Jesuits, ho looked to 
them to carry out his project. He laid tho matter before 
tho king in council ; and his majesty assented the more 
willingly, as the llocollect Fathers, far from opposing it, 
had first opened tho matter to tho Duko do Ventadour. 
All then conciu'ring to the same end. Father Charles Lal- 
leinant, who had accompanied Mr. do la Saussayo to 
Pentagi'k't ; Father Enomond Masse, of whom wo have al- 
ready spoken ; and Father John do Brcbeuf,' with two lay 

roy I't' Now 

' Brother Gabriel Snfi^nrd Tlu'wlat 
ia tho historian, nuthor of tlio His- 
tf)iro du Canada (Paris, l();!(i, 18G5), 
and the Grand Vnyngo du Pais dcs 
Hnrons (Paris, 1(133, 1805). Ho left 
Paris with Father Viol, March 18, 
1&.H (Grand Voyage, p. ; lllstoire, 
p. IKJ'i, and rcachod Quebec, Juno 
28 (Chaniplain, Voyages, Kii'.O, ]>. 54). 
He mentions th!'ir( I [larture without 
as.'^igiiing tho caus lierc given by 
Charlevoix (Grand Voyage, p 41 ; 
Histnire, pp. 1.58, 174.) 

'■' Ho collected materials and began 
tho work : Voyages (od. 1032), p. 75. 

'Champlain, Voyages (ed. 1032), 
pp. 75, 70. He left Quebec, Aug. 15, 
and readied I)iep|)c, Oct. 1. Emery 
do Caen wan left in command. 

' Clianiplain, Voyages (ed. 1032), 
PI). 77, 78; Sagard, llistoire, p. 802. 
Tlie Duke do Ventadour obtained his 
patent, March, lC25(('hainp.,10;)3, p. 
78), and lii'ld t!ie viceroyalty till .luno, 
1027, wlien he resigned : Memoircs 
do la Soc. Hist, de Montreal, p. 107. 
Montmoreiici left his name to a fall 
and Levi to a point near Queuec. 

'•('reusius, Historia Canadensis, 
p. 5 i Lalemant, Relation (1025), p. 6; 



1623-25. 'brothors, woro jvHHignoil to tho Canada misHiou, and in 

""""^f^^ 1(525 woro roiidy to Hiiil. 

Fiyo.r.miim Willinui do t'licn took thorn to Quol)oo, and witli tlioni 
iiiulii. tlin Ilocolloct Fiitlicr JoHojili do Diiilloii, of tlio ilhis- 
trioiis lioiiHo of (III liiido.' Ho giivo IiIh word to tliu 
Diiko do Voiitiidour that tho JoHuits Hhoidd want for 
notliinf,' ; yot as soon as thoy hindod ho tohl thoni, that if 
th(^ Hocolloct Futhoi'H wuuhl not roooivo and hid^'o thorn 
in their houHo, tlioro was no altornativo l)ut to njturn to 
Franfo. Tiioy ovon porooivod, oro h)nf,', that painH 
had li('<ii takon to imjudice the inhabitants of Qtuiboo 
against thoni, hy cironlating among thorn tho most violent 
tilings puhlishod by tho t'ulvini.sts of Fran(u^ iigainst thoir 
society. But tlioir proHonoo soon oiVacod all these projn- 
dicos, tho libels woro jnibliely burned, and tho now njis- 
sionarioH were not long a burden to tho Recollects, who 
liad oldigod thoni to accept tlioir house, then loss than a 
quarter of a league from the town, on the St. Charles 

Trnsicnl A few days after thoir arrival, Fathers do Daiik.i and 

'k"("1i"ci do Ihebeitf embarked for Throe llivers, where thoy met 
Hurons who oirored to take them to their country. Tho 
two missionaries had left Quebec solely with this view, 
and were preparing to avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity offered, when news came that caused them to re- 
trace thoir stoiis." Father Nicholas Viol, tho Eocollcct, 
after spending nearly t o years among the Hurons, desired 
to make a visit to Quebec, in order to spend some time in 
retirement there. Some Indians, preparing to make the 


Lo Clcrcq, Etnblifsoment de la Foi, 
i., Ml. 0i)7-;!ni. 

' CbaiiH)liuii, Vi)vnKC8 (t'd. lOoQ), 
p. 84; Sapird, llistdiro du Cannda, 
p. 8(i3 ; i.alcmnnt, IJclatidn di^ la 
NouvcUo Fninro (UJ25), p. 5. Tlio 
IJccoUoot's iiamo is ^'ivcii liv Siipard, 
J(iB('i)h de la lioclic Ihiillcm ip. 5111) ; 
by k' ('IiMC(| (Kiablissenunt, i., p. 
1501), JoKej)]! do la Itelic d'Allion. 

' Tho site Is now occupied by the 
gcncrnl hospital — C/iarl. Ferland, 
Cour8<riIistnii'(' du Canada, i., p. 188. 
Lo Clorcq (i., p. 311) says tho Jesuits 
remained in tliiit hoiiw two years — 
jmrtH of l(i"-25-l!, np]i(iri'ntly. 
_ ' Sajrnril, Ilistniro du Canada, p 
808; Lalnmnnt. Kelution (162.-)), p. 
6 ; Creuxius, Historia Canadensis, 



Biuiui voyii;,'(', offfri'il liiiii a pliioo in thi'ir caiin(>, which lio 1616, 
accopti'd. Iiistcail of takiii^^ tlic onliiiary rouU', tlioy fi)l- "— "v—^ 
lowed tho c'haiiiifl wliich Hcparati'H ISInntrfal Islaml and 
Ih1(( JrHUH, and wliii'h in cominonly called Kiviirn dcs 
I'rairicH. Midway in this dianud is a rajiid; Imt tho 
Indians, instead uf landing' and nnikin*; what is called a 
portaf^o, endeavored to shoot it with their canoe. Whether 
they did it unskilf\illy or intentionally, (he canoe capsized. 
Father Vii'l and a yoiin^' convert who acinnipanied him 
were drowned. From this accident tho rapid receiv(^d tho 
name of Sault au Rocollect (tho RecoUect's Rapid 1, which 
it still retains. Ah all tho Hurous escaped, and had, it 
was said, seemed ill-(lis[)osed towards the missionary, 
there were strong suspicions that the capsizinj,' was not 
accidental ; tho more so as tlio savages seized tho host part 
of the good Father's haggago. Bo that as it nuiy, there 
■was no one at Threes Rivers who was not of o]tininn that 
F.I I hers do Daillon and do Brebeuf should postpone thoir 
voyage f<.)r a time.' 

The next year, turee Jesuits, Fathers Philibert Noyrot, tIio Jesuit* 
Anne d(* None, and a brother, arrived at (Juebec on a ,','j,'j',';„f|'^^II' 
small vessel which they had chartered, and on which tlioy '" '^"""<*'»- 
brought over some mechanics.' By this help Quebec 
assumed tho form ot a town ; for till then it was a mere 

• » 

' Snpird (IliHtiiirt' dii Cnnnilii, ]i|i. 
80(1, ST Dmi'iiliimH tilt- (lentil of Katiicr 
Vicl iiicidi iilullv, Imt j^'iviB no dc- 
tiiilH. I'litluT I.iilrniimt diicB tho 
Biirac in o lottcr, July '2H, 1(125 ; Siv- 
gard, Hirttoiro du ('iiiiiidu, p. S(18 ; 
Lc riiTcij, Etnblisscincnt, I., p. ;il2. 
(Iii;('lcrn|f:ivcsiii(ir('dc'tiiil,i.,|). ;!21); 
Lu Jt'imc, HcliilioiuHiMh, p. l»3. 

" Tlic'v liroui^ht over, in l(i'2(i, 
twenty niielianic!', with provisions, 
chari.M-ini; a vessel of eif,'hty tons 
for three thousand five hundred 
livros : Cliamplain, Voynires (ed. 
lG;i2 , p. 86. Noyrot returned almost 
immediately: Laleniant, L<'ttiT of 
August 1, l(i2(), in Carayon, Doc- 

Ined., xii., p. 120; Creuxius, IllBt. 
C'anad., p. H. ( 'lianiplain saiiiMl from 
France, April ''(), 1(120, with tho 
Kecolleet le Caron (ib., p. SO). IIo 
found that absolutely nothinjr had 
bt'on uono in liis ubaencc. Ho im- 
mediately set to work. In 1(!27, 
Fathers do Hrebeuf, do Nouo, and do 
la Hocho went to tho llurons; 8a- 
gard, Ilisioire du Canada, p. 874; 
I.alemant, lii'lution (1(12(1), p. 8 ; Let- 
ter of August 1, 102(J. Tho last 
inimcd penetrated to the Attiwan- 
daronk or Neuters, a tribe lying 
on both .sides of the Niagara. Hoo 
his interesting letter ; Sagard, Ilis- 
toiro, p. 880 ; Lo C'lcrcii, i., p. iJlU. 





1627. habitation, and not called by any otlier name." The ex- 
^~"~Y-~-' perionce and talent of Father Enenioud Masse for a new 
settlement — of which, according to the memoirs of Cham- 
plain and Lescarbot, ho had given marked proofs at Port 
Royal — contributed greatly ; but he and his associates 
soon found, on the St. Lawrence, the opposition which 
they had experienced in Acadia, and Avhicli cost Franco 
that province. Mr. do Ventadour, learning from some 
Catholics of Quebec the misconduct of William do Caen 
towards these missionaries, wrote to him in a tone which 
greatly mortified him. He did not doubt but that thoso 
who had been tho occasion and subject of these com- 
plaints had themselves drawn these reproaches on him ; 
and tho retaliation fell on them. 
■Wrctehea On the other hand, the Indians continued to give great 

BtntO of *.llO • rill 11 ■ ■ i 1 • i 1 

colony, uneasiness. Ihcy hatl again assassinated colonists, and 
as the French were not strong enough yet to demand 
satisfaction, impunity rendered tho savages more inso- 
lent, so that Hettlevs Avere no longer sure of their lives if 
they went the least distance from their houses. Such was 
the condition of tho colony when Mr. de Champlain re- 
turned to Quebec in 1G27.' Tho buildings had not pro- 
gressed in his absence, and the cleared lands remained for 
tho most part un tilled. The partners of the Si ours do 
Caen thought only of tho fur-trade, and minds grew daily 
more exasperated in regard to religion. All this, pictured 
warmly to the king's council,, induced Cardinal Kiehelieu 
to put the commerce of New France into other hands, and 
to hearken to tho projjosition made him to form a com- 
pany of one hundred associates on a plan laid before 

' This iB exaggerated. Lalumant 
gives the wliole number of French in 
the colony iis forty-three. Tho col- 
onists introduroil by the Jesuits wero 
soon compelled to return, and Que- 
bec was not called a city till l(I(i;3 : 
Lettres Ilistoriques de la M. Marie 

do rincarnation, p. 589 ; Faillon, 
Histoire de la Colonie Fran(;ai8e, i., 
p. 223. 

' Tliis should be 1620. See note 2, 
p. 37 ; Crcuxius, Ilist., p. 9. 

" A great com])any, callt d tho Mor 
bihau Comiiany, waa projected, but 


Nothing was ever better devised, and I do not hesitate 1627. 

to assert that New Franco would now be the most power- ' <^~^ 

ful colony in America, had the execution corresponded Cnmpnny of 
with the beaiitj of the project, and had the members of (l^^o(■illt(!.H 
that gi'eat body profited by tlie favorable disposition of "h.|„(Mit''of 
the sovereign and his prime minister. The memoir pre- ^ '" "" '■"'^" 
sented to Cardinal de llichelieu by Messieurs de Eoque- April 29. 
mont, Houel, de Lattaignant, Dablon, du Chesne, and 
Castillou, agreed — 1st. That in the ensuhig year, 16128, 
the associates would send over to New France two or 
three hundred mechanics of all trades ; and before the year 
1643 they promised to increase the number of inhabitants 
to sixteen tliousand ;' to lodge, supjiort, and supply them 
with every thing fur three years ; then to assign them as 
nuich cleared lands as would be necessary for their sup- 
port, and to furnish grain to sow. 2d. That the settlers 
should be native-born Frenchmen and Catholics, and that 
care should be taken that no foreigner or heretic entered 
the country. 3d. That ui each settlement there should be 
at least three priests, whom the Company midertook to 
supply absolutely with all required for themselves in per- 
son or their ministry for fifteen years, after which they 
might subsist by means of the cleared lands assigned to 
them. To compensate the Company for all this expense — 
1st. The king assigned to the associates and their repre- 
sentatives, forever, the fort and habitation of Quebec ; all 
the country of New France, including Florida, which his 
uiiijesty's predecessors had settled ; all the coiu'se of the 
Great lUver and the streams emptyinj^ into it, or which in 
that extent of country reach the sea ;" the islands, ports, 
harbors, mines, acconling to the ordinance, fisheries, etc. : 
his majesty reserving only the right of fealty and homage, 


never received a lognl existenca; sand ; CreuxiuB, Ilistoria CiinmlensiB, 

Bergeron, Traitt' di- la Nnvigiitinu ; p. 1.1 ; Mercuro Frani.ais, xlv., part 

Ferliind, ('ours d'llistoiro, i., p. 3, p. 'IW'l ; Memoire di's t'ominis- 

2^3. Buiri'B, ii., p. 4U4. 
' The real number was four tliou- '^ Its western limit was Lake Huron. 



1627, with a gold crown of eight marks' weight at each change 
■"^T-"^ of king, and support for the officers of supreme justice, to 
bo named and presented by the said associates wlicn it 
should bo deemed proper to estabhsh them ; power to cast 
cannon, buihl fortified places, forgo all kinds of arms 
offensive and defensive, and <Io generally every thing 
necessary for the safety of the country and the preserva- 
tion of trade. 2d. His majesty conceded to them the right 
to grant lands in such quantity as ihey deemed expedient ; 
to give them such titles, honors, rights, and power as they 
chose, according to the quahties, condition, and merit of 
the person, with such charges, reservations, and conditions 
as should be deemed just ; but that in case of the erection 
of duchies, marquisutes, countships, and baronages, letters 
of confirmation should be taken out from the king, on the 
presentation of Cardinal do llichelieu, grand master, chief, 
and superintendent of the trade and commerce of France. 
3d. That the associates might enjoy, fully and peaceably, 
what was granted them, his majesty revoked all conces- 
sions made of said lands, ports, or portions thereof ; he 
granted to the associates in perpetuity the trade in leather, 
skins, and furs ; and for fifteen years oidy — commencing 
Jatmary 1, 1G28, to the last of December, 1643 — all other 
trade by laud or sea, made in any manner whatever, in the 
extent of said country and as far as it might extend, ex- 
cepting only the cod and whale fishery, which his majesty 
Avished to be free to all his subjects ; revoking all conflict- 
ing concessitms, and especially the articles granted to 
William de Caen, hiterdictiug for the said time all trade 
granted either to the said de Caen and his associates or 
others, under penalty of confiscation of the vessels and 
goods to the profit of tho Company, unless Cardinal de 
Eichelieu should give leave, passport, or permission to 
any one for all the places mentioned. 4th. Tho king 
intended, nevertheless, that tl'c French settled m tho same 
parts, who wei'e neither supported nor maintained at the 
expense of the Couq)any, should bo at full liberty to trade 

'■ i 


with the Indians for furs, on condition that thcj' sold their 
beaver-skins only to the factors of the Company, who 
should be obliged to buy them at forty sous tournois a skin, 
if good and wcU-conditioned, with a prohibition against 
their selhng to others under pain of confiscation. 5th. 
The king agreed u present to the associates two ships of 
war of two or three hundred tons e:ich, but without sup- 
plies ; that if these vessels should in any way whatever be 
lost, the Company should replace them at its own expense, 
except in case of their being taken by the king's enemies 
in open war. Gth, In case the Company failed to send 
over, in the first, ten years, fifteen hundred French of 
both sexes, it was agreed that it should refund to his 
majesty the estimated cost of the outfit of the two ships of 
war ; and that, if in the remaining years it again failed to 
send over the stipulated number of men and women, 
except in case of capture of ships by the enemy, the Com- 
pany was to make the same restitution, and be deprived of 
the trade gi-anted it by the present articles. 7th. The 
king permitted it to embark on the said vessels such cap- 
tains, soldiers, and sailors as it chose : on condition, how- 
ever, that the captains, on its recommendation, should 
take their commissions or authority from his majesty, as 
should, too, the commandants of posts and forts, already 
erected or to erect, in the extent of the countries granted. 
As to the other vessels employed by the associates, they 
might give command to such persons as they deemed 
proper, in the usual manner. His majesty also gave the 
Company four bronze culverms, heretofore granted to the 
Molucca Compan}-. 

The king did not limit his favors and precautions here. 
To excite his subjects to emigrate to New France, and es- 
tablisli all kinds of manufactures there, his majesty de- 
clared — 1st. That all those mechanics whom the Company 
agreed to send over should be reputed master mechanics, 
if they chose to return after plying their trade and busi- 
ness there for six years, and should be privileged to keep 







1627. open shop iu Paris and other cities on their bringing back 
an authentic certificate of their service ; and for this i)iir- 
pose there should annuallj, at each embarkation, be filed 
in the Office of the Admiialty a list of those sent to New 
Franco by the Company. 2d. That as goods, of whatever 
quality, coming fi-om said countries, and especially thoso 
manufactured there, would be the fruits of French indus- 
try, they should for fifteen years be free from all imposts 
and subsidies, although transportpd and sold in the king- 
dom ; that likewise all munitions of war, provisions, and 
other necessaries for victualling and embarking, to be made 
for New France, should enjoy the same exemptions and 
franchises during the said term of fifteen years. 3d. That 
it should be lawful for all persons, of any rank wl^atever, 
— ecclesiastics, nobles, officers, and others, — to enter the 
said Company without compromising the privileges granted 
to their orders ; that those of the Company might, at their 
discretion, admit to the association those who presented 
themselves ; that if any were not noble by extraction, his 
majesty would ennoble to the number of twelve, who 
should thereafter enjoy aU privileges of nobility, which 
should descend to their children born or to be born in 
lawful wedlock ; that for this pui-pose his majesty would 
furnish the said associates twelve patents of nobility, 
signed, sealed, and issued with names in blank, to be filled 
with those of the said twelve associates, and that these 
Letters Patent should be distributed by the Cardinal Grand 
Master to those who should be presented by the Company. 
4th. That the descendants of the French settled in said 
country, and the Indians who should be brought to the 
knowledge of the faith and make profession thereof, should 
be deemed and reputed native Frenchmen, and as siich 
should be allo^'sd to come and reside in France, at their 
option, and there acquire, dispose by will, and take by do- 
vise, bequest, and gift in the same manner as real natives 
of the kingdom and Frenchmen born, without being held 
to take out any letters of declaration or naturalization. 



In fine, the king promised, in ease any civil or foreign 
war occurred to prevent the fulfilment of the present ar- 
ticles, to gi-ant the associates such further delay as his 
council should deem meet ; to issue and ratify in the proper 
office all letters necessary for the execution of the preced- 
ing articles, and in case of opposition to then- verification 
his majesty reserved cognizance thereof to himself. Louis 
XIII. closed by saying, that if the associates, in the course 
of time, found it necessary to explain or amplify any of 
the articles, or add new ones, relief shoiild bo provided, 
according to the exigency, on their remonstrance ; that they 
should also be at liberty to draw up such articles of associa- 
tion, rules, and ordinances as they deemed necessary for 
the maintenance of their society ; which articles, rules, 
and ordinances being approved by the grand master, 
authorized by his majesty, and duly registered, should be 
thereafter inviolably observed according to their form and 
tenor, as well by the said associates as by those already 
settled and to settle thereafter in New France. 

These articles were signed April 19, 1G27,' by Cardinal 
de Richelieu and by those who h'^d presented the project. 
The king approved them by an edict dated in the month of 
May, in the camp before EocheUe ; and this edict explains 
in the greatest detail what I have just given in brief. This 
done, the Duke de Ventadour resigned into his majesty's 
hands his rank of viceroy. The company, which took the 
name of the Company of New France, soon numbered one 
hundred and seven associates, of whom Cardinal de Riche- 
lieu and Marshal Defiat, superintendent of finances, were 
the chief. The Commander de Eazilli, Mr. de Champlain, 
the Abbe de la Magdelaine, and several other persons of 
condition, entered into it. The rest were made up of able 
and wealthy merchants, and of the principal burghers of 
Paris and other commercial cities.' In fine, there was 


' Mercure Frani.-ais, xiv., p. 233 ; toire de la Colonie Fran(;ai8e, p. 228. 
Edits ct Ordonriiincos, i., p. 0. As to 'A list is given iu Crouxius, His- 
au error iu thu last, see Faillon, His- toria Canadensis. Among otliers la 





every reason to Loiio that New France was about to be- 
come a prominent object of ministerial attention, being 
supported by so powerful a Company. 

Its institution was marked, however, by an epoch of very 
ill omen. The first ships sent by it to America were taken 
by the English,' to whom the siege of la Eochelle afforded 
a pretext for committing hostilities against France, al- 
though the two countries were at peace. The next year 
David Kcrtk,' a Frenchman born at Dieppe, but a Calvin- 
ist refugee in England, instigated it is said by William de 
Caen, who wished to take revenge for the loss of his ex- 
clusive monopoly, penetrated to Tadoussac with a squad- 
ron, and sent parties to burn the houses and kill the 
cattle at Cape Tourmente.' The man intrusted with this 
task had orders to proceed then to Quebec and summon 
the commandant to surrender the fort.* 
' Mr. de Champlain was there with Mr. de Pontgrave, re- 
cently returned from France on business of Mr. de Monts 
After dehberatiug together and sounding 
the chief settlers, they resolved to make a defence ; and 
Champlain returnee", so bold an answer to the summons of 
the English captain, that he deemed it prudent to retire.' 
Yet they were actually reduced in the town to seven ounces 
of bread a head each day, and there were not over five 

to siirrcii- 

ChamruJin's ^^^^ ^^^ Society 

the name of Sebastian Cramoisy, 
printer to the king, whose press is 
BO familiar to readers of early works 
relating to Canada. 

' Creuxius, p. 19. 

' This nnmo is variously written — 
"Qver" (Chan-.plnin, IGlW, p. l-">8) ; 
"Quer" (ib., p. 157); " Kertk" (ib., 
p. 219) ; " Kcrquo" (Sagard, p. 931) ; 
" Kersius" (Creuxius, p. 17). It is, in 
English doeHnients, " Kyrcke." He 
was born at Dieppe, of a Scotch fa- 
ther, and was a wine-merchant at 
Bordeaux and Cognac (Champlain, 
1G32, pp. 2m, 257.) 

" Champ., Voyag. (&\. 1632), p. 455 

(155); Sagard, Hist., pp. 916-20. Sa- 
gard and Cliamplain make no such 
accuBation against de Caen, and Fail- 
Ion (Ilistoire de la Colonio Fran- 
qaiae, 1., p. 233) defends de Caen. 

* Chamjilain, Voyages (ed. 1C32), 
p. 157. The English bark returned 
to Tadoussac, and a shallop brought 
up the prisoners and Kirk's letter : 
Sagard, Ilistoire du Canada, pp. 921- 
8 ; Creuxius, Hist., p. 17. 

' See the summons — dated July 
8, 1G28 — and Chaniplain's answer : 
Champlain, Voyages (1032), p. 157; 
Sagard, Ilistoire du Canada, pp. 



poll... is of powder in tlio map;azino.' Kcrtk was (Iniilttlrss 1629. 
u'unviire of this critit-al situation : moroovt'i', lie tliou^'lit ^— ^-"^^ 
that ho woulil faro better witli a fleet of tho new company, 
commanded by ^Ir. de Roqueniont, one of its members, 
whieh was liriii.^'iii.t,' families ard snjiplios of all kinds to 
Quebec. Ke had been notified of its departure by "Wil- 
liam do Caen, yet to all appcurauco he Avould fail iu this 

Mr. d(> ruxiuemnnt's misfortune was, indeed, less tho re- Tlio Kn?- 
suit of this heretic s perhdy than ot Ins own impruilenee. „ KriMmh 
On arrivini; at the roadstead of Caspe, he detached a bark 
to inform Mr. de Champlain of tho succor he was in-iii;.,'- 
ing,' and to transmit the king's patent creating him gov- 
ernor and his lieutenant-general in all New France, with 
orders to make an inventory of all the effects belonging to 
tho Sieurs de Caen.' A few days after dispatching this 
bark, he learned that Kertk was not far oft'; and he at 
once weighed anchor to go and meet him, without reflect- 
ing that he exposed himself to the risk of an engagement 
of doulitful issue, because his ships Avore Aery heavily 
laden and much encumbered, and that they were, more- 
over, the only resource of a colony on the verge of ruin.' 
He Avas not long in finding the English. He attacked them 

' Cliainpliiin, Vovages (c<l. i(V-Vi\ 
p. Kit), lie BKys lio had not filly 
]i(mml8 of cnnnon-iiowdcr. Tlu^ In- 
dians wi>ro ill-disixised, a chief, 
Mahican-Aticq, having killed two 
Frciicliinen. This induced distrust 
luul pn 'Vented the fi^ilu■riea : Sngard, 
llistoiie du Canada, p. 8'.i5, etc. ; Lis 
Cli'mi, i., p. 1377. In their distress, 
two Uncollects, Father le Caron and 
Ihcthi-r (iervais, set out to winter 
with the Algon(iuins; but meeting 
Fathi r Joseph de la Heche, and hear- 
ing of the withdrawal of the luiglish, 
returned to Quebec: Sagnrd, llis- 
toirc du Canada, pp. !)27-li;!. 

" Sagard, Iljstoire du Canada, p. 
939; Creuxius, Hist. Ciui., p. 19. 

' Chamiilain, Voyages (ed. IflliS), 
part ii., pp. Kil-o. His commission 
is, " To (( tc.) tho ^ieiir de Chum- 
plain, commanding in New France 
in the absence of our dear and well- 
beloved cousin, Cardinal liichelieu, 
grand nuitter, chief and supi'rin- 
commerce of France." Hiclulieu gov- 
erned Canada, after the resignation 
of Ventadour, under this title, and 
not as viceroy. 

■* Champlain criticises de Roque- 
mont fully (Voyages, part ii., pp. 
I(i4, !().■)). Sagard, on the authority 
of two of his order, states that de 
Ro<iuemont could not avoid the en- 
gagement (Ilist. du <,'anada, p. 939). 






IiiIm'h cm- 


nnd fouglit well. But besides tlio iualiility of his vessels to 
nmiucuvie as well as those oi Kertk, tlicy were of inferior 
force. They wore soou crippled and couipelled to surren- 
der ;' .so that the bark, after inspiring a brief joy at Quo- 
bee, " only served to increase," says C]iauii)laiu in his Me- 
moirs, " the number of mouths to eat his jjeas.'" 

The harvest, which was very scanty, the oel-fishery, and 
some elk brought in by the Indians from their hunt, re- 
stored for two or three months a little ease to the town 
and its people ;' but this cxliausted, tlie^' were plunged into 
gi'eater scarcity than ever. One resource remained, on 
which great hopes were built. Father Philibert Noyrot, 
superior of the Jesuits, and Father Charles Lallemant had 
gone to France f<^r aid, and had found in the generosity 
of their frient'.s wheri'with to charter a vessel and load it 
with provic'ons.* They embarked themselves, together 
with Father Alexander do Vieuxpont and a brother named 
Louis Malot ; but this vessel never reached Quebec. A 
vioh'ut southeast wind drove it on the coast of Acadia, 
where it was wrecked. Father Noyrot and Brother Malot 
were lost. Father Vieuxpont joined Father Vimond on the 
island of Capo Breton ; and Father Lallemant having em- 
barked in a Biscayan vessel to carry the news of the mis- 
fortune to France, was again wrecked near San Sebastian, 
but fortunately escaped.' 

' The notion toiik place July 18, 
1028 'Siignrd, Ilistdiro du Canada, 
p. OiiO). FutluTS Laluniont and Ua- 
guencau wi'.e taken and carried to 
London (Creuxius, p. 19). 

* Chaniplain, pp. 104, 185 ; Sngnrd, 
HiHtoire du Canada, p. 940, 950; 
Creuxius, Ilistoria Canadensis, p. 19. 
S".gnrd gives in his history (ch. ix., 
X.) an account of tlie loss of de Itojuo- 
mont's fleet, and especially of one 
eliip carrying two Hecollects, Fa- 
thers Daniel Boursier and Francis 

' They bought the eels, etc., of the 
Indians with beaver-skins : Cham- 
plain, Voyages, p. 107 ; Sagnrd, His- 
toiru du Canada, pp. 974, 975 ; Creux- 
ius, p. !,'3. 

* This vessel, carrying Noyrot, 
was not with de Eoquemont's fleet, 
and jiut back to France. Lalemant, 
who had been carried to London, 
rejoined Noyrot, and then the vessel 
sailed again : Creuxius, Ilistoria 
Canadensis, p. 20. 

^ Letter of Father Charles Lalo- 
mant to the superior of the college 



The extremity to wliich the colony was rethicrd was not, 
howovcr, wlifit most disturlicd tlio governor. The In- 
dians, from tlie lime of tlio Enj^disli coming, seemed greatly 
alienated from the French ; and it must bo avowed that 
the latter had given them some ground. There was mnch 
mixture among the settlors ; the Huguenots brought over 
by the Sieur de Ciien were not very submissive to lawful 
authority, and all Champhiin's firmness could not check 
the disorders to bo expected from men not over-loyal to 
the State. 

In this sad position, the governor first thought that tho 
best course for him to adopt would be, in case ho were not 
relieved in season, to go and make war on tho Ii'oqnois, and 
live at their expense. The last incursions of these Indians, 
and some hostilities which they recently committed, 
furnished him just ground ; but when ho canio to think of 
setting out, no powder could be found. He had, therefore, 
to remain at Quebec, where there was absolutely nothing 
to support a hundred people shut up there, and reduced 
now to hunting for roots in tho woods like animals.' In 
this state, next to news of the arrival of ships from France, 
tliey could scarcely receive any more agx'eeable than that 
of the return of the English. 

Accordingly, when at the close of July — that is to say, 
three months after their provisions had entirely failed — 
word was brought to Mr. de Champlain that English sails 
were seen behind Pointe do Levi," not doubting but that 


at Paris, Bordeaux, Nov. 22, 1020 ; 
Champlain (oil. 1032), p. 270; in 
Englisli in Slioa, Perils of tlio Ocean 
and Wilderness, p. 9. Cn-uxius 
(Historia Canadensis, pp. 40-4), gives 
a sketch also of Noyrot and Malot. 

' Cliamplain, Depositinn, Nov. 9, 
1029 (State-paper ollice. col. series, 
v., art. 34) ; Voyoges (ed. 1632), pp. 
207, 213 ; Eustace BouUe's Deposi- 
tion (State-paper office, col. series, v., 
art. 35) ; I'Abeille, x.. No. 11. Cham- 
plain sent Boulle with twenty-nino 


niriiiii siim- 

iiioiieil by 

the P^ng- 


men, women, and children to Gaspe ; 
Sagiird, Histoire du Canada, p. 977. 
In July ho sent a Frenchman to tho 
Abenaquioue, who offered to keep 
twenty or twenty-five till spring (ib., 
979, 980). The population of Que- 
bec at its rapture is not given. It 
did not, however, exceed one hur- 

" Sogard (Histoire, pp. 980, 087), 
says tho intelligence was received 
Jidy 19, 1029 ; Creuxius, Historia 
Canadensis, p. 20. 



1629. it was Kcrtk's Hqnadion, lio rogiinlod timt commandor losH 
^■^■'v— ^ as an cnoiiiv than as a dt'livorcr to whom ho owed his own 
and his coUiny's cscapo from starvation. It was Imt a fow 
hoiiiH alter rccciviiij,' this iiitfllif^onoo that ho saw a boat 
aiiproac'li l)o.arin<,' a wliitc lla^'. I'ho olllccr in command, 
after advancinj,' to about tlio mlddh' of tho harbor, stopped, 
as if to ask pormission to approach. This was given at 
first by raisin;^ a fliij,' Himilar to liis own ; and as soon as 
hohiiidt.d, ho jircscntcd to the p;ovorn(n' ah'tt(>r from Louis 
and Thomas Kertk, lirothcrs of Admiral David Kertk.' 

This h'ttcr contaiiu d a summons in extremely pohto 
terras. The two brothers, one of wl .om was to command 
at Quebec and tlio otlier directed tlio tleet, the greater part 
of which remained witii Tiiomas at Tadoussac, ;^avo Mr. 
de Champhiin to understand that tliey were awaro of tho 
sad state of his coh)!!^' : that, nevertheless, if he would 
surrender his fort, tliey would allow him to nmko his own 
conditions. What had so well informed the English of the 
situation of Quebec, was the capture of tho Siour Boule, 
Champlaiu's lieutenant and brother-in-law, whom the gov- 
enior had dispalched to ■ ^ireseut to tho Company the 
pressing need of succor in which ho stood. From some of 
his sailors, tho English had artfully drawn tho object of 
their voyage." 
Conciitiona The governor was far from refusing the offer made hira. 
rcudijr. Ho accept(-d it,' but begged tho conmiander not to ap- 
proach any nearer till all was agreed upon. Tho oflScor 
■went back with this answer, and tho evening of tho same 
day ho returned to Qu3bec to ask the articles of capitula- 

' Sec letter in Chamiiloin, pnrt ii,, 
p. 215 ; Sagnnl, Histoirodu Canada, 
p. 988 ; Crtuxius, Historia Cana- 
densis, p. 27. It is dated July 19, 
1629. The English fleet, six sliiim 
anil t>vo pimi.icos, left Qravewrd 
March 2C,, 1(!20 ; Deposition of Cap- 
tain David Kyrcko (State-pajH-r of- 
fice col., Bcrics v., art. 37). 

' Sagard, Histoire du Canada, p. 
984 • I'reuxius, Historia CanadensiB, 
p. 25 ; Charaplain, Voyages (1C33), 
p. 230. 

^ Siigard, Histoire du Canada, p. 
9S9; Champlain (Letter to Kirk, 
July 19, 1029), Voyages, (ed. 1632), 
p. 21.'); Creuxius, Historia Cana- 
densis, p. 29. 



ti'>n. Climnpliiiii f,'iivn liis in writing,', lunl they pi'ovidoil :' 
Int. Tliiit licforo any furtlicr hU'\)h, tlio McsHicurH Kt-tk 
slioulil hIiow tlicir connuisMiou from tho kinjj; of (hnsiit 
Uiitnin, and ii jxjwcr from tlu-ir l)rotlior Admiral David ; 
2d. Tliat tlii'V sliould furnish liim a vcsmcI to jtrocrcfd to 
Franco with all tlu> Frenchmen, without i'xcci>tin<,' any, not 
even two Iiidinu girls bel()nginf» to him ; 3d. That the 
military shouhl march out w ith tiicir arms and all circcts 
that they could carry ; If' Tiiat tho vessel to bo givon 
thorn should bo fully rij^'god and Ik; provisioned, tht? last to 
bo paid for iu furs, tho surplus of which to bo carried o£f 
l)y tho owners ; r>th. That no insult or violence should bo 
done to any one ; 0th. That tho ship should 1)0 given up 
tliroo days after tho arrival of tho French at Tadoussac, 
and that barks should bi; ^^'ven to convoy thorn to that port. 
There was little difficulty as to tho main articles. Louis 
Kortk replied that his brother, Thonms Kertk, who had 
remained at Tadoussac, had tho commission and authority 
demanded, and that ho would produce them when ho had 
the honor to seo Mr. do Charajilain ; that there would bo 
no difficulty as to giving a vessel, and that if it was not 
largo enough to carry all tho French, there would bo room 
on tho squadron for any that wished to embark in it, — with 
the pledge of being well treated and of being transported 
to Franco as soon as they set foot in an English port. Tho 
article as to the two Indian girls was at first refused, but 
subsequently granted. It was agreed that tho oflicers 
should march out with their arms and baggage, and in 
general all that belonged to them ; tho soldiers with arms, 
clothing, and a beaver robe for each ; tho religious Avitli 
their books ;' but every thing else to 1)0 left in tho fort. 
Champlain considered himself very fortunate in obtaining 


' ScoarticlcsiClmnipIain, Voyages, condurtcd by FiUlicr le Caron : Sa- 

pnrt ii., ]i. 210). Tlu; tliird article ganl, pp. 080-1)1. 

wiis not onnfinod to tho military, l)Ut ' Aiul clothes. Seo artich'S, Cham- 

incluilfd nil, and named the religions plain, ]>. 218; Creuxius, Historia 

expressly. The negotiations weru Canadensin, p. 37. 

Vol. II.— 1 



1629. those conditions, nuil thought it not worth whilo to prosg 
^■""'V"*^ tho othors. 

Tho imxt (hiy, July 20, liouis Kortk anchnrod in the roftd- 
stoad with liin thrtso Hhi|)H, his own a vessul of ouo huiidnid 
tons, currying ten gunn ; tho otlior two, patachos of fifty 
tons and six guns.' Thti governor wont on hoard to visit 
him, and was well rccuuvod. Ho asked and ohtaincul Hol- 
dlors to guard tho ohapol, and protect tlio two rehgioua 
houHOH (JeHuit and llecnllect)' from all insult. Kortk thoa 
lauded at Quebec and took possession of tho fort, then of 
tho warehouse, tho keys of which ho conunittcd to one Lo 
Daillif, of Amiens, wlio had gone over to tlio onemy with 
three other Frenchmen, St(>phen Bmle, of Chanipigni ; 
Nicholas Marsolot, of Rouen ; and Peter Kayo, of raris. 
Tho last was ono of tho most wicko<l men that could pos- 
sibly bo aeon ; and, as is usually tlio case, only these trai- 
tors abused their position.' Tho commandant would not 
allow Mr. do Champlain to leave his quarters, permitting 
him c\on to have Mass said tluu-c. Ho carried his polite- 
ness so far, as to give him a copy, in liis own handwriting, 
of tho inventory ho had drawn up of all found iu tho place 
when he entered.* 
Most of tlio It was for the English interest to retain in tho country 
m?Un°i" t'lio ^^^ the settlers who had cleared lands, at least Kortk 
oouuiry. tjiourtlit so ; and to induce thorn to remain, ho luado them 
the most tempting offers. Ho even assured them that if, 
after remaining a year, they were net satisfied, ho would 
convoy them back to Franco. As his conduct had greatly 
prepossessed them in his favor, and several would havo 
been obliged to beg their bread if they crossed tho sea, 
almost all concluded to remain ; but the governor, while 
giving his consent to this, warned them that if, at the end 
of a year, tho king did not retake Canada, they would do 
wrong to remain any longer deprived of the sacraments 

' Patacln'S o.' forty tons • rimm- Creuxius, Historia Canndensig, p. 29. 
plain, p. 219. ^ C'hamiilain, p. 220. 

' IIobort'B house was also protected: * lb., p. 221. 



ami otluT Hpiritiiiil Hiu'cor, iih tlio Hiilvutioii of tlioir houIh 
bIkhiIiI bo lU'iircr to them tliiiii all Dm i)r()i)ort}' i\wy coulil 


All tliiiii^H lii'iiij^ llniH (vrrani^'cd, aiul TlionmH Kcrtk Imv- 
inf{ joiiicj lii.s Inollit'i', (.'liuiui)lHiii sluileil witli liim, on llio 
2tth, fi)r TatlouHsac',' \vlu«ro David, tho admiiiil, had pro- 
coL'dod Hhoitly before. Om thw voyage, victors and 'an- 
quished had \vt'll-iii;^'h (•haiij,'t'd fortunes. Emery do Ci'(!n, 
who was goiii^' to (Jiiebcc, ij,'iioraiit of all that h .d ocenr- 
red, met the .ship of Thoiiia.s Kertk, in whieh Chainplaiu 
was, and which iiad got separated from tho two pataclica 
with which it set out. He attacked it, and was on tlio 
point of carrying it, when calling out " (Quarter." to in- 
duce tho Engli^li to surrender, Tlionias Kertk took thi.s 
word in an opposite sense, and cried out, on his sido, 
" Good cpiiuter." At these words tho ardor of the French 
relaxed. De Caen ptncoiving it, wished to rally them, and 
pn'[)are(I f )r ,i last otVort ; but Mr. do Chaniplaiu appeared 
and advised him to profit by his advantage to secure good 
terms before the i)atachca camo up, which had crowded 
sail, and were now quite near. 

Certainly, had all the Trench done their duty, tho Eng- 
lish sliip would have l.eiui taken before assistance arrived. 
Tlie commander's fear ibovo him to a dastardly step ; for 
he threatened to kill Mr. de Chaniplaiu if ho did not sto^' 
the action. This Champlain did not do, however, till time 
had been given for the pataches to come up.' It was, in fact, 
a stratagem to enable do Caen to anticipate their arrival, 
for h(3 woidd have made short work of tho pataches after 

' (nmin|)luln, p. 225. Chaiuiilain I'nrlu, and had been a C(iloni«t at 

nrtvis'd iliu Ilt'licrt and Couilliird Port Royiil, thim doubly iduntifitjd 

rmiiilU.'H to ri'iiiidii till ut'lrr liaivost. with rrcnch I'oloiii/iition. 
They Were tho only t'liniilicH of Hitt- '' Cliaiuiiliiin, j). '-i'M. 
h'rs; Kciation (IH;.!^), p. 8; Pit'coH, ' Clianiiilain, Voyages, pp. 228, 

etc., roliitit's u latoiiiirf noiguuuriah', 229 ; CrouxiuH, llistoria Cauadonaia, 

3T;J. Any othcTM that riniiilni'd wcro \i\>. :!0, 31. Sajrard sayH that tho 

Bimpli) i'nii)loyt!i8, unloss Aliraliani Ilugat'nots throw down thuir arnu 

Miirtin's liiiuily was tlioro. l.oui.s (Ilintoiro, p. O'.ti)) ; but doC'aen seema 

li'jbLrt WU8 ou ajHithucary I'roni above suspicion. 


Kinory da 
Ciii'M Ik til- 
km I'y llm 





A French 

the oriiriim- 

tor (if'tlio 
£n(;li!)li cu- 


taking tlio ship ; and then there would have been nothing 
to prevent the French from returning to Quebec, where 
Louis Kertk was not in a position to offer any resistance. 
Emery de Caen acted like a brave man, but he was not 
seconded by his crow, composed, apparently, of his co- 
religionists, who then fought reluctantly against tho Eng- 
lish, on account of the siege of la Eochclle. 

It was even ascertained later that, besides the four trai- 
tors already mentioned, and who were of the same sect, 
one named James Michel, a furious Calviuist, had pre- 
sented memoirs to the English admiral to induce him to 
undertake this expnlition, and 'he traitor Avas actually on 
the sqviadrou with tho title of rear-admiral.' Those who 
accuse WnUam do Caen of having also betrayed his 
country on this occasion, have probably formed this judg- 
ment only because they beUeved Michel to have acted by 
his orders. This squadron, moreover, was not near as 
strong as was given out. It was composed only of five ves- 
sels, of three or four hundred tons, well enough supplied 
with provisions and munitions, but with a small force of 
men. If Emery de Caen had arrived a week sooner, ho 
would have revictuallcd Quebec, and Mr. de Champlain 
could not have been reduced there. David Kertk was also 
fortunate in this, that peace having been declared between 
the two crowns soon after his departure fi'om England, 
tho commander do FiazUh, who was equipping to go to the 
relief of Now France,* received counter orders, and was 
dispatched to Morocco. Tho court of France doubtless 
sup]>osed that Kertk also received orders not to proceed ; 
but he had already sailed, a fact not known at Paris. 

Meanwhile that admiral would not return to England 
without visiting his conquest. Ho accordingly ascended to 
Quebec, and on his return to Tadoussac he told Champlain 
that he considered the position of the town admirable ; 

' Chaniplnin, VoyagoH, p. SoO ; 
Creuxius, lliatoria Cauttdouuis, p. 33. 

' riiumplain, Voyages, part ii., pp. 
2;i0, 231. 



end. if rotiiincti by Engliincl it would soon ;ie on a cliiTor- 1629. 
ent foolinfjf, aa tlioy would turn many things to account 
which tho French had neglected or overlooked. I wiU not 
enter into the detail of what then pas,scd ; it would lead 
nie too far, and is not very interesting. The admiral was 
not nearly as generous as his brotlier Louis, and even the 
latter did not maintain his character to tlio end. Cham- 
plain, and in a still greater degree tho Jesuits, were to ex- 
perience much ill treatment at the hands of both.' 

The portidious Michel had persuaded them that those nia trngio 
relig'ous were very rich ; but the English wci'o soon Tin- 
deceived, and vented some of their disgust on tho informer. 
Tho three brothers were indebted to him for the whole suc- 
cess of this campaign and the previous one ; they were 
good merchants who had grown rich by trade, but who 
kncAv notliing of war. Michel was a naval man and a brave 
soldier. In tho engagement with Mr. do Iloquemont he 
had saved David Kertk's ship from being grappled by that 
commjinder, who could not reply to his broadsides, but 
would easily have carried him by boarding ; Michel had, 
too, served as guide and pilot to his two brothers, who did 
not know the St. Lawrence, and but for him would never 
liaAC dared to enter so far. 

lint whether treason inspires with a kind of hoiTor even 
those who profi.t by it ; or that traitors take umbrage 
at every thing, a general effect of remorse of conscience ; 
or, finally, the disappointment of the English on seeing 
how little their conquest had enriched them ; or disccateut 
on the part of the renegade, who deemed his services ill 
rewarded, there was soon more than a coolness between 
them. He was oven the first to give vent. He openly 
made loud complaints of the EngUsli, and especially of the 
admiral. He declaimed still more furiously against the 
Jesuits and men of St. Malo ; and his violence went so far, 
that more than once it resulted in attacks of frenzy. 

! I- 

' Champlain, part ii., ch. v. ; Creuxius, Hist. Canadensis, p. 35, etc. 



Hid trngio 

Chiimplain sought to turn the wretched msin's feelings 
towards tlie English to his good, by recalling him to the 
faith of his fathers and the service of his iing. On recov- 
ering fi-oni his frenzy, Chaniplain took him aside and used 
the gentlest language, most fitted to touch a heart that 
was not hardened beyond all redemption. But his cup of 
iniquity Avas full, mid God no longer deferred his chastise- 
rnent. His fuiy increasiul to such a point, that ho could 
no longer bo seen or heard without horror. Ho at last 
fell into a lethargic swoon which lasted thirty-five hours, 
and tiiese past, he expired.' All military honors were paid 
to his remains, and he was interred with all the ceremonies 
used in the Protestant churches ; but the funeral over, the 
English only thought of drinking deeply, and they never 
showed more hilai'ity. 

The admiral spent the rest of the summer in careening 
his ships, Avhich thi^y greatly needed. He set sail in Sep- 
tember, and on the 20th of October anchored in the 
port of Plymouth, where he learned that the differences 
between the two crowns were settled." He was not una- 
ware of it ; and it is even asserted that he had absolute 
knowledge of it before the capture of Quebec, but had 
deemed that he might pretend ignorance. He had been 
at groat expense to fit out his vessels, and had flattered 
himself with the hope of finding in New France more than 
would be needed to cover his outlay. He was much aston- 
ished to see himself lord only of a rock inhabited by a 
hundred persons exhausted by a long famine, whom he 
had in the first place to feed ; a warehouse with but a 
small stock of skins ; some poorly built and worse furnished 
hoiises. 80 all that he gained by his want of good faith 
was his own ruin, unrelieved even by the consolation of 
laboring for the prince he served.' 

' Chnrnplain, pp. 258, 262 ; Croux- 
lus, IliHtoria C'aniuk'nsis, p. 34. 
" Chnniplain, p. 2()(!. TIio Reool- 

ber 9, 1629: Sagard, Histoire du 
Cnnnda, p. 1001. 
' Charlevoix hero leavcH us in tho 
lecta and Jesuits sailud Septcm- dark aa to Chaniplain. Kertk car- 



The court of Franco was at fii'st mticli slioclccd at this 1629. 
invasion of tlio English, after a treaty had been signed, ^^'y"^ 
which prevented them opposing it ; but apart from reasons Some ad- 
of honor, many doubted Avhethor there had b(;en any real HskinZ' tiio 
loss, and whothcr it was worth the while to demand the of y'li'eb'oo! 
restitution of Quebec. Tlusy represented that the climate 
was too severe ; that the outlay exceeded the return ; that 
the kingdom could not imdertake to settle so vast a coun- 
try, without gi'oatly weakening its own strength. More- 
over, said they, how are we to settle it ; and what use will 
it bo if we do settle it? The East Indies and BrazU 
have depopulated Portugal ; Siiain sees many of its prov- 
inces almost deserted since the conquest of America. 
Both kingdoms have, indeed, gained wherewith to balance 
this loss, if the loss of men can be balanced ; but in the 
fifty years that we have known Canada, what have we 
derived from it ? This coimtry can, then, be of no use to 
us, or wo must admit that the French are not suited for 
founding colonies. Yet we have thus far dispensed with 
them, and even the Spaniards would perhaps like to begin 
anew. Who but knows that Charles V., with all the gold 
and silver which Pent and Mexico sujiplied, never could 
master France, and often beheld his enterprises miscarry 
from want of means to pay his troops ; while his rival, 
Francis I., found in his coli'ers means to repair his losses 
and cope with a prince whoso em])ire was more vast than 
that of the lirst Ciesars ? Let us improve France, kci'p her 
men, profit by her advantages for trade, turn to account 

ricd liim to England. lie arrived at 
Plymouth on tlio 20th OetobiT, iind 
London on the 20tli (Voyages, cd. 
l(i:!3, p. 2()tl). At I'lymoiith he heard 
of th(! peace coueluded at Sui^e, April 
24, 10'2!) (Mem.deaCommis., ii., p. 1), 
and wrote to induce tlie Frencli to 
demand the restoration of Qiicliec, 
whi( U lie claimed nt London tlirouirh 
th(! French ambassador (Cliamplain, 
Voyages, p. 2U6). It would sei'm 

that ho was held for ransom ("Con- 
cerning Capt. Kerke's French pris- 
on," printed in I'Abeille, vol. x., No. 
10). Sagard says the religioas 
reached Plymouth, Oct. 18, and Ca- 
lais, Oct. 2'J. Kirk, in a petition to 
the lioard of Trade, cbiimed to have 
taken eightei n French vessel.-s. with 
one hundred and thirty-five cannon, 
going to the relief of Port Koyal and 
Quel)ec (Mem. des Com., ii., p. 275), 




Eeply to 
tlicir rea- 

tlie iiulnstry of her inhabitants, and we shall see all the 
wealth of Asia, Afri' and the Now World enter onr ports. 
To this, others replied that the climate of New Franco 
moderated as the country was explored ; that this could 
not bo doubted, as it lay in the same latitude as the most 
temperate regions of Europe ; that the climate is healthy, 
the soil fertile ; that with moderate toil, all the comforts 
of hfe may be procured ; that we must not judge Franco 
by Spain and Portugal, which had been drained of men 
by the wars of the Moors and their expidsion, before the 
discovery of botii Lidios, and which, in spite of this loss, 
bad imdertakcn to settle immense countries ; that we 
must not fall into the same faults, but send to America 
every year a small number of families and disbanded sol- 
diers, with girls taken from the hospitals, and settle them 
so that they may extend in proportion as they increase ; 
that experience showed French women to be fruitful there ; 
that children are brought up without difficulty, become 
robust, well made, and of very fine blood ; that the cod- 
fishery alone was enough to enrich a kmgdom, required 
but little outlay, and was an excellent school to train 
sailors, but to derive all the advantages it was capable of 
producing, it would have to be made sedentary — that is to 
say, employ the colonists themselves in it ; that furs 
might also become an important object of trade, if care 
was taken not to exhaust the source of supj^ly by endeav- 
oring to enrich themselves at once. The forests which 
covered the country, and are undoubtedly the finest in the 
world, could be turned to profit in building ships. Finally, 
that the sole motive of preventing the English becoming 
too powerful in this part of America, by joining the two 
shores of the St. Lawrence to the many provinces where 
they had already thriving colonies, was enough to induce 
us to recover Quebec at any price.' 

' Cliarlevoix derives these discus- shows thnt there is no autliori'.y for 
Bions from le f 'Icrcq (Etaljlissomcnt them, and details the strps tnkon by 
de la Foi, i., p. 419) ; but Mr. Faillon France to recover Canada, and the 





As to the objection that we had made but little progi'css 
ill Canada, after so many years, Chaini)lain threw the fault 
on the private associations which had had the direction of 
the colony. I shall give his own words without any addi- 
tion : "While an association, in a country like this, holds tho 
purse, it pays, gives, and assists whom it pleases. Those 
who command for his majesty gain httlo obedience, having 
no one to assist except by tho consent of the Company's 
agents, who relish nothing as little as those placed there by 
the king (or viceroys),as not depending on themselves, — not 
desiring them to see and judge what they do, nor their 
conduct and .••tiou in such affairs ; they wish to draw all to 
themselves ; are careless of what liai)pens, provided they 
profit by it. Thej' oppose forts and fortresses, except when 
the moment of need comes, and then there is no time. When 
I spoke to them of fortifying, they thought it a grievance. 
In vain I showed them the evil consequences that might 
result ; they wore deaf : and all this was simply fear on 
their part, that, if a fort was built, they would bo mas- 
tered, and have law prescribed to them. And entertaining 
these thoughts, they left the country and us a prey to 
pirates or enemies. I wrote enough to the gentlemen of 
tlie council. It needed some one to give orders, which 
never came ; and if his majesty had only left trade free to 
the associates, to have their stores and clerks, while the 
rest of the men should be in the full power of the king's 
lieutenant in the country, to employ them as ho deemed 
necessary, either in his majesty's service or in fortifying or 
clearing the ground, so as to avoid famine, Avhich might at 
any time ha^jpeu if any thing befell the shii)s, — if this 
plan were adopted, more pro "ess and advance would be 
Been iu ten years than in thirt} oy the com-se pursued.'" 

To the motives of policy and interest, which had not 
persuaded the majority of the council, others were added 

Ciiuisi' of tho dclny in its rostorntion : ' Cliiun])lain, Voyiigus (ed. 1632), 
Histoiro du la t'olouie Frun(;aise, p. p. 11. IIo rtjl'i^rs to matturs in 1031, 
235, n. and not to tlio time of the capture. 





! I 




1629. which decidecl Louis XIII. not to abandon Canada. 
''"*~Y-~-' Tliose wcro motives of honor and religion ; and no one 
Canailtt re- gavo them greater foreo than Cliamphiiu, wlio had much 
yruiico. piety, and van a patriotic Frenchman. Negotiations wcro 
accordingly begiin to recover Quebec from the hands of 
the English ;' and to give life to the negotiations, six 
vessels -were fitted out, to be under the ordei's of the Com- 
mander de llazilly. This had its cflect. The court of 
England, at the instance of Lord Montague, restored, with 
a good grace, what Franco was preparing to take by force. 
The treaty was signed at St. Germain-en-Laye, March 29, 
1632,' including also Acadia and the island of Capo Breton 
(now called He Boyalo). 
The oondi- ^"^ settlement on that island was not much of an affaia* : 
tion of New ygt tliis post, tlio fort of Qucbcc, surrounded by a few 
wretched houses and some sheds ; two or three cabins on 
the island of Montreal ; as many perhaps at Tadoussac, 
and at some other points on the lliver St. Lawrence, to 
accommodate fishers and traders ; a settlement begim at 
Three Kivers, and the ruins of Port Royal ; this was all 
that constituted New France — the sole fi'uit of the discov- 
eries of Verrazani, Jacques Cartier, Mr. de Eoberval, 
Champlaiu, of the great expenses of the Marquis do la 
Eoche and Mr. de Monts, and of the industry of many 
Frenchmen, who might have built up a great colony had 
they been well directed. 

* Champlain endeavored to obtain 
a restoration through the Fnmch 
ambassador at London, but after re- 
mainiiifif six weeks, found it would 
be a tedious matter. He accortlingly 
r(.'turn(!d to Franco and laid the mat- 
ter before the court. Riclielieu, in 
Nov., 1029, ordered Mr. de Chateau- 
neuf to press the demand. The 
Englisli government replied that it 
could not, then restore it. France, in 
return, refused to restore some Eng- 
lish slii|).s; and Richelieu wrote, in 
December : " If they consent to the 

restitution of Quebec, pure and 
simple, take it ; if not, it is better to 
let the matter drag on." In April, 
101)0, Cliateauneuf was assured that 
all should bo restored : Faillon, His- 
toiro de la Colonic Frauijaise, i., p. 
257, n., and authorities cited. 

* The treaty is given in Memoires 
des Commissaires, ii., p. 5. It pur- 
ports to give back and restore New 
France, Acadia, and Canada. Port 
Royal, the fort of (Juebeo, and Ca])e 
Rn'ton are mentioned as fortitied 
places : lb., p. 0. 



The oaso with which tlio Eiighsh roatorocl Aoadia to 1629. 
Franco, came, doubtless, from the fact tliat they had as ^— -r^~^ 
vet taken no steps to settle there, as well as from its dis- „^^''y t'i» 
tancc from New En<'land, where it was most important ci<oteii 
to fortify themselves before thinking of new enterprises. 
I have said, indeed, that in HVll the kiny of Great liritain 
had granted to William Alexander, earl of Stirling, all the 
countries from which we had been expelled by the Eng- 
lish.' It is also true that the next year that nol)lemaii 
sent to his newly acquired territories an officer to select a 
suitable [)laco for a settlement ; but this agent, sailing too 
late, had to winter in Port St. John, NewfouniUand. Ho 
then passed over to Acadia ; entered Port an Mouton, 
changing the name to St. Luke's Bay ; then entered 
another, two leagues off, which ho called Fairport or 
Black Port. He did not stop there, but returning to 
Ki?wf()andland, soon after sailed to England." From that 
time the Earl of Stirling, for reasons unknown to me, did 
nothing to turn his nol)le domain to advantage." 

' See chnrtor, Meinoires dos t'oin- 
missnircs du Hoy, i., xxxiv., 'i., p. 
l!)!i. The ]intci)t wns continuoil by 
a novodamus on July 12, 102.") (ib., 
ii , 1). 22'J). 
' Do Lart, Xovus Orliis, pp. 01, 02, 
» In 102S, with the aid of David 
Kii'k, ho n.'ducod Port lioyal, Sto. 
Croix, and Poutaj^oot (Kiik in Mom. 
doH t'oiiimiss., ii., p. 270 ; Douchar, 
Memorial ; Haliburton. ii., p. 4;?l 
II" convi'Vod part of this to tlie older 
do la Tour in I'ioO, but Kii>;'hiud rc- 
Btorod Acadia by the tnaty of St. 
Oorniain. AVith llio capture of yue- 
boc, wo lose as a jjiiide Sajrard, 
whotio Works are more rich in ac- 
counts of Indian life than in details 
as to the colony. Eniile Chevalier 
gives a loig, raiuhliiifr, incorrect 
sketch of liim in the late Paris edi- 
tiiin, and naively su]iposo.s that For- 
laiid, Oariioau. and other writers on 
this side the Atlantic, hud never read 

Sagard at all. Chevalier, while he 
foils to give one single item for Sa- 
gard's biograpliy, supixises him a 
priest; but Father le t'lercq, in his 
Premier Etahlis-semont, says ex- 
prot^sly that he was a lay-brother. 
He was, however, evidently a man 
of education, observing and garru- 
lous. The most precious part of his 
work is his Huron dictionary. Char- 
levoix (see vol. L, p. 78) underrates 
Itti value. It is douV)tli'ss im]ierfect 
and inexact, but nevertheless stands 
as the best printed vocabulary of tho 
lanfiuage; although Potier'sKacincs 
Ihirunnes is much more full and 
philosophic. Le Clercq never cite.s 
Sagard ; and si)eaking of the Huron 
dictionary, attributes the first to 
Father le Caron and Father Viol, 
and says that Father George present- 
ed the Huron, as well as Algomiuin 
and Miintagnais dictionaries, to the 
king, in 1025. 






B O K V. 

1 f 

W ' 



m ono of tho urliclos of tho trinity of St. Gormuin, ,632-3 

which re})lacod Fruuco in possi'ssion „f C,i„iula, uH tho - , '- 

eflbcts fouu.l lit (^u^boc— luul of which, as wo havo hwu, ^''"■^•'' 2»- 
ail inventory had buen drawn up'— wero to ho rostorod, as' 
well as tiio vossi'ls taken on Ijoth si(h'S. willi tlicir cargoes, 
or an o(]nivalent ; and as tlu! Siours do (,'aen wc^ro chii'lly 
iutorestcd in tins restitution, Emery do Catiii was Hrst sent 
ahjiio to Anicrioa, to lioar tho treaty to Louis Kertk, and 
re.iniro its cxec-ution. The; kin^' even d.'enied it proper to 
Burronder to him all tho trade in furs for one year, to com- 
peusato him for his losses during tho war.' Hv sailed for 
Quebec iu April of tliis same year (l(i;J2), and on his 
arrival, tho English goviunor surrendered to him the place 
and all the i)roperty belonging to him.' Xeveithel.,.ss, all 
that year and the next, tho Enghsh kept up tnnle with tho 
Indians; and it eost no littlo trouble to stoj) this tiallie, 
wliieh was evpressly forbidden the subjects of tlu^ king of 
Great ]3ritain by the treaty of St. Germain.' 

In 10;);j the Company of New France rtsiinu d all its 
rights ;* and Acadia was granted to tho Commander do 
Razilly, ono of its chief members, on condition of Ids 

'This inventory is pven in etc., Mcrcuro Franvnis, xviii ; Creux- 

I'Abeillo, X., No. 4. ius, IliKtoria fanadcMsis, p. 1(1,5 : Le 

'' f'ifuxiu9, Ilistoriii Cnnndenais, .Icuno, lUlutioii di' h: Xouv. Fraucc 

p. 104 ; Morcuiv FranriuH, xviii. ; Lo (1();!0), p. S ; Caiiuda I^xMiniciits. II., 

Jfuno, Itclnticm <lo In Xouv. Fraiu-o i., ji. .')4. 

(1G;}2), ]). 1; Champlain, Vcyages ■• AoUmIc protfstatiun faito par lo 

(ti<\. UV.Vi). p. ;)0!l. Capiteim^ Fernery do Caon, Canada 

■■' July Ki : Relation du Voyage fait Dooumcnta, II., i., p. ."iS. 
11 Cauttda pour la prist; do possc.'^sion, ' Helalion do !u N, F. ( l(i;{;!), p, 1. 




ot'tliu llll- 


i6ij. pliiiitiii^,' II colniiy tluMT.' llo (lid, in fnct, form ii Hiimll 
•-■••v-*^^ Hcttlciiiciit at I'ort III Haivc, wlicic it was so easy iiml iiii- 

j^ ,l„ {lortaiit to inakd onr, tliiit would hooii, with Hiiiall otitliiy, 

'''"'uinin" «''"i'''" that gir.vt iK'iiiuMiilii to yield lar^'o rt;turnH.' 'i'lio 

""I"""''"' Hiiiim voar, INIr. do ('liainiiliiiii, wlioiii tic Coiiipimv had 

of Nuw piTscntt'd to the kiiiL' liy virtiu' of thr power coiifeiTed liy 
Fruiieu. ' _ . . . , - , 

liiH iiiajeHty, wa>t aj^aiii iippoiiited {^overiioi' of New France," 

and Ht)t out with a H<|uadron wliieli eairied iiiuch mon* 

than all then in Catuida was worth, takin^^ with him 

Fatli. rn lie J5relieuf inul Eiiemoiid ^liisse. lie found 

Beveral of the oli' settlers there, lie iirou^dit new ones, 

nnd exhorted both to take Icssoiis from tlu) faults that 

caused tho past misfortunes.* 

His first view was to bind the Huron nation to liini, and 

to bej^'in by snbjeetinf^ it to the yok(> of the [gospel, cou- 

vinced tliat there is no bond more indissoluble than that 

of religion. Thus far, they had rather ]n'opared the way 

for the establishment of C'hristianity among these Indians, 

than be^^nn a work which re([uiied a ^'reater knowled;,'o 

than had hitherto been tic(|uiiiil of tlu'ir hingini;:;e, their 

customs, their belief, and national character. Tho llocol- 

lect Fathers, dnriiif,' their stii}' anionj^ them, had gained 

Home to Christ, but had been abli^ to baptize only a few. 

Fathers do JJn'benf and do None had also made some 

proselyt<'s; but ( 'liristiiinity had not yet taken root among 

this people, which did not seem easy to convert. Ncvor- 

thelosH, men flatttsrt'd themselves that when tho Indians 

had a sonn^what longer intercourse with tho missionaries, 

they would bcL'ome moredoeilc*; and this hopo was based on 

' Tlu'coiiiniiuidrr, IsiiacildBazlU}', lO.'B : Meraoircs dos Commissaircs, 

was Bcnt (lut to ri'ciuvi' tho cminlry ii„ p. 401 ; i., p. 44. 

In the nnmo of tlieCoiiiiumy of New '■* Dciivh: Description dps ("otca de 

Fruiu't' : Ajirci'mcnt Mar. 27, \V\'<\'i ; rAnn'riiiuc S('i>tintri(miilf, |ip. 80, 

Cuiiiiilii Iiiic, II., i., p. 50 ; ("liam- 04-1). l.a Ilrvr wa.-< in his brother's 

plain. VoyiiLTi'S, 10;!~. p. ;>00. He was grant: Fcrland, i., ]>. 2.*)5. 

inadi'liiutinant general for tin; king: •' Meiitenant of Cardinal Hichelicu 

coniniitwiDn, May 10, 10;J», V)'u. and Oeneral of tho Fleet : Merc. 

Tho New Franco Company granted Fram;.. xix., p. SI 7. 

him the St. Croix Hiv.r, May 10, M<olation de la N. F., 1033, p. 25. 



tho cliiiriu'tcr of thoir Holiil, judicious, olcviitcd mind, ifM3- 
capiililo of rofl<'ctiiij», as well as (»ii tlio fact of its liiiii^' tlio "-^y— 
most Htidoutary and laborious of all tho uatiou:i yut kuowu 
on tliis contiticut. 

IJut to I'xcc'utti this [»roj(H't, a ci'itain numlKT of luhoirrs 
was iKMidctl, and it was nocfHsary to put tlicni in a pDsition 
to draw tlu'ir HubsiHtonre from sonio othor source than a 
country which had no littlo dilliiiilty in Hni)|)ortin)^ its 
sottlorH. Now, this was not »!asy to provido lv>r. 'i'ho 
Company had been induced to believe, that in a risiu)^ 
col(- , mendicant religious would bo rather a burden 
than a sorvico to tho settlers, who scarcely had tho neces- 
saries of life. It was, therefore, not niinled Ui u'lid back 
the llecollix't Fathers — at llrst, at least ; and a found 
means to uiduco the king's eotuicil to adopt its reasoning.' 
For tho same reason, the Jesuits had to draw from Franco 
all that they might need ■ and there was a fear that their 
past losses had co<ded the zeal of those who had hitherto 
contributi'd most to expenses that proved useless. Hap- 
pily, theso fears proved vain. Almost all those who wore, 
iu tho outset, interested in behalf of New France, felt 
bound to jmt tlu! Jesuits not only in a position indepen- 
dent of the settlers, as for their support and the functions 
of tho ministry, but also to contribute to tho st^ttlement of 
tho country ; givuig meanwhile, however, their pri?icipal 
attention to the instruction of tho Frouch and tho conver- 
sion of the Indians. 

Accordingly, in 1032 (that is to say, immediately -ifter 
tho signing of tho treaty of St. Germain), Fathers Paul lo 
Jeuuo and Anno do None embarked for (Quebec." They 

' Charlevoix's reasoning is un- P^iillon, in Jiis Ilistoiri' de la C'olonie 

doul)ti'(lly anli^^H, a,-( the fiistott'iT wns ('iiiin(lieiine (i., j). v"^'-', n.\ it eii|iiit)lo 

niiule ncitiier to liecullectn nor .lemi- and ini]iiirtiul writer, del'iiuls llio 

its, but to tluiOnimcliius. See Docu- JesuitH IVoiii the chnri,'e of liaviug 

meat of Cardinal Uiihelieii in Mar- exeluded tlie lieeolU'cts, at thin time, 

tin, lielatiou Ahregre de Qiieltiues from tho mission. 

MiSHions, etc., par le P. F. J. Bros- ' Le Jeune, Uidution de la Nouv. 

bani (Montreal, Ib.W), p. iiU5. Mr. Fruiice (1U;!2), p. 1. 

Vol,, u.— ,-> 




The con- 
duct cif tlio 


milk '.^ tlio 

Indians re- 

ftlX't tlio 


SucceBs of 
the first la- 
bors of the 

foixiul the few proHolytes previously made in tlio neighbor- 
hood of that city no longer in the same sentiments as at 
their departure ; but it recpiired no great effort to regain 
them. The English, during tln,'ir brief rule in the country, 
had failed to gain the good-will of the Indians. Tho 
Hurons did not a]>poar at Quebec M'hilo they were there.' 
The others, nearer the capital, many of whom, from juivate 
dissatisfaction, had openly declared against us on tho 
approach of tho English squadron, showed themselves 
very selaom. All were somewhat disconcerted when, 
on attcanptnig to take with tho new-comers tho liber- 
ties which tho French made no diHiculty in permit- 
ting, they perceived that this manner did not please 

It was mncli worse soon after, when they saw them- 
selves driven with cudgels from houses Mdtich they had 
prcAiously entered as freely as they did their own cabins. 
They accordingly resolved to draw off ; and nothing sub- 
sequently bound them more firmly to our interest than 
this difierence in the manner and character of tho two 
nations whom they had seen settle in the neighborhood. 
The missionaries, who Avero soon informed of the im- 
pression thus made on them, wisely profited by it 
to gain them to Christ and attach them to the French 

Fathers Enemond Masso and John do Brebeuf arrived, 
as I have akcady said, the next year, with Mr. de 
Champlain ; and in less than fifteen years the numl)er of 
evangehcal laborers was fifteen priests, without counting 
throe or four lay-brothers, some of whom were devoted to 
the instruction of children. Those religious rightly deemed 
their first cai'o duo to tho Household of the Faith ; and as 
there was no longer any mixture of creed among the set- 
tlers, God showered d( vn on their labors such abundant 


' This maj' be mi, but I find no * Relation do la Nouvellc Franco 
autlmrity for tho statement. (1(1311). P- 'M, etc. 



blessiuga, that iu a fow months a groat moral improve- 
ment was visible.' 

Tho court hud given positive orders to prevent any- 
Protestant emigration to New Franco, or the exercise of 
any religion but tlio CathoUc there. According to all ap- 
pearances, liis majesty had been informed, what the court 
had apparently been ignorant of previously, namely, that tho 
English enterprise against Canada resulted from the in- 
trigues of WilUam do Caen or tho other Calvinists of whom 
I have spoken ; and experience, on more than one occa- 
sion, had taught him not to place tho Huguenots too near 
tlio English in a country where there was not a power to 
iieep them in their duty and in submission to lawful au- 

Great attention even had boon paid to the selection of 
ihoso who offered to go and colonize New France ; and 
it is not true that tho young women sent over, from time 
to time, to marry the new settlers, were taken from 
suspicious places, as some iU-iuformed travellers have 
asserted in their works." Steps wore always taken to be 
assured of tluiir morality before they embarked, and their 
conduct in Canada i.s a proof that the precaution was suc- 
cessful. In a short time, almost all who composed the 
new colony wore scon to follow tho example of their gov- 
ernor, and make an open and sincere profession of piety. 

The same attention v,'as continued in subsequent years, 
and there soon arose in this part of America a generation 
of true Christians, aiiiong whom reigned tho simplicity of 
tho primitive ages of the Cliurch, and wliose posterity have 
not lost sight of the gi-eat example left them by their 
ancestors. Tho consolation which such a change afforded 





from Cliiiia- 


' Relations do la Nouvollc Franco ' This is in answer to a charge 

(lfi;!:i-5). Th(! number of mission- of la Ilontan (vol. i., p. 11). Loufr 

arion was roaliy sixteen. See list iu after this date, a girl arriving in n 

Ciirayon, Documents Im'dits, xiv., state of pregmmry, sent back 

P- ^'1- with tlie reiiiiirli, that sucli ciittlo 

'' Morcure Fnin(;aiB, xiv., p. 2;J(i ; were not wanted. Ferland (Nutea 

Eilitf^ ot Ordonnanccs Royaus, p. 7. sur los Registres do Notre-Dome de 

choice of 





of the eiirly 



tlie laborers appointed to cultivate this transplanted vine- 
yard, so sweetened the crosses of the most painfnl mission 
ever perliaps establislied in the Now World, that what 
they wrote to their hrethreu in France created among 
them a real eagerness to go and share their labors. 

The annual Relations which we have of these happy 
times, and the constant tradition preserved in the country, 
both attest that there was an indescribable miction at- 
tached to this Indian mission, which made it preferred to 
many others infinitely more brilliant and even more fruit- 
ful. This doubtless arose from the fact, that nature find- 
ing nothing tliero, either to afford the comforts of life or 
to flatter vanity — the ordinary shoal of brilliant success, 
even in the holiest ministry — Grace worked without 
an obstacle. Moreover, the Lord, who never allows 
himself to be overcome in generosity, communicated him- 
self unreservedly to men who sacrificed themselves with- 
out reserve ; who, dead to all, entirely detached from 
themselves and the world, possessed their souls in unal- 
terable peace, find were perfectly established in that spir- 
itual childhood which Jesus Christ has recommended to 
his tlisciples as their most distinctive characteristic. 

This is the portrait, to the hfe, of the first missionaries 
of New France, drawn by those who knew them closely, 
and the sequel of this history will convince those least 
prepossessed in their favor that it is not too highly col- 
ored. I knew some of them in my yoiith, and found them 
as I have just depicted — bent beneath the labors of a long 
apostleship, and in bodic > M^asted by hardship and broken 
with age, preserving still aU the vigor of the apostolic 
sjiirit. I have deemed it a duty to render them here the 
same justice as was universally rendered by the country. 

Among the nunib(U' of idolatrous nations which opened 
to the missionaries so vast a field I'or the exercise of their 

Qui'licc) .T|i])i'iilM to the iinrish regis- only two cawH of illi'^nliiimtc l)irt.h. 
tiTs, whii'li, lii.'in Kl'Jl to UiOO, show Seo Boucliw, Hist. Vent., p. 155. 

• ( 



zoal, nono appeared to these religious to doscrvo thoiv first 
attention more than the Huron. Mr. do Chamjilain had 
long ])roj('ct('d a Rottlciiient in the country of these In- 
dians. He revived ihe idea when, on his return from 
France in 1033, he foimd no li'ss than seven hundred 
awaithig him at Quebec' He imparted his design to them. 
They all applauded it, hut when he least expected it, 
changed their minds. It is perfectly useless to ask these 
savages the grounds of these changes. They often have 
none, except the right, to which they profess to adhere, of 
not fettering their liberty and of never giving an irrevo- 
cable decision.' 

The governor, who knew them well, felt bound, never- 
theless, to express his surprise and show his displeasure. 
He tiven spoke to tliem as a man who felt himself no 
longer, as in former years, in a position to be offended 
with impunity, and he liad reason to believe that he had 
rendered them more docile. In this supposition, he 
wished to act with hauteur ; and in concert with Father 
le Jeune, superior of the mission, he made all prepara- 
tions for the voyage of Fathers de Brebeuf and do None, 
who had bseu appointed to accompany these Indians. 
The latter not only accepted them, but a jealousy was 
even observed among the chiefs of the different villages 
as to which should possess the missionaries f but an un- 
foreseen accident defeated all the governor's measures, 
and he saw that ho had evinced too much eagerness for a 
thing which he should have made the savages de'sire. 

An Algonquin had killed a Frenchman, and Mr. do 
Cham[)Liin held this murderer in prison, firmly resolved to 
make an example of him.* Ho deemed this severity the 
more necessary, as it was believed to be at last estab- 
lished that the Ilccollect Father Viel was not drowned as 



nimiiii; tlio 




wishes to 
obli>.'e tliem 
to tako iiiis- 
sioiiaries to 
tliLir coun- 

Tliey re- 


' liO Jcunp, Relation do la Nouv. Crcuxius, IlistoriaCnnndcnsifi.p. 1 19. 
France i,Vhi'i), p. 14. ' Lo Jeiino, Relation (1633), p. 38. 

» Relation (1033), pp. 3-1-43 ; ■> lb., p. 30. 



1634. hiid boon supposed at first, but bad boon murdered 
^"""^'""^ by his Huron guides for his effects, and tliat they had 
thrown liis body into the river to conceal their crime.' 
The Indians themselves said openly, that to prevent such 
crimes, which in their results would be fatal alike to them 
and the Froncli, they should not l)e left uupnnislied. 

Causic of I^iit these Indians, after having thus spoken in public 
thiB reiusa!. ^,j^|j ^^^ the equity to Ijo expected from the most reason- 
able men in the world, quite often change their tone when 
it comes to execute the judgment dictated by themselves, 
and you must not always expect them to cover with a 
plausible pretext their inconsistent condui ' The Hurous 
on this occasion did, however. The day of tlieir departure 
being fixed upon, one of their chiefs declared bluntly that 
he could nf)t take any missionary or even any Frentlmian 
in his canoes, iinless the governor first set at iil)erty the 
Algonquin who was inirons. He was told liint he had him- 
self judged him deservhig of death. " I a<:,reo," he replied, 
" that it is right to })unish an assassin ; but the relatives, 
friends, all the youth of this man's viiliige, have demanded 
him back from us, and they await 1 !• at the passage, in 
the hope that we will restore him to t'.eiv handf. If their 
expectation is defeated and *•■■ 5 per-; iiC any Frenchmen 
among us, they will without tA fall upoT'. us, and we can- 
not withdra"' them from the fury of the trilie Avithout 
beiug iiiv(.i,.. il in a combat which will tr.rn our allies into 
enemies. We >., mot even answer for the result ; and what 
gricT wo siiall feel if we see those confided to our care 
slaughtered liefore our eyes and in our very arms !"" 
The French tried in vain to banish the real or pretended 

virtues ot fgj^^.g Qf tjjjg i^f^Tx • they eff(,'cted nothing. Li vain even 
other chiefs said that they assumed tlie whole affair : ho 
had adopted his course, and he declared that he would 
allow no Frenchman to embark. The governor no longer 
doubted but that he acted in concert with the Algonquins, 

Defects and 

virtues of 

the Iluruu^, 

Le Jinine, Relation (1634), p. 93. 

' lb. (1633), p. 40. 



and (Iceniing it unwise to rolcnt in rogartl to tlio priHonor, 
and imprudent to risk a sinf,'lo Frenchman Avith people so 
ill-disposed, lie iidvised the two missionaries to defer their 
voyage to another opportunity.' 

The conduct of this Huron chief portrays veil the char- 
acter of this nation, the ablest of aU in Canada, but 
against whom wo must always be most on our guard. They 
carry dissimulation to an excess not easily belit'ved if it 
had not been experienced. This trait had contributed to 
make it feared and respected by other Indians, as much aa 
its industry, its readiness in expedit'nts and resources, its 
eloquence and bravery. In one word, it is of all the coi' 
tinent the nation distinguished .','niost defects and niosr. 
good qualities. 

Champlain calls the Hurons OeJidstegxim,^ and con- 
founds them with the Iroquois,'' whom ho doul)tless su])- 
posed to form only one natioa with them, on account of 
the conformity which he had remarked between tho lan- 
guage of the two.* Ho may, too, have heard them callec'' 
Ochasteguins by some other Indians. But their >eal 
name is Yendat." The word Huron comes ft-om the 
French, who seeing these Indians witli tlie hair cut very 
short, and standing up in a strange fashion, givi?>g them 
a fearful air, cried out, the lirst time they saw them, Quelle 
h lives. ' (Wiiat Ijoars' heads!) and so got to call thorn 

If we believe their oldest traditions, this nation in i^^a 
first origin was composed of two < wus only,' which a-* 


Origin of 
tliis uution. 

' Le Jeune, Relation, p. 42. 

' From a chkff of thiil niiiiie : Voy. 
(Lav. ed. l(!i;!\ p. Ui9; 10;W, p. 1:!4; 

' He calls them ponil Inx^uois. 

■• Ik' spcmn to linve clistinguiBlicd 
clearly the Oihaptc^^uins or Hurons 
(ed. KWS, p. 1 !1), seventei-n villages ; 
Tiouontntos f.r J'etuns, the Neuters, 
the .\ntouh()rorons, fil'teen villages ; 
the Irofjuois and the Carantouanis, 
aiii)arently the Susquehannas 

' M int for Wendat. Sagard, 
in iictionary (Verb. Nation), 

gives llouandate (Ui.'lation de la 
Nonv.lic France, 10;!!), 11, 50). Wy- 
anil iu our Englinli writers, though 
till tribe now culled \Vyandotn are 
'J'ianontates or I'etuna (.His- 
■; i Magazine, v., ]h id'i). 

« H. Lalemant, in Relation (1039), 
p. 51. 

' Two tribes, the Attignnv.'antau 



1634. time (lividi'd into fnxr, or iuloiitod two otliors ;' for the old 
"">'""' luoii wLom tlio missiouiirioH quostioned on tliis point did 
not .agree amoupr themselves. The adoption of various 
neighboring nations made these four tribes more powor- 
fiil than all other nations, by their care to keep always 
united in one body. This the Algonquius n(>gleetod to 
do, who were oiiginally nmeh more numerous than the 
Hurons ; for although the tribes adopted by the latter 
always preserved tlu'ir primitive names, they also took 
the generie name, whieh was that of the original two, au<l 
spoke the same language, with some inconsiderable differ- 
ences. Yet some give themselves ' ae name of Outaouon- 
oui's, — that is to say, those who speak the best language' 
This uniformity of languagi; would even lead us to infer 
tli;it the confederation or adoption of these tribes liad 
only recalled them to their primitive stock ; Avhile tho 
Iroquois and Audastouez,' who are certainly of tho samo 
stock, having never united after their separation, have 
also nnich more altered their languages, which are evi- 
dently Huron dialects, as I have elsewhere remarked.* I 
have also s^-jken in the same place of the division not 
only of the whole nation, but also of each canton or town, 
into three principal famiUes;' I content myself Avith re- 

niid the Atti};nt'oniini;U!ilmo, calling 
each otlit-r biothiT uiid sister. 11. 
Lulomant, lUilatiou do lu Nouvt'llu 
Franco (16:!U). 

' The two aii(j]itiJ wcro tlio Ari'n- 
(liiU (^pMioiis) and Toliontaonrat (11. 
Laleniant, Helation, UioD) ; Sagard 
mentions only tho former triho 
(Grand Voyajro du pays dcs llarons, 
J). 115), and cullt." thoni Enarhnnim, 
or IJcnarhouon (Dictionnairc, Vcrbo 

- This ('xi)rcssion Onkwo Ilonwe, 
is also used by tho Iroqunis, and 
miuins trill', men. C\mi, Etudes 
l'bilol()gi(iui's sur (luohiuos Languea 
Sauvngos, Mnnlroiil, 18(i(), p. 13. 

^ The Andastoncz (Audaato,o, In 

tho Huron Holations, and Gandasto 
guo iu tho lator Irociuois Kolations, 
wlu'ri! tho Iroijuois dialoct is usod 
ti'lvint,' tho guttural as ;/) wore so 
onllod from niidasta, a roof-iiole. 
Honce Crouxiua, ou his map, calls 
tlioni Natio i'orticaruni. and places 
them on the Suscpiohanna. Thoy 
woro till' Suscjuohannas, known also 
as Mimiuas and Coucsto^ois. (Soo 
Historical .Mapi/.iuo, vol. ii., p. 304). 
('am|)aiiius has iircs.'rvcd a vocabu- 
lary in his Nya Sverigo (Stockholm, 
17031. p. ISO. 

■• Charlevoix, .Journal, p. ISO. 

■i The fullest discussion of these 
families is in Jlorgan, League of 
tho Iroipiois (Kochestor, lySl.) 

I • t 



mai'kiug hero, that tho uniformity on tliiis point wliicli 
provailoil tliroughout the whole nation, and those sprung 
from it, at tho time of tho discovery of Canada, is a proof 
that if the three families are not branches of the same stem, 
their union is at least of very high antiquity, and dates 
anterior to the separation of the Irocpiois and Hurons. 

The country occupied by tho Hurons at the beginning 
of tho last century, had Lake Erie on the south, Lake 
Huron on tho Avest, and Lake Ontario on the east. It is 
situated between the forty-second and forty-fifth degrees 
of north latitude.' Tliere was quitch a number of towns, 
and the whole nation comi)rised from forty to fifty thou- 
sand souls, although even then greatly diminished by its 
wars with the Iroquois. This country is nf)t, generally 
speaking, the most fertile in all New France, but there 
are districts extremely so ; and if it was suihciently peo- 
pled, as our best provinces are, it would easilj^, if well cul- 
tivated, support all the inhabitants. Moreover, the air 
there is very healthy. TVe long kept quite a number of 
Frenchmen there, who suffered much from hunger and 
other hardships incident to war, but not one died of dis- 
ease, and very few in fact were sick. 

There are extensive prairies there which would bear 
wheat and all other grahis that might be sowed ; the 
forests are full of very fine trees, especially cedars of pro- 
digious siz;(>, and higli in proportion. The country is well 
irrigated, and the water is very good. There are stones 
there, it is said, that melt like metal, and have some veins 
of silver ; but I do not know how much credit is to be 
given to what we read in some llelatious about two sin- 


Kxtcnt nnd 

nutiirc of 

tliu Iliirou 


' This iH too pTPiit nn extent fur tlio 
IIuiDii country, Sajjiinl ((iriind V%)y- 
age, p. U;i) ami Krcssani iBrcvc Ko- 
latione, p. o) put it 44J" N. In tho 
Ruliition of 1(131) (p. 50) Fatlior Je- 
rome Lalemaut puts it at 45^°, and 
says tliul tlieir country was twenty 
or twenty-five leiigues long by seven 

or eii^ht wide. Brebeuf (Relation, 
111;!'), p. ;(:!) says : " It is not larj^o ; 
itH longeKt extent may l)e traversed 
in three or four days. " Du Creux, 
in his niiip, locates it exactly. Fa- 
ther Martin and Mr. Taehe have ex- 
ph)red it iii'curately, and identified 
most of the villagi" sites. 




pldin's rea- 
sons fur 
Iiluntiiig a 

amon^ tiio 


And tho 


riea to nuiko 

it tlio centre 

ol'tlicir niis- 


giilar aijmals pocxiliar to tliis country and not fonnil clao- 
Avlioro. Ouo is a bird tliat mews liko a cat ; tlio other a 
kind of liaro that siiij^'S hko a bird, and lias a very delicato 

Cliamplain had for several reasons wished missionaries 
to accompany tlio Hurons to tlieir towns. Ho believtsd 
those Indians better frtted than tho rest to accredit 
Christianity. By missions ho wished to prepare the way 
for a settlement, which ho projected in their country, 
situated very advantageously for trade, and from which it 
would be very easy, by means of the lakes, that almost 
encircle it, to continue exploration to the extremity of 
North America. It was, finally, easy to bind closely to 
the French a nation from whom wo had apparently much 
to fear and to hojie in the consolidation and progress of 
the French colony. No project could bo more wise. The 
misfortune of Now France was, that its founder was taken 
away at tho very time when it most needed his experi- 
ence, and that his successors either did not enter into his 
views, or were not in a position to carry them out, nor 
consequently enable the Huron nation to regain, while it 
was yet time, that superiority in arms which the Iroquois 
had already begun to acquire over them. 

Tho missionaries, on their side, were persuaded that by 
fixing the centre of their mission in a country which was 
at tho same time tho centre of Canada, it woidd bo easy 
for them to bear the light of the gospel to all parts of this 
vast continent ; and nothing Avould have prevented the 
execution of this project, if Champlain's plan had 
always been followed. Several nations had already 
begim to trade with us, tho Montagnez below Quebec, 
the Algonquins above, in the neighborhood, and in an 
island formed by the great Ottawa river above Montreal ; 
and the rest, under tho nauio of Nipissings or Nipis- 

' 15ri>8aiii, ]>■ 7; Ri'lation (10:U), va.r), or more {in>balily the prairie 
p. 30. Till' catbird {innhm fdirox) squirrrl {fjhriK >(ihiliin FranldiiiU). 
ami the wooi'.cliuck {;tiyti»i(!jn mo- Patent I{c;iort, lfs."i('>, Agric, p. !r'0. 



siriuious, aroutid a lal^o of the fiame name ; and finally, 
tlio Ottawas, who wore Hcattored at various points alnnj^' 
tho river, of which they claimiMl to bo al isolate masters, 
to such an extent that the}- had established a toll on all 
canoes ascendinj^ or descending. 

It only remained to gain the Iroquois, and tho point 
was of infinite^ importance. Success would have bt!en 
comparatively easy, if, at first, these Indians had seen ua 
strong (inough to impose the law upon them, or at least 
turn tho scale in favor of their antagonists, who were our 
allies. A thousand men maintain(>d in the Huron coun- 
try, M'itli three or four forts, would have been enough ; but 
the necessity was not perceived till it was too late.' Tho 
opportunity of bringing the Iroquois to terms, and per- 
ha})S binding them to lis forever, was all the l)etter then, 
as they had not yet had any intercourse with the Dutch 
settled near them," and our allies were well disposed to 
unite in a last efifort against them. 

The ]n"esent object was to introduce missionaries among 
the Hurons, and those appointed to begin this good work 
impatiently waited tho return of some Indians who had 
promised to come for them. They arrived at last, but so 
few in number and so badly equipped that it was very 
evident that they did not intend to keep their word. 
They did not omit, however, to betoken great good-will at 
first ; but, when asked to fulfil tho promise, they excusinl 
themselves on the ground of their being so fatigued with 
their voyage that they would scarcely have strength to 
carry back their canoes empty. 


Fatliors de 


nii'J DiinicI 

re;ioli their 


' Cliivrlevoix speaks of this as an 
easy matter ; but a simpler way 
tiian his largo force and forts in tho 
Huron country would liavc been for 
I'ranco to talco ix)88i'gsion of New 
Nothorland, as tlio English sulwc- 
quently (lid. The Trotiuois, tlien (!(,■- 
]'on'ii'nt on the French for traiio, 
wo.iki have to make terms. Canada, 

a long valley, presenting to a foe 
a weak flank, easily pierced, can 
never be strong. The potisessiou of 
New York was essential. 

'' The first treaty between tho 
Dutch and Mohawks, at Nomian's 
Kill, was in 161H (OTalliiglian, Now 
Netlierliind, i., p. 7H . The Mohawks 
obtained firearms as early as 1621. 



1634. Tt was in viiin tlml tlio Fiithors roniovcd tliis (lidiciiUy 
^^'v-^ by otlt'riii;^' to oinlmik with jio lugj^iino but simply tluir 
chiipi)! Hoivico, ami to Iitli) tliciii padillo ; for uotiiiiig puts 
raon allogiiig n fulso niotivo to couccal ill-will in worso 
luiraor, than a roasonablo proponition to which thoro is uo 
reply. Tho FTurons ut lust oviuood thoir unfrii'iidliiioss by 
a I'oruial stubboni icl'iisid. It was ouly by diut of i)ui'Hua- 
Bions uud piosouts, mudo with moro zoal than i)ruJonoe, 
that they woro induced to conHout to givo a place in their 
cauoos to Fathers do Brebeuf aud Daniel and theii' serv- 
ant. Father Davost, who was to accompany thorn, was 
forced to await another oppurtuuity.' 
Ffttiior Pn- i{o did uot Wait long : throo cauoos of Hurona having 
thorn. "tiiViv come to Three llivers a few days later, he was taken on 
on'theway. tbo temis oflered by himself and the other two Fathers, 
and these Indians took goijd care that they were strictly 
fulfilled. Two Freuchjueu embarked with Father Davost,' 
and at tho end of August reached their jouruey's end, 
where they found tho two lirst Jesuits, wlu< had arrived 
Aug. 5. three weeks before, but in a wretched plight. The surly 
humor of their conductors had been augmented by sick- 
ness, which broke out among them on the route, and it 
subjected them to many unpleasant moments. They were 
even more than once iu danger of being killed, or loft 
■without food or guide in totally deserted spots. 

Nor did tlie Hurons show any indulgence in exacting 
tho promise to paddle, — a very painful exercise, when kept 
up long by one unaccustomed to it. Finally, one of them 
lost part of his baggage, which was stolon.' Tho Hurons 
had already, in the minds of the French, a reputation as 
bold aud adroit thieves. They are not alone now ; aud oven 
among those in whom you find most disinterestedness and 

• Relation de la Nouvelle France (1034), p. 90 ; Kelation (1035), p. 25 ; 

(103-J), pp. 8^, 8U ; Brcbcuf, Uolation Creuxius, p. 158. 

(10;J5), p. 34 ; Cri'uxius, Ilistoria = Relation de la Nouvelle Franco 

Cauiidcnsis, p. 158. (10o5), pp. 25. 20 ; C'rouxius, HiBtoria 

'■' KoliiiiDii de In Nnuvt'llo Franco Canadunsis, iij). 100-2. 

!-• I 

rilSroUY OF new FUANCIi 

fidolity, you ninst iiluays oxoopt oatablos, — too tfiiiptiii}? an 
object for tho evor hungry Hiiviigo, nccustoinocl to viow as 
ootiiinoii property wluitovor is necoHsary for life.' 

Tlirse preliiainivries wero not, it would Hcrm, such as to 
uugur well for the Huccess of tho nusisioniiries' undertaking. 
These religious were, nevertheless, regarded quite favor- 
al)ly iu tho towns wliich they visited ; but this did not pre- 
vent them, iu the midst of a ca[)riei()us and ferocious 
people, without support or resource, and according to tho 
expression of Christ, like sheep amid wolves, from having 
much to sutler, and being in almost constant danger of 
their lives. Ihit to apostolic men these are but the assured 
pledges of an abundant harvest, and, full of confidence iu 
the promises of the Lord of tho vineyard, they thought 
only of putting their hands to tho work. Taking up 
their residence in a town called Ihouhatiri,' they began by 
erecting a little chapel, which tlusy dedicated to St. Jos(>ph, 
and ev(!n gave tl ' town the nami; of that holy patriarch. 

The fruit of their labors during tlu^ first year was not 
very great — they were confined to tho baptism of five or 
six adults ;' but they were consoled by the happiness which 
they had in assuring tho el inal salvation of a groat 
number of children, who expired almost immediately after 
receiving tho robo of justice. Tho dilliculty oxpm'iLUced 
by these missif)naries in converting the Hurons did not 
flow from their difiiculty in obtaining a hearing, or even 
an admission that tho Christian religion was based ou 
reason. In fact, a savago must not be regarded as con- 
vinced as soon as he socms to approve tho statements 
made him, because iu general they dis .^e nothing so much 
as disputes ; and sometimes, from mere complacency, some- 
times from some interested motive, more frequently from 
indolence and sloth, they give every mark of perfect con- 



Fir-t por- 

iiMKMi^ tlie 

Auguat 6. 

Obstaoles to 

Uio convor- 

bion of llie 


' Sngnrd, Histoiro du Canailn, p. 30; Crenxius, Hist. Cnnad., pp. 168, 

409; Hrcbciit', Hilation (lOUfl), p. Ki:). Carngoulia ot'Chaiiiiiluiu, Voy. 

120 ; Brcssani, liruvu lirhi,, p. la. lUlO. (Kd. Lavtnliric, p. ^8.) 

Mlioiiutiriu, Uoliitiiiii (10^5), p ' UeliiliDii (Kj:!.")), pii. oT, U8. 



1.0 ^^ I 




ui 122 






- 6" 




■> > 






WEBSTER, N.Y. 14980 

(716) 872-4503 










1635. viction in matters which thoy have not paid tho slightest 
attention to, or in fact luiderstood. 

Thoy liavo been seen to frequent our chnrclies for years 
with an assidnity, modesty, exterior n^veronce, and every 
mark of sincere desire to know and embrace tho tnith ; 
then draw o£f, saying coldly to tho missionary, flattered 
with tho hope of soon begetting them in Christ : " Thou 
hadst no one to pray with tht-e. I took pity on thy lone- 
liness, and wished to keep thee company : now that others 
are inclined to render thee tho saiae service, I retire." 
This instance I heard from a missionary to whom it had 
happened at Michilliniakinac, I have even read some- 
where that some carried dissimulation or complacency so 
far as to ask and receive baptism, and fulfil for a time, 
with edification, all the duties of Christianity ; then declare 
that they had done so only to jileaso the missionary, who 
had pressed ihem to change their religion. 

On the other hand, the refusal of these barbarians to sub- 
mit to the truths announced to them, is not always a proof 
that they are not convinced. Some have been met who 
had no doubt left as to the most incomprehensible articles 
of our faith, and who pubUcly avowed it, but would not 
listen to any suggestion of their conversion. Deplorable 
obduracy, but which should excite our surprise the less, 
from our daily seeing examples of it in the very bosom of 
Christendom. As an Ii-oquois lay on his death-bed, some 
fii-e fell on tho robe which covered him. As he saw them 
endeavoring to extinguish it, he said : " It is not worth 
while. I know that I shall burn for all eternity ; whether 
it begins a little sooner or a little later, is not worth all the 
trouble you are taking." Old missionaries have assured 
me that these cases of despair are not as rare as would 
naturally be supposed.' 

But it was not so soon that such testimonies in favor of 

'ThewcoscH are given, nppnrontly, voix does not seem to quote any 
from oral inrormation, oh C'harlu- authority. 



tho truth were oxtortod from tlio very lips of those who 1635. 
closod their eyes to tho light ; or that tho luissionivrios ^— ^r— ' 
saw it triuiniih over tho prejudices of birth and odiication 
among gross and superstitious tribes. Even for a long 
tinu* true and solid conversions were very rare. It was 
only in patience that the Saviour promised to tho preach- 
ing of the gospel an abundant harvest ; and tho mission- 
aries of Canada understood from tho outset tho necessity 
of this virtue, by their repeated experience of tho duplicity 
and otlier defects of tho tribes confided to their vigilance 
and z(^al. 
At first somo Hurons took a stand which perplexed tho Conduct of 

IT /. • 1) .1 the Ilurnna 

missionaries, "lou tell us very fine stories, said one of towurdg 
them to Father Brebeuf, " and there is nothing in what 
you say that may not be true ; but that is good for you 
who come across the seas. Do you not see that, as we in- 
habit a world so different from yours, there must be 
another heaven for us, and another road to reach itV" 
Firm in this position, and to all that the missionaries said 
to convince them of its extravagance opposing only argu- 
ments too absurd to be seriously refuted, they gave no 
hope of conversion but that which is the fruit of coufi- 
denco in Ood. It is in such circumstances that an apos- 
tolic laborer feels sensibly that it belongs only to Him, 
who has fashioned the heart of man, to touch and change 
it. This knowledge humbles him, and humiliation pre- 
pares him to become a fit instrument to execute the 
miracles of the grace of Jesus Christ. 

To the obstacles inherent in the disposition of these Efforts of 
people, and those formed by their passions, must be added cine nun to 
external ones ; and the most dilficiUt of these to overcome projticsB of 
were those raised by the medicine men.' These charlatans, 
fearing to lose the estimation acquired by the exorcise of 
their art if the missionaries gained credit in tho country, 

' Rt^lation do !a Nouvelle Franco nepin.I^'RMmuHdesSauvng.ip. 101. 
(mirt), y. iU. StHi 1«;J7, p. 137 ; n.-n- » Brossani, Hrcve H.lutionc, p. fla. 




Other dlffl- 

undertook to render them odious and contemptible ; and at 
first tliey succeeded without much exertion, not only bo- 
cause they had to deal with an extremely superstitious 
and suspicious nation, but also because many had already 
got it into their heads that the religion of the French did 
not suit them, and would oven bo fatal to them, if it was 
established in their midst.' 

The medicine-men, therefore, easily succeeded in throw- 
ing suspicion over all the actions of the Fathers, and 
especially their prayers, which they represented as witch- 
craft ; so thiit those religious were obliged to hide, in order 
to say their breviary and perform their other devotions. 
Indepeiiilc'iit of tliis unfortunate prejudice, it required them 
to effect iiu iiluiDst coiiiplcto reform in the ideas of a people 
jealous of its reputiition for being better thinkers than 
others ; to impose severe laws and strict obligations on 
men whose ideal of glory and happiness was to be ham- 
pered in nothing. If wo call to mind all the obstacles that 
heart-rooted libertinage, so hard to conquer when it has 
known no check, raised to the holy maxims of Christianity 
in the savages, who knew no rules but those of a perverted 
reason, and a uatm-e accustomed to obey every inclination, 
— then we can understand the position of the three stran- 
gers, to whom men such as I have depicted, already 
began to ascribe all their misfortunes.' 

It is tnio that the Hurons were then in a very sad 
position ; for this nation, so flourishing of old, and which 
had, time out of mind, been regarded as the mistress of 
the others, now not only scarcely ventured to take the 
field against the Iroquois, but was also a prey to diseases, 
which finally depopulated their land. With well-consti- 
tuted minds, capable of rising above prejudice, nothing 
would have been more easy than to profit by these ac- 

' Hi'lation de la N. F.. 1705, p. 35. ond part to the difficulties which 

'' liclation de la Noavclle France bceot the miHSionarles (pp. 20-71). 

(1630), p. 83. Father Brcseani, in Comj»ro lo Clercq, i., p. 27!) ; Honno- 

biB Breve Relatione, devoton his sue- pin, Leg Mucotb dee Bauvoges, p. 100. 


cumulated misfortuiics to turn them to the Author of all 
good ; but tht' Hurous, persuaded that the presence of the 
missionaries was the crowniiif^ evil, replied to every argu- 
ment brought forw ard to convince them of the superiority 
of the God of the Christians over the spirits whom they 
adored : " Every nation has its gods : our misfortune ia 
to have gods weaker than yours, and unable to prevent 
our destruction.'" 

To heal their imagination on this point, during a drought 
which threatened the country with a general famine, 
Father de Brebeuf invoked the Almighty, and his prayer 
was followed by abundant rain. Ho did the same on an- 
other occasion, and with similar success.' These wondera 
for some time arrested the murmurs. The gi'eat number 
of dying children, who were seen to be baptized and die 
immediately, had also led these poor blinded people to 
consider baptism as a spell cast by the Fathers on the 
children to kill them; but it happened that some sick 
people, whoso cure was beyond all hope, recovered perfect 
health as soon as they received the sacrament of regen- 
eration, and these unexpected cures recalled the better dis- 
l)osed, but only for a short time : the impression made on 
their minds by these marvellous events was soon effaced, 
and the work was always to be begun anew. 

Sometimes the profound ignorance of these savages, 
which made them so freqiusntly attribute to supernatural 
causes many things in which thei*e was nothing to exceed 
the powers of nature, led thera to the opposite extreme ; as 
happens to those who, for fear of being over-credulous, 
rush into an incredulity that reason itself disavows. But 
these changes in minds arraying themselves irrationally, 
and with no certain nilo, against religion, were not fre- 
quent among a people who care little for what does not 
strike the senses ; and the troubles and disgust of the 




and ttioir 


' KclRtion do la Nonvelle France ' Brefisani, Breve Rcl., p. 63 ; Rel. 
(ICaO), p. 81). de la NouvcUe France (16a0), p. 83. 

Vol. II. 



Counie of 
tliu tiiist- 

\That hap- 
pened ill tt council 
council. ^"""'-" 

apostolical luborers iiroso alinoBt nUvfiys from thc^r exces- 
sive crcilnlity. 

Every thing that the Indians saw in the liamls of the 
misHionaricH, but of whicli they tlid not know the use, was, 
accorcUng to tlieni, a charm inten'I'd to draw down on 
thoui death or niisfortuuo. The jiiissionarieH had to keep 
locked up the most trifling artichis belonging to tho 
chapel, and they were even obliged to put out of sight a 
clock and a weathor-cock, tho former of which tho Indians 
said brought death, and the other always bad weather ;' — a 
deplorable excess, doubtless, but less criminal before God 
than tho blindness which draws so many pseudo-savants 
into iiTcligiou, if wo consider tho ignorance which urged 
on those barbarians, devoid of all the natural knowledge 
by moans of which they might have risen, with tho graco 
of Christ, to know tho Author of nature. 

The firmness and magnanimity of which tho throe re- 
ligious gave striking proofs amid the perils that surrounded 
them, the sound arguments they employed to reach tho 
capacity of their hearers, their natural and palpable ex- 
planations of every thing wliich they saw excite tho least 
suspicion, and tho unwavering patience with which they 
endured the most shameful treatment, in time dissipated 
the unfavorable impressions against them, and tht^y not 
only succeeded in calming the first fury of a people whom 
tho satellites of Satan never ceased to ii'ritate and envenom 
against them, but even acquired a great ascendency over 
their minds. This, however, came only by degrees, and 
after many years of suflTering. 

Father do Brebeuf v/as one day called before a general 
His reception there convinced him that his death 
was decided. He was first reproached with all the evils 
endured by the nation since his arrival in tho country ; and 
they attempted to prove that these evils could have no 

' BrcB8Rn5, Brovo Relatione, p. 64 ; 
Kc'lntion do 1ft NmivcUo Franco 
(l(i;!H), i>. ;n ; Kflution (1040). i>. 55 ; 

CreuxiuB, Historia CnnndonHiB, pp. 
172, etc. ; Mnric do rincarmition, 
Lcttrt« nmtori()iU'8, p. y. 



other cnnso tJiaii liis witclicriift nml that of his coinpniiiona. 1635. 
The sorviviit of God, wi hont betraying any alarm at the *-"~v— -^ 
(lunger in wliiili hv Htootl, lu-st exphiini'd tlie general prin- 
ciples of Chriytiiin iloctrines. He then proved that the 
seourgos, which had for some time visited them, miglit well 
bo Btrokes of the justice of the Qnd whom he preached ; 
that this (}od, who was sanctity itself, therel>y punished 
the disorders prevalent among them, and, jealous of his 
glory, chastised their obstinate refusal to ackuowledge 
Him as their Creator and Sovereign Lord. 

Some wished to reply, but he silenced them by shomng 
the absurdity of their principles. He then resumed his 
discourae, and said that before Jesus Christ had been 
announced to them there might bo some excuse for their 
infidelity ; but as they could no longer pretend ignorance, 
they would bo inexcusable if they persisted in their obsti- 
nacy ; that till then, God, good as ho was just, had chas- 
tened them as a father ; that perhaps he would weary, and 
take a rod of iron which would crush tlu m. Then many 
begged him to instruct them. He did so, and spoke at 
length. They seemed to listen with pleasure, although no 
one expressed conviction. As he left the cabin, he was 
Bur])rised to see one of those who on all occasions had most 
openly declared against the Christian religion, fall toma- 
hawki'd at his feet. Thinking the blow was intended for 
liim, he stopped, and asked wliether they had not mistaken. 
" No," replied the one who dealt the blow, " this wretch was 
a sorcerer, of whom it was deemed time to free the village.'" 

Some time after, these vexations broke out more furi- Now perse- 
ously than ever ; and this new persecution was caused by peased'irt' 
some Indians who, retuniiug from the neighborhood of '• 

Manhattan, declared that the Europeans' settled in those 


1 Relation de la Nouvelle Franco 1640; Brpbenf, Letter, May 20, 1637 ; 

(10;i8>, p. 37 ; liri'Hsani, Hrevo Hcln- Creuxius, liigtoria ('anailonsis, p. 

tione, pp. 05, (ICi ; OarnitT, Lettrcs 220, etc. 

Ini'dits (10;fS) ; Marie de I'liirama- ' The Putoh.— CTarfciotJ. Man- 

tiiiu, LettroB (1038), September 18, liattt; is ulniOHt always employed by 



i6^^. parts Imd wamofl tliriu to lu'wivrc of tlio Froiirli roli^'iouH, 
-^ » "- ' who wt«ro jHTiiiciouH iiini, Hpri'iulinj? troulilo iiiitl dt'solii- 
tioii ovorywiioro, and for that nuiMon not toU'ratrd in 
HoUand. I3iit tho storm did not hist. Tla* wisoHt of tlio 
Hnrons, who Lad begun to open their eyes, showed that, 
in so inijif)rtant a matter, they should judj^o hy what they 
saw ; that pru(h>ncc required tlieni to examine the charac- 
ter and conduct of men to wliom so much evil was im- 
puted, and in whojn, as yet, nothing was seen which ro- 
8eml)h;d the odious deHerii)tion given by strangers, who 
were probably their enemies.' 
The wnra -But wliat more than all tdso gave room to boliovo that 
gmntoiruc- tlio day of uierey was abont to dawn for the Huron nation, 
tho lliiroin. was tliat tlio afllictions, which had been hitherto a stum- 
bling-block in the way of religion, began to prepare them 
for impressions of giuiee. If nothing ])roves its divinity 
better than this j)ower to elicit acknowhulgment of it in 
adversity, those who preach tlie faith to tho heathen havo 
no more sensible mark that CJod has taken possession of 
their hearts, than when \w draws them to liim by tlu! way 
of tribulation. Tho presentiments of tho missionaries 
were just, and their hopes well grounded. Many of the 
most esteemed chiefs in tho nation declared in favor of tho 
Christian religion, and solicited baptism with much ear- 
nestness. But great as were tho advantages to be hoped 
for from sucli conquests, the Fathers doomed it unwise to 
yield so easily to the desires of these new proselytes. The 

Frnnch writew of tho Boventconth 
and eiphtct'tith ccnlurioH to minify 
New York. Brcsmini (in his Hrcve 
Relation, ]i. '.'>') Ma)'H timt Indians 
from tlie country of the Oucnroun)- 
nons, who liail traded with the Kng- 
lish, Dutcli, and otlior Protcstant«, 
BO Btiited. .\h to llicse Wcnron, Mje 
C'haniplnin (i.'d. W.i'i, \>. 120), where 
he B|>eakM of the Oucntouoronnns, 
friondH of tho Iro(|ur)iB : CreuxiuB, 
Hist. Cunad., j). 2;tH ; Kel. {HWI)), p. 

89. Thoy may be tho Antoaohono- 
ron, attacked byChamplain in 101.5. 
Some have Hiip|x>Bed that thoy pivo 
namu to l>ake Ontario, but tliix iwaa 
error. Ontara. in Huron and lro(|uoi8 
(Satiard, Oict. ; Hennepin, Nouv. Dec, 
p. ;il ; Hruyas, liueiueB, etc.), means 
a lake; Ontariio, Ix'autiful lako. 

' Relation de la Nouvi'lle France 
(l(i;i8), p. ;ifl; HreBsani, Bri've Ifela- 
tione, ]). 67 : ("reuxius, Ilistoria I'a- 
nadenBiK. p 22U. 



more cnpiihlo tlicy woro of contributing hy tlu'ir influonfo to iii$-6. 
tlio coiivtfrsion of otlurs, the laon* n<'cimKiirv it was dufiued ~'"~y-~-' 
to try tlicni, lunl Ix? iisHurcd of tlioir coiiKtiUicy.' 

Tlicy iiislnicttd tlnni tliorouj^'lily, ho as to onablo tliom wiiv ihe 
to Hivo a r.'asoM for tlii'ir faith, and nu'ct dirticultifs tlnit 23'/"i''.?/» 
nii;^lit 1)0 raisrd ; for it must not bo suppost-d that tlio mis- *„'j!j,* 
sionarics had only to contend with brutalilv and absurd 
pnjudii'os in tho Indians. Hvon if thoso ju'oplo had not 
all tho solidify of mind and (^'ood houbo attributed to thorn 
by thoHO who havo had most intorcourso with tlii'm, tho 
oxju'rioiico of all timos and rountrios shows tliat, as the 
woakost mou fiiid stronj^tli, in a i)rossing uood, to dofond 
thomsolvos against an unjust aggressor, so tho h'ast pouo- 
trating mimlH novor lack spooicms reasons for declining to 
yiild when pressed to roct'ivo a doctrine against which all 
their passions revolt. Hence, I have heard old mission- 
aries assort frecpiontly that Indians had madt' to tlii'iu all 
tho objections raised by tho most loarnod Gn^cks and 
Romans against the first apologists of Christianity.* 

Three things especially tended to free tho Hurons from wimtrcn- 

(llTH tIliB 

their ])n'juilices, and arm them against tho seduction which pc„p"emoro 

had s(j long kept them in error. In the first place, they 
made solid rotloctions on tin* sanctity of the icligiou 
j)r(^achod to them, and on tho purity of its moral code. 
The missionaries woro extremely surprised to hi-ar them 
express thou, selves on these two points, as men who liad 
overlooked ni-"v> of tlie maxims and principles of Chris- 
tianity, but saw •Nearly the connection between thoso prin- 
ciples and the consequencos which their instructors de- 
duced from them. In the second place, they soon con- 
ceived a high idea of these religious, and never wearied in 
admirmg their ability, prudence, and tlio justness and 
force of their arguments. The great examples of virtue 
which they saw them practise, mado still gi'oater impios- 


' Bressani, Breve Relatione, p. ' Creaxius, HiBtoria Canadensiti, 
00. p. 230. 



1635 6. Hion on them. Thvy wrre cHjuTiiill}- Htruck witl> (lu'ir 
^'"'Y— founi^'c Hiid (liMint('ie«t(HliM'HH, and with their (.'(Hitciiiiiit 
of life. It (hit not HiuMii roiiHoiiiildo to lu'lievo thiit Kui-h mm 
wt'i't* iniHtiikt'ii in tho afl'iiir of religion. In tho third 
pluco, they iiK>'ee(l that one inuHt havo h)Ht all Henne to 
iina^'ine that men who had no interest in leadin;^ them into 
error would, merely to do it, havo undertaken Hiiuh hwig 
voyageH, rim HUeh rinkM, exposed thouisolvoH to no luuch 
hardHhip, exiled theniHelvcH ho far from frionds and kin- 
dred to Hpend their days with unknown triheH, and remain 
there in spite of the cold welcom«i they had received and 
tho nuinner in which they coutinutd to bo treated. These 
reflections, made at first only by n few iudiviihinls, less 
rooted in ))r»'ju(lice, soon spread to the masses, and sud- 
denly cluin},'ed the fact) of afl'airs ; but the njissionaries 
had yet another n-ason for actinj^ cautiously with this 
people, and not receiving into tho number of neophytes all 
who })resonted themselves. 
Tliev curry This was the reluctance whicli most evinced to renounce 
MutW'Mioo practices, inditlerent in tiiemselvos, but suspected by tho 
^' missionaries as not exempt from superstition. These In- 
dians in vain protested that they did not acknowledge any 
thing supernatural in them. All appeared susjucious in a 
dissembling nation, borne by an almost irresistibh' bent to 
attribute every thing to spirits. After all, laudable as 
mistrust and strictness are in this matter, they shoidd not 
bo excessive. Missionaries aftenvards admitted that they 
had carried their precautions somewhat too far, and had 
thus retarded the work of God. 
Character of What was done in the Huron country to establish the 
°'tioN8.' fnith, or at least prepare the Indians for it, was done also 
at Three Rivers, which began to bo the rendezvous of the 
northern nations, in the neighborhood of Quebec, and at 
Tadoussac, to draw into the bosom of tho Church the Al- 
gonquius, the Montagnez, and in general all with w!ioia 
the French had any intercourse. Tho difficulties were 
everywhere about equally great at first, but differed 



lu'cordiii;^ to tho vcriouH dispositionH of tho triltcH wlioni if>i?-6. 
tlu'V undertook to inHtriK^t. Much Hupcrstitinii in all: -^»'~-' 
horo moro nulciioss, l)iit uiom simplicity ; iiiori) cxtrav- Airfon<|iiin 
af^'uiicoH to contciiu witii, but moro oumo in Hiipi'rcasiii^ 
tlicin ; liardor iiiindH, imt IwiartH inoro docilo ; more liard- 
hliips and laborH, (ispcoially when foiccd to follnw tlic In- 
dians in tlitiir wiutur hunts,' l»ut less risks to run. 'I'licro 
was, too, h'HH to combat in order t<» persuade Hiese lattor ! 
but nioro resourco was found in tho retlcction and [tenotrii- 
tion of tho former. j^Iomovor, the nomadic life of the Al- 
gon(iuin tribes pn^vontod any calc\ilatio!i on indiviihialH, 
and an absence of Homcf months often ruined the labors of 
Bcveral years. 

Grace operated, moreover, very ditTerontly iu tho two VrogrciMi of 
nations. It found in the Hurons more reltellious hearts, but 
more constancy in i^ood, when once en 'raced. They pavo 
more liojui of contiiniod progress, but it was slower. Tho 
Algompiins ofl'ered to gi-aco a heart more easily moulded, 
and jH'osentcd obstacles more easily rcmo\«>d ; but it f(mnd 
h'ss solidity and h^ss disposition for great virtues. Grace 
triumj)hed over both, and corrected their defects ; but it 
cost the sweat and the blood of many of those whom she 
e'n])loyed to work out the wonderful change.' 

Meanwhile, New Franco was settled from day to day, Foi-.mlBtion 
and piety increased with tho number of its inhabitants. i°.j,o oKiue- 
Nothing perhaps contributed more to this happy i)rogre.s8 *""'' 
than an establishment commenced in the year 1(J!}5. Ten 
years before — that is to say, at the time when the Jesuits 
first went to Canada — Ren6 llohault, ehlost son of tho 
Marquis do Gamacho, having obtained tho consent of his 
family to enter the Society of Jesus, Lis parents, who 
loved him tenderly, and learned from his own lips that he 
ardently desired to see a collogo founded at Quebec, 



* T^ Jcnne, in Relation de la Xou- * See the Relations in general, 
velle Francu, 1(134, p. 61 ; Bn'seani, 1633 to 1(139 ; Unxsani, Kruvu Hulat. ; 
Brcvo Kflatione, p. 65. Lo Ciercq, K«lat. de la (lui*iN)Hio, etc. 




1635-6. wislit'il ti) fj;ra*'fy iiiH wiMli(>Hnn tliiH point iiIho. T1ii\v wi.>t»> 

*"""~t'~~^ to I'litlitT Matins VittHi'Hchi, ^'cnrial of tlu' .IcMiits, iiml 

oII'itimI liini Hi\ tlioiiHiuitl pitil crownH for tliis foundation. 

Tlir donation was tliankfiilly ifccivod, hut tli«) oapturu of 

Qm-hou by the Englinh HUH|)*uidt'd tlu) oxocution of tho 


Firtt i^irot It waH nt'coHHary thfu to wait hoiuo tinio till tho capital 

"'a»UoM. " '""^ taken foruj and tlm coloniHtn w<'ro in a n)n<lition to 

profit l)y tliiH cstalilislinicnt. Tho atVair was fiiiuUy coiu- 

incniTd in tin* niontli of Dtccnihcr, l(iUi> ; hut tho joy it 

Do«tli of gavi- was soon tidul)lcd hy the loss of its f^ovcnior, which 

'*'"''""' tlic Ficncli colony sustaint'd a few days after, llr died at 

Quehec this sanui year, j^enerally and justly re<,nettetl.' 

' lit'lutlon (In la Nduvi-llt' Kriinci', 
KMI, |>. ."1(1. M.-lutinii, ii>:iil. p. 4 
CrnixiiiM (HiHtoritt ('niimliiiHlM, ji. 7) 
jfiVfM llio liltcrH cif l''iillii'r MiiiliiH 
VUclii'M'lil.i'HdililiHlilii^ Nirliiiliih lti>- 
liaut, Miir(|iiiH cli' I laiiiarlic, Haniii iif 
l^in^roy iiiiil Hiiiclii'x illi', Sri^iiciir 
nt' lli'nui'liiiiM|>, Marciill, iiiiil l)<<n- 
iilncdiir, rlc , mill Iiih wII":'. KruiiccH 
Muiij^ol, lomiilcrs of tlu* colli^'ev 
CrciixiiiH pvi'N tho iiiiKiiint uh h'i\- 
tot'n tliiiiifaiKl pil<l criiwim. TIiih im 
HiiplMii'U'll liy iJK li<'liiiiint (Ilintoiri' 
(III C'aiiadii, (jiiflx'C, !s|0, p. 1 1, ami 
by a iiuiiniHciipt lint nt iK'ni't'iu'torH 
of tin; CaMiida iiiihHioii, in tin- haiul- 
wrilinj,' of I'atluT KuKiii-tii'au, " Mar. 
I't, Ili'Jit, .Miiri|nis do (iaiiiaclH', 

4S,(XH) Ii\ TI'H." 

' Cliainplain dii'd DircnilHT 'i't, 
H'l'M, aficr uii IIIiuhs iif two inontliH 
and a half lUclaiinn dc la Nouvclh! 
France, Ui;t(t, p. 5(1; CrouxiiiB, lll»- 
torla CuiiadenHis, p. l^jll). llu wiui 
born at Hrouap'. in Xaintongc, in 
15(17 or 1570, of a rcHpcctablc family, 
his father iMjinf; Htylcd noble. Dur- 
ing the <'ivil wars he fought for tho 
king in Brittany, under d'.Auniont 
de 8t. I,ur and HriHHac (Faillon, llin- 
toiro de la Colonie l•"ranl;ai»t^ vol. 1, 
note xxi., ]>. 550). ll'is unclu huld a 

high rank in the HpanlHhnavy ; and 
('haiiiplaiii hadjiiNt ri'tiiriied fniiii a 
voyage to Mexini in the Spanish 
wrvice when he waN imlin'ed lo Hiiil 
to New Krimci'. witli »hleli hin alter- 
etireer wax idiiitilii'd, and in wlilcli 
he uiiH laid, attir many yearn of 
adveiiliire iiikI Htriiggle. lie mar- 
ried Helen lloiille, HiHter of a fellow- 
navigator, who. though at tlm 
lime a I'rotc'htant, ri'liirneil to 
the ancient talth, anil, on her Iiiih- 
biind'n diath. biraine an riNulinu 
nun, under the iiuiiie of Muther 
Helen de St. AugUBtini'. Hhe died 
at .Meaux, l)ec<'mlMT 'iO, 1(154, at tho 
age of lil'iyHix, in a convent which 
hhe liiid founded (('ronii|ue du 
I'Ordre diH I'rHulinis ; l.ex Urnii- 
lineH de yuelnc. p. ;t.")!j). 'I'liey lett 
no icMue, the only heir appearing to 
rluiin any right in IiIh eHlate being 
a couNin. Champlain wrot<> a jour- 
nal of IiIh voyage to Mexico, of 
which a tolerable translation hag 
Ix^en pub'iishwl by the Ilakluyt So- 
ciety ; Di'H SauvagcM, KiOiJ ; Voy- 
agi'H, l(ii;i ; Voyages, lOli) ; Voy- 
ages, Kiii'i. A copy of his {Mirtrait 
by Moncornet is here given. For 
the discovery of his tomb, Bee note 
at end of this voluinu. 


Mr. ilo Cliikiiiplaiii miih, Itcyoml c-oiitriwliction, ii iiikm of 
iiu'rit, mill Kiav well lit' ciillcil tiik r.\Tiii;it nv Nkw Fhanck. 
lit' Imd f^odd sfiiHc, iniicli iiciiitijitinii, very U|iri;^lil vicWH, ( 
and IK) iiii\ii wiiH <>r*'t° inorr skilltd in iidnptiii^ ii ('(iiirso in 
tiui nioHt coriplictitcd ulViiirH. Wliiit nil iidniirrd nnmt in 
hini WHS Ids constant'}' in following ii]) Ids ndcrprisrs ; hirt 
firnincMs in tlic nicalcst fliinj/crs ; a couni^'c proof a^^'ainst 
tlit> most iinfoi't'st'iii irvcrst'H and disappointinrtds ; ardent 
nnd diHintonmtc'd patriotism ; a heart tender and (Mnipas- 
Hionatc for tlio uidiappy, and more att«'ntive to tlic inter- 
ests of Ids friends tlian his own ; a hi^di sense of honor, 
and {^reat probity. His memoirs show that he was not 
ij,'norant of any thinp; that one of his profession should 
know ; and we thid in him n faithful and sincere historian, 
nn attentively observant trav«ller, a jutlicious writer, u 
good nnithematician, and an abii^ mariner. 

IJut what crowns all these f,'ood (pndities is tlie fact, 
that in his life, an well an in his writings, he shows himself 
always u tndy Christian man, /eahms for the service ' 
Ciod, full of candor and reli|,'ion. He was accustomed to 
Hay, what we read in his memoirs, " that the salvation of 
ft sinj^'le soul was worth more than the contpiest of an 
ouipiro, and that kings should seek to extend their (hmuiin 
in heathen cimntries only to subject them to Christ." Ho 
t]i\>s spoke, especially to silence those who, unduly jtreju- 
diced against Canada, asked what France would gain by 
Hcttling it. Our kings, it is known, always s]ioke like 
Cham])]ain on this ])oint ; and the conversion of the 
Indians was the chief motivt* wliicii, more than once, pre- 
vented their abandoning a colony the progress of which 
was 8o long retarded by our imjjatience, our inconstancy, 
and the blind cujiidit}' of a few individuals. To give it a 
more solid foundation, it only retjuiri ^ more respect for 
the suggestions of Mr. de CIniniplain, and more sea; md- 
ablo relief on the part of those who i)laced him in his 
position. The jilan which ho i)roposed wus but too well 
justified by the failure of opposite muxims and conduct. 





1635-6. Lescarbot reproaches him with credulity. It is the fault 
^-""r-^'-^ of upright minds, and we cannot, in fact, overlook what he 
chami>lain. says of the Gourou,' and the monstrous face of the Ar- 
mouchiquois Indians.' He had been deceived by one Pre- 
vert, of St. Mulo, who often delighted in inventing such 
stories, which ho related with great assurance ; as when he 
one day protested, in presence of Mr. de Poutrincourt, that 
he had seen an Indian playing ball with the devil. He was 
asked what shape this devil assumed, and he replied that 
he had seen only the bat, which seemed to be moved by 
.an invisible hand. Champlain could not understand how 
a man who had no interest in lyiii^' could do so in sport, 
and actually believed Prevert's story. As it is impossible 
to be faultless, it is well to have only those faults that 
would be virtues were all men what they sliould be.' 

To return to t'le college of Quebec, the Jesuits pro- 
ceeded without delay to fulfil the obligations which they 
had just contracted by accepting this foundation. They 
felt all its importance, am'', in fact, uotiiiug could have been 
more seasonable for the progress of the colony. Many 
Frenchmen, certain of being able to give thoir sons an 
education not attainable then in many towns in Franco, 
settled in New France ;* and the Indians, who were duly im- 
pressed with an idea of the advantage they might derive 
from such an cEtabhshment, c^ime hojn all parts in num- 
bers to the neighborhood of Quebec. 

As they were invariably well treated at the college by free 
bestowal of food for the body, they were rendered docile 
to receive that of the soul, and some cheerfully intrusted 
their sons to persons who undertook to bring them up.' 
By this means they were more and more civilized ; and as 

Colloge of 

' Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nou- ' Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nou- 

vell(^ France {ed. 1(113), pp. 397, 402. velle Franco, ed. 1613, p. 403. 

Champlain, DeH Saiivajjes, 1003, ch. * As to the origin of the settlers of 

xii. xiii. Ooiigou, jroiirou, means this epoch, see Ferland, Notes siir 

reniorae of conBcicuci'. les Hegistres, p. 40. 

» Clinniplaiii, Voy. (ed. 1«13\ p. 3. * Helatiim do la N. F., 1630, p. 44. 




they acquired affection for the French r 'don, they were 1635-6. 

found hotter disposed to become good Christians. There ^-'^ ' 

can be no doubt that, liad it been possible to keep con- 
stantly a number of Indian boys in tliis house, the pro- 
gress of Christianity would have been mare prompt and 
durable among these people ; but the funds were not suffi- 
cient to HUKtaiu this good work, and, besides, other and in- 
superable difficulties arose subsequently, of which I shall 
speak hereafter. 

The good example of those whose position renders it Mr. da 
always efficacious when accompanied by wisdom and ("ovemor'df 
power, also contributed to form true Christians in this 
new colony. Mr. de Montmagny, who succeeded Mr. de 
Champlain in the government of Canada,' and Mr. de 
Lisle, who coiamanded at Three Rivers, both knights of 
Malta, openly professed the l)iety which became their call- 
ing, and showed a zeal for order to which their firmness 
and exactitude insiu'ed success.' The divine service was 
celebrated with all the pomp that the poverty of the set- 
tlers permitted ; but piety and modesty are the true orna- 
ments of tlin temple of a God who is jealous only of being 
adored in spirit and in truth, and these virtues reigned 
with lustr(! among the new settlors. 

One of the first cares of the Chovalier do Montmagny, p,„jggt ^^^ 
after investigating the condition of his government, was 
to regulate the seminary for Indian boys in the Jesuit 
college.' This had been projected the year before, and 
it was deemed best to begin with the Hurous, among 
whom several famihes had just embraced Christianity. It 

for liidiuu 

' The government, till the arrival 
of Montmagny, was administered by- 
Mark Anthony nras-de-'.';r (de)('ha- 
tenufort, governor of Tlire;; Hivers : 
Viger, Liste ; Ueliilion, l(i3(i, p. 2; 
Creuxius, Historia Canadensis, p. 
184 ; Ferland, Cours d'llistoire, i., 
p. 27!». The Chevalier de Mont- 

magny was appointed March 10, X&37, r,. 63. 

16;i7, and reached Queliec .June 10- 
11; I'erland, p. 27!); Fi.'.iio'i, His- 
toire de la Colonic Frani.aif'.', p. 'iS^ ; 
I'reiixiiis, Historia Cai'adensi.s, p. 

" Relation do la Nouvelle Franco, 
103(>, p. 44 ; 1040. p. 41 ; 1037. p. 3. 

^ Relation ''.<; hi Nouvelle Franco, 



1 1 

I I 



I h 


ii.L.>Pr>.w r>i:. xtpw; if ff ^ i^Jfi:' 

1635-6. wna oosr/IJiored, too, that they would bo so r^-my hostages 
""Y^'^' for the fidelity of their parents. Tho Huron Christians 
were, accordingly, invited to send their children to Quebec, 
to be uistnicted in tho i)rinciple8 of I'^ligion and trained 
in good habits. They made no objection at first, and 
promised compliance ; but when tho time for fulfilment 
came. Father Daniel, who undertook to bring them, of all 
tho boys on whom they had reckoned, was able to embark 
only three or four, whose parents were absent ; and even 
these few he got no further than Three Rivers, where 
their parents meeting him, reclaimed them, altliough 
they had consented to their journey. This conduct did 
not smpi-ise the missionaries, ah-eady aware of the extreme 
attachment of these savages to their children, and their 
invincible repugnance to parting with thorn.' 
A nnmbcr Father Daniel was too near Quel)ec not to visit it before 
wie3^ttmoi?g returning to his mission. A letter of Father le Jeuno rep- 
tho Hurons. i-gyoi^ts him as arrivuig in a canoe, paddle in hand, accom- 
panied by three or four Indians, barefooted, completely 
exhausted, his breviary hanging; to his neck, a shirt falling 
to pieces, and a tattered cassock on his attenuated body, 
but with a happy countenance, charmed with the Hie he 
led, and, by his air and words, inspiring all with the desire 
of sharing the crosses to which tho Lord imparted so much 
unction.' Many went, indeed, and before the end of 1636 
they numbered six priests scattered m the difi'orent Huron 
towns, to which several Frenchmen had followed them.* 

It was a favorable moment to plant a good settlement 
in that coiintry ; the interest of both Indians and French 
required it. Mr. de Champlain had had nothing more at 
heart, and the ChevaUer de Montmagny, in this as in all 
other respects, entered into his predecessor's views, but he 

The colony 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 'They were six in May, 1(537 

1637, p. 55 ; Creuxius, HiBtoria (lAittor of bather vie Bn^l)eiif, May 

Canadensis, p. 208. 20, IflliT) ; Carnyon, I^x-uments In- 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, edits, xii., p. 101; but only three 

1630, p. 71. early in 1037 (lit., p. 105). 



Ir-iCil both men nnti moans. Except the fur- trade, which, 
thongli tolerably flourishing, enriched only the traders 
and a few of the sottlerH, every thing languished for want 
of aid : so that the annals of New Franco, during its early 
years, treat almost exclusively of tlio apostohc labors of 
the missionaries among the Indians, of which they give 
very edifying accounts. Tliose wore at the time extremely 
relished in Franco, but would find few roadors now.' 

It is not easy to seo by what fatality a company as pow- 
erful as that which controlled Canada, and regarding that 
vast country as its domain, thus abandoned a colony of 
which such gi-eat hopes had been conceived, and where the 
wonderful concert of all the members composing it, the 
only one perhaps in the New World showing such perfec- 
tion, assured the success of any enterprise undertaken 
there, had the hundred associates chosen to make the 
necessary advances. Several nations had boon flattered 
with the hope that our alliance would enable them to re- 
duce their enemies ; and it was the saddest point of all, 
that this made them succumb the sooner, because, relyi )g 
on the aid expected from us, and which failed them in 
their need, thoy were not sufficiently on their guard." 

The Iroquois, on their side, never slept, and, to give the 
Hurons no time to profit by their union with the French, 
they resorted to a stratagem which succeeded. This was 
to divide them, and then annihilate them in detail. They 
began by treating of peace with the body of the nation ; 
then, under different pretexts, they attacked the towns more 
remote from the centre, persuading the rest that these were 
only private quaiTols, in which thoy had no interest to in- 
terfere. The Hurons did not open their eyes till, so to say, 
thej beheld at their doors a conquering enemy, whose very 


' Their popularity lias revived. 
See Dr. 0'{ alloplinn'B {wpcr before 
the New York Historical Society 
(Proceedings, 1847, i)p. 140-,58: Mon- 
treal, 1850), which led to a reprint of 

all the Relations, in three vols. 80, 
Quebec, 1S.")8. 

' The trilx's here referred to nro 
the Hurons, Tionontntes or Petuns, 
Algonquins, Nipissings. 

i ! 


The Iro- 

quoirt de- 
ceive the 
Illiror '.)y 
a fRif;iiod 




Benewiil of 
tlie war. 

Various ex- 
peditions of 
the iniH- 

nanio filled tho whole couutry with alarm. Then the Iro- 
quois niisod tho mask. Tho pauic increased daily among 
tho Hurous, and they lost all judgment, to such an extent 
that they could scarcely he recognized. Every step they 
made was a mistake, and nothing now humbles the feeble 
remnant of that nation so miich as the remembrance of 
their i)rodigi<ms l)liudness. 

Immediately after Mr. do Cham plain's last exiDcdition 
against these Indians, mentioned in the previous book, 
they treated with the Huron nation ; and there is no doubt 
that, had not that nation relied on the peace just con- 
cluded, neither the French nor the missionaries would 
have found them so hauglity and indocile as they appeared 
both before and after the captiire of Quebec. Yet the 
Iroquois soon renewed hostilities, but in the manner just 
explained, declaring them to bo only private quarrels ; 
and the body of tho nation was reassured on the faith of 
a treaty which it had concluded with the Cantons. 

At last, early in 1686,' the Ii-oquois threw oft" the mask, 
and appeared in arms in tho midst of the Huron country.' 
Yet this irru])tiou did not succeed. The few French who 
had followed the missionaries to those parts presented so 
bold a front, that the enen.y judged it proper to retire. 
This retreat made the Hurons relapse into their first se- 
curity, and the Iroquois profited by it to persevere in the 
plan of campaign which they had at first adopted. At 
the end of the following year a re-enforcement of evangeli- 
cal laborers reached St. Joseph, and they were enough to 
assign one to each of tlie principal towns, and leave some 
to make excursions among the neighboring tribes.' 

These were made especially in the direction of Lake Ni- 
pissing ; but Fathers Garnier and Chastelain, who were 

' They attacked the Hurons as ' Cliastelain and Gamier went up : 

early as 1034 : Relation, 1634, p. Relation, l(i37, p. 105 ; Letter of 

88. Father do Brobouf, May 20, 1037, in 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France C'arayon, Documents Ineuits, xii., p. 

1630, p. 94. 161. 




appointed, dorived from their paiuful exjieditiou only the 
couHohiticni of havinf( sutforod much and si'ut sovenil chil- 
dren to join the company of the spotlcHs Land), by adniiu- 
isterhig baptism to them as they were about to expire.' 
Among the nations whom they visited, their memoirs note 
the Byssiriniens." I have made every effort to ascertain 
who tliese Indians were, and where they resided, and can- 
not even ascertain to wliich of the two motlier tongues, 
the Hiu'on or AJgouquiu, they belonged. This nation not 
being mentioned after this time, was apparently then de- 
stroyed by the Iroquois, Uko several others whose names 
have reached us." 

The missionaries, uudiscouraged by the fruitlessness of 
these first excursions, continued the succeeding years, 
almost invarial)ly with the same want of success. They 
were sent and went joyfuUj-, sure at least of the merit of 
obedience, and fiattering themselves that it would at last 
give fruit to their toil. Tliey knew, moreover, that they 
were accomplishing the promise of the Saviour of the 
world, by preaching his gospel to every creature ; that 
their ministry was confined to planting, watering, culti- 
vating ; that the increase depended on God alone, and 
does not aliect the reward promised to the laborers whom 
the Father of the family sends into his vineyard.' 

But what chiefly retarded the work of God in these re- 
mote parts, was the blockade of the roads by the Iroquois, Vii'reo'Kiv-' 
who kept all these nations in alarm. In spite of all the '^"" 
precautions taken by the Chevalier de Montmaguy to con- 
ceal the weakness of the colony, they were soon informed, 

Tho Iro- 


! ( 

' Relation do la Nouvelle France, 
1637, p. 73. 

5 lb., p. 150. 

' It mny bo, that in printing the 
Relation, Hyasirinicns was put for 
Niiuasiriniona ; for I find the Nipis- 
Bings, the real AlpiHuiuins, some- 
times thus called. — C/utrlev. There 
Ib no doubt on the point. The Rela- 

tion for 1037 (p. 150) says Bissirin- 
iens or Sorcerers, which identifies 
them as tlie Nipissiriniens — cuUfd 
Askioouani'hronon, fir Sorcerers, by 
the Hiirons (Kelntion, 10;t9, p. S8 ; 
1041, p. 81). The name is apparent- 
ly Water Indians, niliish irini. 

■• See Relations Uuronnes, 1037, 
et seq. 





Riiiiiii;; tliu 


and not only lost all fear that tlui French would iutorforo 
witli tlioir drivinfjj their eneniios to the wall, but, in the 
month of Auf^ust, 1037, tivo hundrod of theso Indians had 
tho boldness to como and insult the governor at Throe 
Rivers, where he was, and carry olf before liis eyes, with- 
out his being able to prevent it, thirty Hurons coming 
down to Quebye with a load of furs." 

The year KJ-IH begun with tho Huron missionaries in a 
way to give hoptss of harvest abundant enough to atone 
for the sterility of previous years. Tho country was vis- 
ited by an epidemic, which from one town soon spread to 
all, and threatened the destruction of the whole nation. 
It was a kind of dysentery, which, in a few days, hiu-ried to 
the grave all wliom it attackcid. Tho French were no more 
exempt than tho Indians, but tlioy all recovered. This 
produced two good effects : first, those Indians wore un- 
deceived who persisted in believing that every accident 
that befell them was caused by witchcraft : this they could 
not ascribe to the missionaries, seeing that even they did 
not escape tho malady : second, that the Indians learned 
to treat the sick better than they had done, observing that 
the French easily recovered by means of the treatment 
they adopted ; for skilful as these people are in curing 
wounds and fractures, they are unable to treat internal 
tdiaeas(!S, which require attention and experiouce in the 
' physician, with patience and docility in the patient. Fi- 
nally, the charity and generosity with which they beheld 
the missionaries j>art with all their remaining remedies 
and palliatives to relieve them, and the surprising cures 
they effected, gained the hearts of those even who till then 
had been loudest in their opposition." 

' Relation de la Nouvolle France, which Father Brebeufgave, after the 

1637, pp. 88, 89 ; Creuxius, Ilistoria Indian faHliion, his atsatnion (death- 

CanndcnsiB. bnnqiiet): Rclntidn, l(i;J8, p. 44. The 

' Ht'lat. do la Nouv. France, IflliS, following Relation (l(i:!!)) does not 

pp. 33-.V,). Tlie year Hi^i was the altofifether justify the progress here 

time of their great persecution, iu indicated. 



It was not in Canada only that an interest was taken in 
the I'onvtu'siou of the heathtsn. Tlie Ji'suits, in their let- 
ters to France, had re])resented that were they in a ])08i- 
tion to relievo the wretchedness of many wanderuig Indians, 
many would bo gained to Christ ; that to effect this it was 
only necessary to assemble all who could be induced to 
lead a more si dentary life, in order t(j accustom them 
gi-adually to cultivate the ground and oani their food and 
clothing by their labor and industry. These representa- 
tions induced many pious persons to enter into a holy 
emulation to contribute to a work so vitally connected with 
God's glory. Whole communities in Paris and the prov- 
inces imposed on themselves penitential works, and offered 
public prayers to move heaven in favor of the Canada In- 

All the nobles of the court, the princesses of the blood, 
the queen hors(>lf, entered into the missionaries' views ; 
and when these religious proposed to establish at Quebec 
Ursulinos and Hospital nuns, a great many sisters of the 
two orders most earnestly solicited the prefovencc when 
the enterprise was to be carried out,^ capable as it was of 
alarming those of their sex, and so )ie»v to their profes- 
sion. But no one seconded more efficaciously the zeal of 
the preachers of the gospel than the Commander do Sil- 
lery. This nobleman, who embraced nothing more readily 
than what would advance God's glory, relished exceed- 
ingly the project of an Indian town, as proposed to him 
by the Jesuits, to bo composed only of Christians and 
pi-oselytes, where they would be sheltered from the insults 
of the Iroquois by the speedy succor they could obtain 
fi-om the French, and guarded against famine by the care 
to be taken to make them cultivate the ground.' 


Interpst in 

Kriuiuo ill 

lliu coiivcr- 

HillU uf tlio 


I I 


■, ( 


1: I 


' Relation de la Nouvelle Friince, 
161)5, p. 2; KiliO, p. 3; lOliO, j). 6 ; 
Creuxius, Ilistoria Canadeusis, p. 

' Relation, 1G37, p. 5. 

' liulatidii de la Nouvelle France, 

Vol,. II.-7 

1638, p. 17 ; LeUers of Silli ey and 
Montiiiagny, in the Vie de I'illustre 
Servitcur de Dieu, Noel Brulart de 
Billery, Clievalier de Malte, et Biiilly 
Coinmandeur (frand' Croix dan« 
I'ordre ^120, Paris, 1843), pp. 71-4 ; 

, I 


1638. With this view, he sent workmen to Qnoboc in Ifi.*}/, and 
■— "^r— -' rocommoiuk'd Father lo Jouno, to whom ho (liroi-teil tiiom, 
Foundation to HuUict an advanta^'oous spot for tlio sottlomont. Tiio 
ufwy «"• superior conducted them, immodiati-ly after tiicir arrival, 
to a point fcmr miles above the city, on the river, and 
there they first boj^an to prepare shelter for themselves.' 
The place has since always borne the name of Sylleri. 
These ])r(!parations, the object of which it had been deemed 
inexpedient to disclose to the Indians, led some Monta<^nez 
to conceive the idea of profiting by the new settlement ; 
and they opened the nuitter to Father lo Jeuue, who as- 
sured them that, for his part, they would have no difficulty 
in obtaining their wish ; but ho added that ho could de- 
cide nothing without the consent of the master of the set- 

He was, however, well aware of the commander's inten- 
tion ; but his experience made him consider this reserve 
necessary with Indians, who easily persuade themselves 
that what is too easily given is due to them or given from 
motives of interest. The precipitate zeal which, ignorant 
of the Indian character, led sometimes to an opposite 
course, was sure to bo followed by tardy regret." The con- 
sent of the Chevalier do S}'lleri arrived the next year by 
the return of vessels from Franco ; and twelve' large 
Christian families took possession of the place intended 
for them, and made it their home. They were not long 
alone, and in a few years this settlement became a consid- 

Lettere of Father lo Jeuno (ib., pp. 
164-C). 'Hillcry was l)orn in Decem- 
ber, 1577, his tiimily beiiij^ allied to 
that of Villegajjnon, already known 
in thin history. He was ainl)a»Hador 
to Madrid and also to Home, living 
in frreat splendor, lie finallj re- 
nounced th(^ world, and reci'iving 
orders, lived in retirement. He was 
a friend of St. Vincent di- Paul and 
St. Jane Frances de Cliantal, and 
greatly aided their good works. He 

died Sept. 20, 1640. The church 
which he foundetl and was buried in 
having been given to a Protestant 
congregation, the Visitation nuns, in 
]8;i5, removed his body to their con- 
vent in the Hue St. F.tienne de Mont, 
and 8ul)se<iuently to the IJue d'Eufer. 

' Hel. de la Nouv. Fr., 1U38, p. 17. 

'J lb., p. 18. 

^ This should be two. The fam- 
ilies of Negabamat and Nenaskou- 
mai were the first: Rel., 1U3!), p. 10. 




ernl)l(> towii, composod of forvont ChriHtiana, who clcannl 

ft pretty larj^'o tract, and wuro gradually formed to all the ^— y^— ' 

duties of eivil society.' 

The neif,'lil)orhood of Quebec and the exemplary conduct K.iifyinif 
of its people contributed not a little to {,'round the now in- UwiuC\"l 
habitants of Sylleri in piety, and inspire them with a kind ""^bl^'""' 
of f,'overnment suited to their character. All led a very 
regular life, and most of them displayiul a fervor which 
filled old Christians with shame, :.ipressing them with the 
im])ortance of not being outstripped in piety and regu- 
larity by savage neophytes. All know how most colonies 
in America were formed ; but we must do this justice to 
New Franco, that the origin of almost all the families still 
subsisting there is pure, and free from those stains which 
opulence effaces with difficulty. Its first settlers wore 
either mechanics, who wore always engaged in useful la- 
bors, or persons of good family, who emigrated with the 
sole view of living there in greater quiet, and preserving 
more certainly their religion ; a thing impossible then in 
many provinces of France, where the Hugiieuots were very 
powerful. I fear contradiction on this point less, as I lived 
with some of these first settlers, then almost centenarians, 
thtiir children, and many of their grandchildren, all most 
worthy people, estimable for their probity, their candor, 
and the solid piety which they professed, as well as for 
their whitened locks and the remembrance of the services 
which they had rendered the colony.' 

Not but that in these first years, and still more as time 
wore on, faces were met with of persons whom the involved 
state of their affairs or misconduct had forced to leave 
France, and others of whom the authorities sought to purge 
the state and families ; but as persons of these classes came 
only in small bodies, and great care was taken not to leave 
them together, the colonists had almost always the couso- 

1 , 


. f. 

i I 

I I 

' Ui'lation de la NouveUe France, ' Ferland, Notes sur los Begistree 
1630, p. 10. de Quebt-c. 




iiiwii 111' I ho 



aiiil rr»i 

I }i 

lation of soon socing thom reform, in consoqnonco of the 
good cxiiniplo lu'foro their oyt's, nml muko a iluty of tiie 
ucccHKity they wero under of livinj,' like true Christiiiiirt, 
in H eouutry where every thing alhired thom to good and 
Avith(hi!W them from evil.' 

Two tilings were still wanting to this well-regulatod 
eolony, namely, u si-hool for the instruction of girls and 
a hospital for the treatment of the siek. The Jesuits had, 
for some years, taken steps to obtain those two advan- 
tages ; but they carried their views further. In soliciting 
the foundation of a hospital, they had the design of aid- 
ing the colonists, most of whom were poor and without 
resource in sickness ; but it was also their aim to win tlie 
Indians more and more, by taking caro of their sick in a 
house entirely devoted to charity :' and their project of 
bringing over Ursulines from France contemplated the 
education of little Indian girls, as well as that of the daugh- 
ters of the French. 

The former of these two projects was approved almost 
as soon as proposed, and its execution experienced no de- 
lay. The Duchess d'Aiguillon' wished to bo the foundress 
of the Hotel-Dieu ;' and she ap])lied to the Hospital nuns 
of Dieppe for sisters .suited for such an undertaking. 
These pious recluses accepted with joy and gi'atitude so 
beautiful an ojiportunity of sacrificing every thing they 
held dear in the world to serve the sick poor in Canada. 
All offered to go ; all with tears asked to bo selected ; but 
only three were chosen, and they held themselves in readi- 
ness to go by the first vessels.' 

' liclation di" la Nouvello Pranw, 
1030, i>. 42 ; Ferlanil, Cours dlliis- 
ti)ire, !>]). 274, ."ill. 

' Relation de la Nouvello France, 
1035, p. !> ; lOIiO, p. 5. 

' Dui'hcas d'Aiguillon, nieco of 
Cardinal Hicluslieu. 

■* Hiilatiiin de la NouvoUe France, 
1038. I). 3 ; l(!;i!t, p. (i ; Judiorenu 
Ilistuire do I'lIoU'l-Dieu do CJuebec, 

a Montauban, che% Joroeme Lngier, 
imprimeur du Hoy, 17.'31, p. 8. 

' Jucbereau, HiBtoire d« I'llotel- 
Dieii, p. 4 ; Hagucneau, I^a Vic dc la 
Mrrc Catherine de Saint Aupustin, 
KeligievBO Hospitaliore do lu Mineri- 
cordo de Quebec en la Nciuvelle 
Franco, Ti Paris, Florentin Lambert, 
M.UC.LXXI, p. 40. 


Tho foundfttion of tho UrHulinoH was attondcd with 
grofttor (lillicnlt}'. Tli»! (V.iiiula (!<)in|miiy woulil not touch 
it, dci'iiiiii},' it, jmilialily, not of Hueh ur;,'ciit lu'ccsaity. 
This afl'iiir iiail bcou morn tiian onco on tli»! point of (exe- 
cution, and had always failed at tho nioinont when succums 
Hft'incd oortain. At last a younj^ widow of rank, Madanio 
do la Poltrio, caino forward, whoso plans woro found nioro 
practioahlo and whoso oouni^'o was more constant.' I 
havo rohitcul in anothor work,' in dotail, tho wondorful eir- 
ounistnncoH that occurrod, and tho mannor in which tho 
illustrious foundrt 's. aftor surmounting,' a])par(^utly invin- 
cihlo obstacles, (hnoted her means and hi r person to tlio 
good work, which Providence had showu her, and con- 
firmed by a striking miracle.' 

From Alen(;on, where sho resided, sho proceeded to 
Paris, to settle tho business of tho fimndation ; then to 
Tours, to obtain Ursuline nuns. Thoiico sho drew tho il- 
lustrious Mary of tho Incarnation, tho Teresa of Now 
Franco, to use tho expression of tho greatest men of the 
hist century ; and IMary of 8t. Joseph, whom New France, 
who possessed her for a little while, regards as one of its 
tut(>lary angels. Thence sho repaired to Dieppe, where she 
had ordered a vessel to be chartered. There sho accpiired 


' Rflation de la Nouvelle Franco, 
163!), p. (5. 

' Clmrlovoix, Vio de la M:'^re Ma- 
rio do rint'arimtiiin, InstitutriPii & 
preinicre Su|H'rifurM des UrHulincs 
de la Nouvelli' Franco, a Pariw, choz 
L<iui»-Ant. 'I'homoliu, MDCOXXIV, 
p. 10"), etc. 

' Mother St. Thomas, Life of Ma- 
dame do la Poltrio (Magdalen do 
Chauvigny), New York, 185!), p. 80, 
etc. ; Casgraln, lliHtoiro do la Mere 
Mario del'Incnmation, Quebec, 1864, 
8o, p. 207, etc. ; Choix des Lettres 
Historiques do la Venerable Mere 
Mario do I'Incarnation, Clermont- 
Ferrand, lao, 1857, p. 1, etc. Ma- 

dame Magdalen do Chauvigny, 
daughter of .Mr. do Chnuvigny, Sieur 
de V'aubegon, was born at AleM(;on, 
in 160;i. At tho ago of seventeen 
she married Charles de ( i rival. Sei- 
gneur de la I'eltrio, a gentleman of 
the house of Touvoys, who died five 
years after. When al«)ut carrying 
out her Canadian projei't she weut 
thnmgh a formal marriage; eereinony 
with Mr. de Uernieres, treasurer of 
France, so as to free liorself from the 
legal control of her family. Slie 
never became an Ursuline, but do- 
votiHl her life and services to them. 
Sho died in tho convent at Queliec, 
Nov. 18, 1071, aged sixty-eight. 




1 1 



1^39. a tliinl UrHnlind, nnd, on tI»o 4th of Miiy, IfiUl), hIio «>m- 
-^ » '- " liiirkt'd with tht) Ilospitiil muiih mid Fiitlitr Ihirthnloincw 
Yiiiioiid, wlio wtiH ^oin^ out to miccct-d Futhcrki .fdiiiio iig 
Bu|i<>rioi'-(li'iicral of th«t MinHiouH, and who waH hIho c-on- 
thictiii}^ II fresh supply of iipoMtoUc? hilioriTH. After a long 
and dtiii^i rous voyiigo, thin liu'^ti ]iiit'ty rciiclicd Quobco 
ou tho Int of Auj^ust.' 
Thoirre- iVothuiK wuH oHiittud to iniprcRS on tho Indiaun how 
*"'' ""' niucli tilt' Fienoh hud their intoreHt at hoart, and tho hiiI- 
vatiitii of tiiiir houIm, when women «!ven and youii^^ K'''l>*, 
brou^lit up in ahumhuiei^ and luxury, without Hhrinklng 
from the perils of tho Hoa, litft a pleiisant, tranipiil lifo to 
ccmio to iiiHtruct thuir childrou and tako caro of thoir 
nick, Tho day when so nmny persons thus ardently do- 
sired arrived was a holiday tor tho wholo city ; all labor 
ceased, and tlie shops were elosed. The governor roceivod 
tbeuc heroines at the rivor-side, at tho head of his troops, 
wlio were under arms, and with tho sound of cannon. 
After the th'st comjilimeiits, ho led them, amid tho accla- 
mations of the pe( le, to the church, where tho To Doum 
was chanted in thanks^'iving.' 

Tlii'se jiious women, ou their side, and thoir noble con- 
ductress, in the first transport of their joy kissed tho earth 
for which they hiul so long sighed, whicli they promised 
thems»'lves to water with their sweat, and did not even 
desi)air of dyeing with their blood. French mingled 
M'ith Lidians, pagans oven confounded with Christians, 
for several days untiringly continued to make all rescjund 
with their cries of joy, and give a thousand blessings to 
Him who alone could inspire the feeblest of mankind with 

Their for 

' ("harli'voix, Vie dt; ta Mt'^ro Ma- 
rie di' riiirarnntion, \i\t, 255-0;) ; 
Chniiraiiuiit, Viti dii If. P. I'icrro 
Jotji'lih Murle ( 'liaumonot, Now York, 
1858, p. 50. Tliey ainic in a Imrque 
comiimndcd l)y Jiimcs ViiHtcl, ('at- 
tain Bonti'injM c<>iiiniiiii(ling tliu 
llt'ct : Lt'a L'rtiuliiiL-8 dc (juubuc, do- 

puis lour •"'tablisM^ment jiiequ'ii nos 
joure, Quclicc, 1803, 8o, i., p. 21. 

'' Ki'laticin de la Noiivollt* Franco, 
1630, p. H; Clmrli'volx, Vic dn la 
Mrrc Mari(^ dc l'In<'urnation, p. 203 ; 
("rcuxiuH, Hist. C'annd., p. 253. Tim 
olliciul act of reception is {.'ivi'n in llie 
Ureuliucu dc Quulicc, i., p. 21, n. 

lllsroUY i)V NKW KHANCK 


Buoh oniiriif,'(' nnd fdHitudo. At tlio Hi^lit of tlio Iiidiaii i6jy. 
c'liltiiiH, to which tlic iiuiiH wen* nuiductcd tho (hiy after — "y"—' 
their arrivid, they were Kei/»'d wKli new traiis|iortH of joy. 
The poverty and niitidiiiess pn^vailiiij? in thi-in all did not 
repel thi'ni ; and u Hi^ht ho capaliK) of chillinj;; their zeal 
Herved only to f,'ive it new life. Tiiey evinced n great im- 
patience to lie;.;in the exen-iso of their functions.' 

Madame do hi Teltrie, who had never dt'sirod to he rn»ng«nt 
rich, and wlu. had ho cheerfidly lieconie [x.or for Christ'H '^ul'.Xi,.'' 
Hake, could not refrain from saying that she wished to havo 
at her disposal (>nough to draw all the nations of Canada 
to a knowledge of the true (}od ; and sho took a firm 
HiHolution, which Hho ol)Herv(Hl her wholo life, to Hparo 
herself in nothing where the Halvation of souls was to he 
effected. Her zeal led her even to till the soil with hor 
own hands, to have wherewith to relievo the jioor neo- 
phytes. In ft few days sho had stripi)ed herself of all sho 
had retained for her own use, so as to reduce herself to 
want of actual necessaries, in order to clothe thc! children 
brought to her almost miked ; and her whohi life, which 
was prolonged many years, was but a series of acts of tho 
most heroic charity. They havo forever endeared hor 
memory to all New France, where the fruit of her good 
work is perpetuated, to tho gi-eat udvantago of all that 

After tho visits of which I havo spoken, the nuns of ^.-^^^ ,^,,^^ 
tho two institutes embraced each other atTectionately, and "fi'ioouiiB. 
then separated to enter their several cloisters, the Ursn- 
lines at Quebec,' and the Hospital nuns at Sylleri,' where 

' Itolation (Ic la Noiivelle France, 
1039, p. 8; Jucli(!n'au, llidtoiro do 
I'Hoti'lDiiui, p. 14 ; Cliarlfvoix, Vie 
de la MiTV Mario do I'lncarnation, 
p. 204. 

' I!elntiou do in Nouvoilo Franco, 
1072, pp. 57, 05 ; CroxixiuB, IIiHtoria 
t'anadonsia, \i\>. 2.5*1, 25(i. 

" Tills first convent wos in tho 
lowor town, on tlio (juay, a site now 

oociipliHl by a Mr. Blunoliard : Los 
I'rsulincH do liiii'lx^c, I , j). 27. 

* Itciution di' la Nouvollc P^ranco, 
lfl3i», p. 8. Tl.i-y did not k<> t" i^il- 
lery to romdo. A liouBo liad hern 
conimencod at QuoImt ; Imt finding 
it unmiitiil'lo, tlicy oociiipicd t('iiii<v 
rarily a now Ikhiho, Husignrd totlioni 
by till! j;<iv('rncir(.Iu(ln'ri'au, IIintoiro 
de I'llotoi-Diou, pp. 15, 17). 




1639. the minibtr of Indians increased from day to day, and 
'•""r-^^ wIk'VO they couid readily receive the sick from the city and 
country. Nothing could be more cramped or less furnished 
than these convents. The servants of the Lord took 
all the inconvenience for themselves, the sick and their 
pupils experiencing none of it. Yet God wished to subject 
both to tho severest trials. The Ursuliue seminary was 
first attacked by small-pox,' and an epidemic brought to 
the hospital more sick than there were beds or even rooms 
to put them in.' 

These afflictions did not disconcert the nuns. They 
provided for all in a way not easily conceived, and never 
was seer, more clearly what the power of charity can 
effect. "What surprised all Avas, that in such a prostration, 
so extreme a change of life and climate, with coarse food, 
great hardships, and the privation of all the comforts 
which custom has made necessaries of life, these holy 
women, incessantly amid the sick, long enjoyed, almost 
without exception, perfect health,' and were able to add 
to their painful labors the study of Indian languages.* 
The Canaiia So mucli Spiritual succur, arriving at once from France, 
»ti"l'i'ieg- could not but give a great impulse to religious affairs. 
^"cofony"' Great changes indeed took place among the Indians, and 
it was only necessary to folloAV up these first steps to 
bring most of the nations of Canada into the bosom of the 
Church. The outlay made at Sylleri to gather the newly 
converted and those who were anxious to be instnxcted ; 
tho two establi^hiuents just mentioned ; all the missions 
re-enforced by unwearied men, who never spared them- 
selves ; the piety and charity of the chief settlers, v,'ho 
■ refused nothing to aid them, even to lending their own 
beds for the use of the sick, made this one of those 
precious moments which it is all-important to seize, and 

' Charlevoix's Life, p. 205 ; C aux- ^ The nuns all fell sick : Juche- 

ius, p. 258, Lcs Ursulinos dd Quiv reau, p. 20. 
bee, i., p. 20. * lb., p. 18 ; Les Ursulines de Quer 

" Juchereau, p. 19. bee, i., p. 28. 




which never return when allowed to pass without 1)cing 
improved to the utmost. 

Minds in Fninco and Amei-ica wore ceHainly in the l)est 
possible disposition to settle tlio colony and establish all 
branches of trade that so good a foundation could pro- 
duce ; but the Company of a Hundred Associates remained 
in a perfectly inexplicable inaction, and the result was 
that the missions and communities, which should have 
drawn their chief aid from the colony, wer(\ almost its only 
supi)ort. Yet the fund on which the missionaries and 
nuns siibsisted was in a great measure only pr(;carious. 
It could not be expected to contimie always on the same 
footing, and, in fact, gi-adually diminished. 

The war broke out again with new fierceness between rontimm- 
the Iroquois and Hurons ; but although the former often 
had the advantage, for the reasons given already, the lat- n)'"'," "'° 

f tlio 


ter, who had lost none of their pristine valor, occasionally '■'"'i""'^- 
retrieved their fortunes. One day, when the missionaries 
were all assembled in a town to confer u]K)n their affairs, 
tidings came of the defeat of a considerable party of Iro- 
quois, and a prisoner was brought in Avho was burnt, but 
who had the happiness of passing through this species of 
hell to the abode of the elect — at least, if we may judge 
by the dispositions in which he seemed to die. As he is 
the fijst adult of this nation known to have received bap- 
tism , I have deemed it not amiss to give the principal cir- 
cumstances of his death, which I draw from the details of 
his torture, given, in one of his letters, by Father de Bre- 
beuf, an eye-witness.' 

As soon as the i^risoner reached the village, the sachems tiio first 
held a council to decide his fate ; and the conclusion was 
that he should be put in the hands of an old chief, in 
order to rei)lace, if he so chose, one of his nephews taken 
by the Iro(piois, or to dispose of him as he saw fit. On 


; t 

* i 


' Rcl, l(!;i7 (Huron), p. 109. Creux- 8. Nicolas (IliHtoria Ornoral de los 
iu8 (i., p. ()()!)) rfu-rs to an Iroquois Hi'liffiosos Dose di; S. Agustin, Ma- 
Augustinian in Spain. Andres de drid, 16G4) may exi>laiu it. 

, ) 




1639. the other hand, Father de Brebcnf was no sooner informed 
of what was passing tlian ho hastened to the prisoner, deter- 
mined not to leave his side till ho had opened to him the 
way of salvation. He first perceived him amid a band of 
warriors, clothed in a new beaver robe, with a wampum 
belt around his neck, and another aronud his head, like a 
diadem. He was made to sing without giving him a 
moment's relaxation, but ho was not ill-ti'eated. What 
most astonished the missionary was that he was as tran- 
quil, and had a countenance as serene, as if he had suf- 
fered nothing or was sure of his life ; yet ho had endiu'ed 
much in the first days of his captivity, and had more to 
fear than to hope from the futiu'e. 

Father de Brebeuf was invited to make him sing, ac- 
cording to custom : but he excused himself, and approach- 
ing him a little nearer, he remarked that one of his hands 
had been crushed between stones, and one of his fingers 
tern off ; that two fingers of the other hand were gone, 
cut off with an axe ; and that the only dressing applied to 
these wounds was a few leaves, bound with strips of bark. 
In addition to this, the joints of his arms were burnt, and 
on one ho had a deep gash. He had been reduced to this 
state on his march ; for, from the moment he had entered 
the first Hui'on town, he had received only good treat- 
ment. Every cabin had feasted him, and a young woman 
had been assigned him to act as a wife. In a word, to see 
him among these Indians, no one would have supposed 
that people who showed him so much friendship would be 
so many demons furiously tormenting him. 

Father do Brebeuf, who had every liberty to converse 
with him, began by telling him that although he could do 
nothing to mitigate his pains, ho -washed, at least, to teach 
him to suffer them — not i)recisely as a brave, to acquire a 
glory that would be useless to him after death, but from a 
more solid and elevated motive ; that this motive was the 
well-gnjunded hojie that his pains would be followed by a 
perfect and endless happiness. Ho then briefly explained 



to him the most essential articles of Christian doctrine, and 
lie found him not only docile, but, contrary to the usual 
custom of Indians, very attentive, and taking pleasure in 
■what was told him. Ho profited by this good disposition, 
and believed that he saw Grace working powerfully in the 
heart of this captive. He completed his instruction, bap- 
tized him, and called him Jim'p/i.' 

He then obtained permission to take him with him 
every evening and keep him during the night. He would 
have desired more, but the fate of the prisoner did not 
dcjiend on those from whom he could have oblained his 
deliverance. His wounds gave him much to suffer, as 
they swarmed with worms. He earnestly asked that they 
should be taken out ; but it was impossible to do this, the 
vermin burying themselves at every attempt to extract 
them. The feasts continued, always in his name ; and he 
did the honors, singing till he was hoarse. He was then 
taken from town to town, compelled to sing all the way. 
He had no rest, except when Father de Brebeuf or some 
other missionary had permission to entertain him. Then 
he was not only not interrupted, but all the Indians gath- 
ered around to hear the Father, and many j^rofited by 
what they heard. 

At last they reached the village of the chief to whom 
the prisoner had been given," and who had not yet de- 
clared the decision to which ho had come. Joseph ap- 
peared before this sovereign arbiter of his destiny with 
the countenance of a man to whom life and death are in- 
different. He was not long in suspense as to what was to 
befall him. " Nephew," said the old chief, " you cannot 
conceive the joy I feel in learning that you are mine. I 


J f 

■ ii I 

I : 

' Relation, 1637, p. 113. He was just been adopted as patron of the 
a Seneca, but as his tribe wus tlicu country (Relation, l(i:)7, p. 5). 
at peace with the Hurons, he went ^ The name of this chief was Sa- 
to Ouondafjii and joined a war party ouandaouascouay, of the village 
tliere I delation, p. 111). Tht^ name Tondakhra : Relation de la Nou- 
Joseph was given, as St. Joseph had velle France, 1037, p. 113. 




1639. at first imagined that he whom I had lost had risen again, 
and I resolved to put you in his place. I had already 
prepared a mat for you in my cabin, and it gave mo great 
pleasure to think that I was to spend the rest of my days 
peacefully with you ; but the condition in which I see 
you forces me to change my resolution. It is evident that 
with the pain and trouble you endure life can be but a 
bm'den, and you will duubtless thank me for shortening it. 
It is those who mutilated you thus who put you to death.' 
Courage, then, neiihew ! Prepare for this evening. Show 
that you are a man, and be not depressed by fear of 
torture " 

The prisoner heard this as though it did not concern 
him. He replied, in a firm tone, " This goes well !" Then, 
the sister of the one whom ho was to replace came and 
offered him food, as if ho had really been her brother, 
ser^'iug him with every appearance of the most sincere and 
cordial friendship. The old chief himself caressed liim, 
put his pipe in his mouth ; and seeing him all drenched in 
sweat, wiped it off, and gave him all possible marks of 
truly fatherly affection. 

Towards noon the prisoner made his farewell feast,' at 
the expense of his uncle ; and aU being assembled, he 
said : " Brothers, I am going to die ; enjoy yourselves 
boldly around me ; think that I am a man ; and rest 
assured that I fear neither death nor any torment } ou can 
inflict upon me." He then sang, several warriors joining 
with him ; after which the food was served up. There is 
no invitation to these banquets : every one has a right to 
go ; but most of them bring no platter, and come as mero 
spectators. The banquet over, the prisoner was taken to 
the place of torture, a cabin set apart for this use. Each 
village has one of this class, styled the cabin of blood or of 

' The Tohontaenras, ■who subse- 
quently Burreiidored to the Senccaa 
and removed to their country : Rela- 
tion, 1051, p. 4 

' This fnrowell feast was called, 
in Huron, Astataion : Rcl. 1037, ]). 
llii ; Atsntaion, 10;i8, p. 44. Cliitsa- 
tayon : Sngnrd, Diet. v. Festin. 




severed hecuh,' aud it is always the cabin of a war-chief. As 
soon as a prisoner sets foot in it, it is no longer in the 
power of any one to spare his life. It is not, however, 
always the place of executiv)n, which may bo performed 

Towards eight o'clock at night eleven fires were lighted, 
abont six feet apart. All ranged tliemselves in a line on 
either side, the old men behind, on a sort of platform, and 
the young men, who were to be actors, in the front rank. 
As soon as the prisoner entered, an old man advanced, 
exhorted the youth to do well ; adchng that this was an 
important action, and that Areskouy" woiild look down 
upon them. This short harangue Avas received with ap- 
plause, or rather with yells, wild enough to strike terror 
into the stoutest. The captive at the same time appeared 
amid the assembly, between two missionaries, and the 
cries redoubled as he was seen. He was next seated on a 
mat and his hands bound. 

He then rose and went around the cabin, dancing and 
shiging his death-song. This done, he returned to his 
place, and sat down on the mat again. Then a war-chief 
took off his robe ; and showing him thus naked to tho 
assembly, said : " Such a one (naming another chief)' takes 
this captive's rol)e ; the inhabitants of such a village' will 
cut off his head and give it, with an arm, to such a one' 
(whom he named again), who will make a feast of it." 
Then began a most tragic and horrible scene ; and Father 
de Brebeuf, who was present at the whole, gives a descrip- 



t I 


' Otinontsiskiaj ondaon : Rektion 
de la Nouvelle France, 1037, p. 114. 

' The god of war, the same us Te- 
haronhiaouagon : Relation de la Nou- 
velle France, IGTO, pp. 47, 66 ; Rela- 
tion, 1U71, p. 17 ; Lafltau, Mneurs 
dee Sauvages, i., p. 126. The wor- 
ship of Arenkouy has been succeeded 
by that of llawenniio, really tho 
God of the Christians. The Huron 

form is properly A,reskoui, tho early 
writers using what they called an 
iota subscript to designate a kind of 
pause and peculiar vowel sound. 
The Irajuois pronounced it less ob- 
scurely, and the niisHionaries among 
them wrote it " Agreskoue." 

•* Oteiondi. 

* The Ataronchronona 

•'■ Ondessone. 




tion that makes oue aluuldor. This missionary induced 
tlie execntionors, from time to time, to give their victim 
some V('hixuti(m. He profited by it to exhort liini to offer 
his sufferings to a Clod wlio couhl reward him for them, 
and Avlio liad himself undergone for us every indignity and 

Whih' he spoke all kept silence and listened attentively. 
Josi'ph replied to all as though he felt no ])ain ; and 
during his whole torture nothing escaped him which his 
charitable instructors could rebuke. He even spoke at 
times of the affairs of his tribe, as though ho were in the 
midst of his family and friends. His tortures were pro- 
longed, l)ecause the old men had declared that it was im- 
portant that the rising sun should find him still alive. As 
soon as day broke he was led out of the village and no 
longer spared. At last, when they saw him about to ex- 
inre, for fear that he should die otjierwiso than by steel, 
as his sentence re(jnired, they cut off his foot, hand, and 
head. Tlie distribution was made as had been directed,, 
and the rest of the body was put into the kettle.' 
Situation of The Hurou mission then had great contradictions to 
misbioii. experience, but they were checkered with success that 
gave the Fathers great hopes. The details which they 
give in their letters are truly touching ; and these letters 
are written with so much simplicity and candor, that we 
cannot be siirprised that they excited the interest of so 
many persons of piety in the conversion of the heathen in 
Canada. On the one hand, we see savages drawn by the 
secret impression of grace, and, by the charity of their 
masters in Christ, present themselves in crowds for bap- 
tism ; numbers of Iroquois prisoners entej, like this one 
just described, into the way of salvation, and by the same 
gate as he, and show, till the last sigh, sentiments that 
touched their very enemies ; finally, unhoped-for conver- 

' Relation, 1(137, p. 118; Letter of Documents Inedits, xii., p. 181. Spo 
Father Francis dii Penm, Carayon, Sngard, HLstoire du Canada, p. 4.53. 


sions, wlicro tho finger of God makes its operation felt 
even by the most incrodulous. 

On the other liund, they show tho preadiers of tho gos- 
pel ever on the point of fulling victims of a popular out- 
break, excited by some unforeseen accident ; by tho 
resentment of a father, who imagines that the prayer or 
baptism caused the death of his chihl ; by the caprice of 
some ill-disposed man, in whom a pretended dream or an 
evil re2)ort has heated the i)ilo or disordered the imagina- 
tion. Tho missionaries had the same attacks to meet iu 
other nations ; and among the various examjdes which I 
find in my authorities, I select one, too characterist ic of 
the Indians to pass in silence. 

Father Jerome Lallemaut, brother of Father Charles 
Lallemant, of whom I have already spoken, was on his 
way to the Hurons, by the way of the great Ottawa Ri-er. 
He met some Algonquins, who had pitched their cabins on 
the banks of that river, and his Huron guides thought fit 
to si:op some time with them. The missionary took tho 
opportunity to recite his breviary, and retired a little 
apart. He had scarcely begun, when he was called and 
taken to a cabin. Hero he was told to sit down beside an 
Algonquin, whose dark and angry brow heightened the 
sinister expression of a malignant face. 

The missionary was no sooner seated beside him than 
the Indian, looking at him askant, ri'iJioaclu-d him that a 
Frenchman, passing through his village, had bled one of 
his sick relatives and killed him. With these words he 
burst out in a fury, seized an axe with one hand and a 
vope in the other, and told the missionary to prepare to 
die, to appease the manes of his kinsman, and that he only 
gave him his choico of the mode of his death. The Fathe ■ 
could only use reason with the madman, but he was in no 
condition co hear it. He even sprang on the mission- 
ary, and was en^^iwavoring to strangle him ; but either his 
fury had not reached its height, or left him too little self- 
possession to know what he was doiag. His cord got 



of Father 

l\ ) 

I ' 



1639. t'litfinj^'liHl in the coUiii' of the luissioimiy's cassock, so that 
thouj,'li ho i)ulled with all his might, ho did uot do him 
luuc'li harm. 

After toiling in vain, ho porci'ivod his stupidity, and 
wished to loosen the collar, but failing to do so, raised the 
hatchet to tomahawk the missionary, who escaped from 
his hands. The Hurons stood hy, unmoved spectators of 
this scene, as a thing that did not concern them in the 
least ; but two Frenchmen, attracted by the noise, rushed 
violeutl}' on the Algontjuiu and were going to kill him, 
when Father Lallemant interposed, representing the con- 
soipiences that might ensue fi-om the death of this man. 
Ho added tliat it was bettor to tell the Hurons plainly 
that the governor-general would hold them responsible ii 
uny thing befell a missionary confided to them ; and the 
Frenchmen f(jllowcd the advice. 

Tlie Hurons then held a coimcil, after which they told 
the Algonquin that Father Lallemant was under their 
safeguard. This declaration at first had no great effect ; 
and as those who made it went no further, without sus- 
taining the Frenchmen, and tlio Algonquin was well 
attended, the missionary was still for a time in very great 
danger. At last, seeing the savago a httle calmer, either 
because weariness had moderated his fury or because 
he had really never intended to go to extremes, the Hu- 
rons told him that if he would release the Father, they 
would cover the dead man — that is to say, would make 
him some present to console him for the loss of his kins- 
man. This proposition completely calmed him. The 
Hurons gave him some furs, calculating shrewdly that 
they would be no losers, and at once embarked with the 

' Rflation flu la Nouvollo Franco, des Sauvag<'e, p. 0.")) pivos an incor- 

16;J8, 1). liO ; Letter of Father Francis rcct .icoount, nesifcniiif,' it to the j-ear 

dii Peroii, April 27, Ki;!!*, Carayon, KWO. Fatlier TuUhaii, in his ni)to 

DdCUiiiciitH liu'dits, xii., p. 108. Per- (p. 2ir)), sceiiis to huvo overhxiked 

rot (Ma'uro, I'uustumoB, et UcUiyion the Helation of 1038. 


This was not tho only unpleasant adventure that befell 
Father Lalleniant on this Yoyn^o, and there was not one 
of his fellow-niissionaries who did not experience some- 
thing of the kind. Several were even severely beatcm. 
Nothing better testified the weakness of the colony, from 
which the Indians every day learned more clearly tliat 
they had little to fear or hope. On the other hand, tho 
extreme desire of the missiojuiries to bring all these na- 
tions under the yoke of the faitli made them endure this 
ill-treatment, and their passion lor sufferings made them 
find consolation even in them, — tho more so, as th(^y often 
resulted fi-om the siiccess of their labors and were the 
glorious marks of their victory. 

Nothing was more apostolical than tho life which they 
led. All tlieir moments were numbered by some heroic 
action, by conversions or sufferings, which they regarded 
as real compensation when their labors had not produced 
all tho fruit which they had anticipated. From four 
o'clock in tho morning, when they rose, unless travelling, 
till eight, they generally spent secluded. It was the time 
of jn-aycr, and tho only one which they had for their exer- 
cises of piety. At eight o'clock each one went whither 
duty called. Some visited the sick ; others followed in 
the fields those engaged in cultivating tho earth ; others 
visited neighboring towns, which were destitute of pastors. 
These excursions produced several good effects ; for, in 
tho first place, few or no children died unliaptized. Even 
adults, who had refused instruction in health, yielded in 
sickness. They could not resist the ingenious and con- 
stant charity of their physicians. In the second place, 
these Indians, day by day, became more familiar witli the 
missionaries. This intercourse civilized their manners 
and insensibly dispelled their prejudices. Nor was any 
thing more edifying than the conduct of the new Chris- 
tians. The more they cost the missionaries to win them 
to Jesus Christ, the greater was tlie consolation to see 
sentiments in their hearts where grace found no obstacle 

Vol. II.— 8 



ol'tlio Mirt- 

I t 


Their occn- 

} 1 

I ' 

; ) 

, I 




1640. to itH operation. Their prayers ami otlier oxorciscs of 
''^^r^"^ imiy were mado in common and at fixed honrs, and tlicro 
Llfo of ih« wcro ftsw wlio did not approach the Bacrauicnts at least 

niianioii- , , 

ariei. ouce a Week. 

The frequent euros effected hy the remedies which tho 
missionaries lil)erally distributid gained tlieni still more 
credit ; the niedicine-nien lost nnich of theirs ; and this 
led to thi! abolition of many bad customs, superstitious 
practices, and indecent ccirenionies. One reli},'i()us always 
remained in the house to keep school, to lend the public 
prayers at tho fixed hours in the chapel, and to receive tho 
visits of tho Indians, who aro extremely importunate. 
Towards tho close of tho day all assembled to hold 
a kind of conference, where each proposed bis doubts, 
communicated his views, explaiuctd difficulties arising as 
to tho language. They animated and consoled each 
other, measures wore concerted to advance tho work of 
God, and tho day closed with tho same exercises which 
began it.' 

Besides tho instructions regularly given to the neophytes 
and proselytes in the chapel, there were occasionally pub- 
lit ones for all. Before commencing thorn, one of tho mis- 
sionaries went around, bell in hand, like St. Francis 
Xavier, not only through the whole village, but also 
through tho neighborhood, and endeavored to induce all 
ho met to follow him. These instructions were often 
made in the form of conferences, where each one w d at 
liberty to speak. Among the Indians this never leads to 
any confusion. They rarely left these assemblies without 
making some conquest. In line, besides these public con- 
ferences, there were private ones, to which oidy the chiefs 
and other persons of rank were invited. Here certain 
articles of religion were carefully discussed which it was 
not deemed wise to explain so soon to the multitude ; but 

Tliolr miin' 
lior of in- 

' Letter of Father Francis ilu ' Relation de la Nouvelie France, 
Pi'roii, April 27, Klii!); Carayon, l(i:i',), j). '>2; CrouxiuH, Ilistoria Ca- 
DocununlH Inodils, xxii., p. 177 nadi'nsis, p. 



only to tlioao who wcru known to 1»* bettor ftblo to iimliT- 
Mdiiil tlicm, iiiid wlioso authority iui;,'ht gnuitly iiiil tho 
proyrcsH of tlic f^'ospcl.' 

I have thouj,'lit lit to tuiliirKo ii littlo on thn olistach'H 
oncount«!ro(l in convortuig tho Indians of Canada. At 
ItMiHt, those who aro of the jxTsnaHion tliat tlit; Faitli liart 
niaih; no pio^'voHS ainonj,' thoso Indians cannot acciiso nio 
of having diss(>nilvhd thoni ; nor do 1 fear to \h> siispootod 
of exaggerating tho fatigHe>H, tlio sntferings, and the perso- 
vorancc of tho apostolic hd)orcrs, who havo irrigated with 
th(-'ir sweat and lilood tliis ])art of tho vineyard, whicli tho 
Father of tlio family had confided to them. All NoW 
Franco, for more than a century, renders so public a testi- 
mony to tho severe and truly apostolic life which they led, 
and tho eminent sanctity of many, that it cannot bo 
allowed to doubt, and is impossiblo to deny it. What 
I shall say hereafter of the blessings which heaven poured 
down on their labors rests on tho same testimony. 

Yet, without making a parallel betwi!on tho apostles and 
the first founders of tho Christian Church, I lielieve I may 
in justice ask on what grounds they would prettuul to 
doubt tho reality of the conversions, which I cannot avoid 
meationing without being wanting to what the fidelity of 
history requires ; great examples of virtue, seen in prac- 
tice among a groat number of neo2)]iytes, and wonders 
which God has worked in their favor '? Experience teaches 
US that three sorts of persons will bo extremely on their 
j,'uard on all these points. Those who, having known 
Indians, while agreeing that they are not devoid of a kind 
of ability, maintain that thny are altogetlu-r limited as to 
all that does not fall ixndor tho senses or has no relation 
to their afTairs, of which tho sphere is very restricted ; 
whence they conclndo that it is impossible to impress 
them sufScieutly with the great truths of our religion to 




to I llll 

i I 


'Relation, 1030, p. 54; Father 1(13fi, MS. All testimony shows tho 
Charles Gamier, Letter, April 28, extent r)r instruction given. 



>64o- mnko ovon ordiimry ChriHtians. Otimrs, rof^anliiif^ only 

^—'-y^'^ tlu* (liMMciiililiri^' iind uiih'uMo cliiinu'tor of tlicso IiidiiiiiH, 

Objections iiimfrinn tliiit t!ii>y caiiiiot l)ti naiimtl aiul fixed ho n>* to 
■UHWerj'l. , • ,1 • 1 .... 

grouiiil tlii'iu 111 tliti HiUfcru and (.•onHtiuit priictifo of Cliris- 

tiftu virtues. A third cIuwh proclaim uK'"'»*t tho very 
nanu) of all that suriiasHeH tho ordinary streiif,'th and eonrHO 
of nature ; and if wo wtie tlieni daily treat as false the host- 
attested uiiraeles, most soltunnly approved hy the Church, 
with what hauteur will tluty not reject all mlated in this 
sort of a Christendom, composed of neophytes who had, 
they will say, to be made men boforo they could bo ren- 
dered adorers of Jesus Christ I 

But uono of these reflect sufficiently — Ist. That tho con- 
version of an uitidol, as well as tho conversion of u sinner, 
can bo tho work of grace alone, before which obstacles dis- 
appear, whether the greatest or tho least. It ovt^rcamo 
tho Jews, to whom CJhrist crucitied was a stumbling-block ; 
and tho Gentiles, who regarded his cross as folly. It can 
raise up children to Abraham from tho very stones (Matt, 
iii. 9) — that is to say, make tho most lively faith and 
ardent charity gorminato in tho hardest hearts and most 
brutish minds. And should prejudice go so far as to 
doubt, with some, whether tho American Indians are men, 
may we not answer, with the most celebrated doctors of 
tho Church : "Men and boast thou wilt preserve, O Lord" 
(Ph. XXXV. 7). Now that tho all-powerfu. ■>eration of 
gi'ace has wrought these great changes, is .'t lawful for any 
man to set limits to it, and say that it could not raise those 
new Christians to tho most eminent sanctity, if they wore 
but faithful to it ? 

2d. That the promises made by the Saviour of tho world 
to his disciples, whether for the conversion of tho world or 
tho supernatural means by which he was to co-operate 
with them, api)ly to all who, till the flock of the elect is 
gathered together, receive a lawful mission to labor for 
this assembling. If miracles, according to Saint .\ngus- 
tine, were necessary in tho commencement of tho Church, 


thoy aro, by tho Hftiuo priiu-iplo, in all uaHwiit cluinlK's ; 
ttiid tho power of cuHtiri^ out evil HpiritH, gruiih'd, not to 
tho tiiHt prt'iulmiM cf tho (,'oMpol iiloiic, Imt to tlio fuitlifiil, 
and whioh forum part of tho doposit mtruntod to tho 
Church for all timoH, pr«'Hupi»0H0rt tho onipiro of tho ovil 
spiritH ovor all who havo not rcccivod tho saca-od oharactor 
iuiprintod on uh \>y tho Hacraiucut of rc^^cuoration. 

3d. That of all natiouH in tho world, thoro is uono for 
which tho kingdom of hoavon Ih not open (Matt, xxviii. 18), 
nor to which tho ai»ostloH and thoir HuccoHHorH wi-ro not 
exprosHly enjoined to aunounco tho gospel — " Teach yo all 
nations ;" and that to attempt to excludo u single ono 
from tho benetit oi redemption and the treasures of heaven 
which it contains, would bo to gainsay tho whole Uible, 
which speaks in the most formal terms on tho point. 

Thoy may say, tlmn, w hat they list to dim tho glory of 
tho apostles of tho Now World, but they cannot deny that 
they are of those to whom our Lord has said, " Go, teach 
all nations." If they did not reoeivo their mission imme- 
diately from Him, they received it from those who had 
authority to give it ; and, intrusted with an important 
part of the work, could rely on tho same aid, and be 
assured of tho same assistance from Him who promised to 
bo with those sent to preach His law, to tho end of time. 
Nay, more. The august ministry with which they were 
honored would naturally form in our minds this precon- 
ceived idea, that they were in general what they should 
have boea ; and all that wo relate of their heroic virtues — 
of what they did and suflferod in tho exercise of the min- 
istry — is so probable, that we might bo surprised if thoy 
were not such men. Only those who venture to assert 
that, in spite of our Saviour's promise, tho gates of hell 
have prevailed against the Church, can refuse to acknow- 
ledge that she has still, and will havo to the end, apostles, 
martyrs, saints, in all conditions and countries to which 
her sway extends, and that tho power of miracles will 
never fail her. 


1 640. 







1640. All that I have hitherto said regards especially the sed- 
^"""^''""^ ciitarj uiissious — that is to say, those of the Hiirous and 
Stiito of the Sylleri ; but they endeavored to proceed m the same 
Threo Kiv- Spirit, aiul follow the same rule, as far as possible, in all 
"™' the others. At Three Rivers, besides the Algouqiiius, who 
■were ordinarily' there in pretty large numbers, several 
nations from the most remote quarters of the North began 
to apj)ear and remain during the pleasant season. The 
most important was the Attikamegii^s, whose chief resi- 
dence was in the vicinity of Lake tit. Thomas, which you 
find at 50° N., as you ascend the river, whose three mouths 
give name to this post. It did not require much to make 
this tribe relish the truths of Christianity. They were 
naturally docile, of a gentle disposition, and fi'om the first 
conceived such an attachment to the French, that nothing 
could ever detach them." Yet the progi'ess of the faith 
among them was quite slow ; because, as winter ap- 
proached, they returned home, and when they descended 
the next year, it was necessary to begin their instruction 
anew, as on the first day. 
TfldousFfto. A. little flock of Christians wt\,3 also formed at Tadous- 
sac, a place long frequented more than any other by the 
Montngnez, the Papinachois, the Bersiamites, and the 
Porcupine tribe. They sometimes arrived all together, 
and mort! frequently one aft<'r another ; but when their 
trade was over they returned home, or rather scattered in 
the forests and mountains, except a smaU number who 
wintered in the neighborhood of Tadoussac and gave the 
missionaries abundant occupation. From time to time 
some of these Fathers followed the Montagnez in their 
winter hunts, for which these Indians always selected the 
most frightful and uninhabitable places, because the game 
they sought was more plentiful there." 

' Uclntidii (U) la NouvcUo France, 
IGoS, 1). '^1 ; 11141, p. ;iiJ; KU:!, pp. 
8-88; 1(147, pp. SO-tll ; Crcuxius, 
llistoriii ('iiiiiKlcnciH, ))p. 283, ttc, 
303, etc. TLc Attikuiui'gucs ivie ulso 

called PoissdiiHlanc or Whitcfish, De 
la I'otlicric, Hist, ilc I'Am. Sept., i., 
p 2!)4. See Crcuxius, p. 307. 
■' Relation, 1038, p. 3 ; 1041, pp. 3, 

5u ; ioia, pp. aa-o. 



Miscou Island and the shores of the Gulf of St. Law- 1640. 

renco were also at the time one of the ordinary resorts of ' < ' 

the Indians, the fisheries being very productive there ; but Aioimd tho 
the colony did not profit by fish or furs. French merchants, """^^ 
devoted solely to the gain they actually made, controlled 
the trade, without taking any steps to render it durable 
and solid. The ministry did not interfere with it or 
Acadia, which Avas also ip private hanti.,; luid shut its eyea 
to the importance of these separate posts, which might 
have been a mutual support, had care been taken to fortify 
thfiii and settle them gi-adually. 

Tho Indians who came to trade on tho Gulf of St. Law- 
rence Avere the same as those of Acadia ; but they were 
more commonly called, in these parts, Gaspesians, from 
Cape Gaspe, where most of the vessels first anchored.' 
They were very mild, but remained so little at any one 
place that the missionaries, with all their care, could 
scarcely succeed in instructing them in the truths of reli- 
gion. Father Charles Tursis had just fallen a victim to 
his zeal, havhig died of hardship in Isle Miscou, although, 
in a period of two years, he had bajjtized only one child.' 
Fathers Julian Perrault and Martin Lionnes," who were in 
his neighborhood, Avere not more successful, or less coura- 
geous or patient, in the exercise of this unfruitful apos- 

In a Avord, wherever trade attracted the Indians a mis- 
sionary was found to announce Christ to them ; but their 
short stay hi any one i)lace did not permit the seed of tho 
word of God to germinate in their hearts. It was only 
after a plan was devised of makuig them a little more 

' For tho Jliscou mission, see IJo- 
lation, l(i;i5, p. ; in;!(i. p. T5 ; l(i43, 
p. 4;i, etc. As to tlu^ identity of t\w 
Gnsposiaiis nnd Miciiiars, sri; llisi- 
torical Mapizint', vol. v., p. Mi. 

'' Cbarlus TurjjiH <iii(l May 4, I(i;i7 
(Uelution, 10;J7, p. loy). 11.) liad 
baj)ti/.ed ouo or two 

' Martin dc Lionno was tliore later. 
II'; arrived Auijnst l.T, l(i4:) (.lournal 
dii Snix'ricur di>s .Icsuiti's, MS, Hul,, 
l(it;i, p. ;iO). Ill' uiod -11 Ac'.idia, 
January 10, llitil (Carayon. I'^fu- 
mcnts Ini'dits, xiv,, p. 114). ixT-ault 
gives an acoimiit of liis niisi-ious in 
CaiM' Brt'tou in the lielalion of l(;;jj. 


r :i 

i * 

i : i 

! ; 




I ? 

1640. sedentary, that their admirable disposition for Chria- 
*'^'>''"~' tiauity was understood and turned to account, as we shall 
see in the sequel. But I do not think myself hound to 
include in these favorable dispositions the worship of the 
cross, said to have obtained, from time out of mind, in all 
this eastern part of Canada. 
The wor- Mr. de St. Vallier, bishop of Quebec, in a letter which 
Cross he pubUshed on his return from his first visitation of his 
Gaapesians. diocese, speaks of this worship as an attested and indubi- 
table fact.' He had it fi-om *^he EocoUect Father Christian 
le Clercq, who has taken great pains to give it currency,' 
but who has had as many gainsayers as he has well- 
informed readers. Moreover, this rehgious was the only 
one who had advanced this paradox, none of those who 
lived among those Indians before him — many of whom 
knew their language and studied their traditions better 
than he was able to do — having discovered any thing of 
the kind. What misled the historian was ai>pareutly 
this : 

A letter of Father J;Uian Perrault, written in 1635, 
informs us that these Indians took pleasure in imitating 
all that they see Europeans do : that having especially 
remarked that they often made the sign of the cross ou 
themselves, they did the same. When they met a Euro- 
pean they made the cross on different parts of their body, 
but without the least idea of its being a mark of religion.' 
This custom, already of long date when Father Christian 
le Clercq resided among the Gaspesians, and perhaps be- 
come a superstitious practice, induced that missionary to 
believe it so originally. It may also be, that ou question- 

' Estat Present de I'Egliae, etc., p. ' Lo Clercq, Nouvelle IJelatiim de 

14 (ed. Quebec). Mgr. de St. Valicr la Oasix'sit", p. 173, etc. He admits 

does not quote le Clercq, but gives that in his time they had lost their 

as autliority Mr. de Fronsuc, son of respect Cor tlie cross (il)., p. 1S7). 

? r. Denys, who had it from an In- ■' Relation de la Nouvelle Fiance, 

dian who died a few years bilore, 1(i:)5 (ed. Qiubcc), ]>. 4'.). I'crnudt 

aged one hiin<iri'd or one hundred Siiys they painted the crous on their 

and twenty : Estat Present, p. 14. persons. 





oftho Ilu- 

ing some of these Indians, these savages, often confused 
in their traditions, have perhaps seemed to him to include 
it among their most ancient. 

Meanwhile, the war between the Iroquois and our allies Generosity 
increased in fiu'y. The former, falling unexpectedly upon 
a distant nation, whose name I have been unable to ascer- 
tain,' committed a fearful massacre, and compelled all who 
escaped to seek a refuge elsewhere. They found one 
among the Hurons, who were no sooner aware of their 
misfortunes than they went to meet them with provisions, 
and received them with an affection that would have done 
honor to a Christian people. The missionaries, whom it 
woidd ill become to be outdone in charity by heathen, 
hastened on their side to the relief of these poor exiles, 
and they had the consolation of seeing several for whom 
misfortune proved the stroke of predestination." 

Their joy redoubled when, resuming their ministry, Their re- 
•which had not yet borne all the fruit they had reason to 
expect, they perceived that God — touched, doubtless, by 
the generosity of the Hurons, as He was of old by the 
alms of the centurion Cornelius — had changed their 
hearts, and that the very men who had most persistently 
turned a deaf ear to their exhortations were most earnest 
in their entreaty to be admitted in the ranks of the prose- 
lytes. But this was not the only reward bestowed by the 
Almighty on tliese charitable Indians. 

Some time after, three hundred Huron and Algonquin 
warriors having taken the field, a small body of ad- 
venturers in the van came upon a himdred Ii-oquois, 
who attacked them, but who, notwithstanding the ad- 
vantage of numbers, failed to capture more than one 


1 ' 

l^ :» 

t / 

' The Relation de la Nouvelle 
France for lG;ii) (pp. 55, 59) gives the 
name as \Veanohronon or Wen- 
rohronon. Their country was eighty 
leagues from Ossosane, on the fron- 
tier of the Neuters towards the Iro- 

quois ; hence in Now York. They 
are perhaps the tribe attacked by 
Champlain, but driven further west. 
See ante, p. 28. 84. 

" Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1039, p. GO. 



1 640. mau. Satisfied ■with even this trifling success, and fciiing 

' ^"^^ to engage f. larger party if they advanced, they were about 

Dffeat of to retreat, when the prisoner told them that the band to 

party, which ho and his comrades belonged was much weaker 
than their party. Deceived by his story, they resolvetl to 
await the allies at a poin*^ where, as their captive assured 
them, they intended to pass, taking no precaution except 
to throw up a kind of intreuchment to prevent a surprise.' 
The Hurons and Algonquins soon appenred ; and the 
Iroquois, desperate at being thus duped, wreaked a fearful 
but not unexpected vengeance on him who had involved 
them in such a disaster. The majority then counselled 
flight ; but a brave, raising his voice, said : " Brothers, if 
•we resolve to commit such an act of cowardice, at least 
wait till the sun sinks in the west, that he may not see us." 
These few words had their effect. They resolved to fight 
to their last breath, and did so with all the courage that 
could be infipired by hate, and the fear of dishonor by 
fleeing from enemies so often vanquished ; but they were 
opposed to men who were not inferior to them in cour- 
age, and were here three to one. 

After a very stubborn fight, seventeen or eighteen Iro- 
quois were left on the field, their intrenchment stormed, 
and all the survivors disarmed and taken. The Hurons 
took to their village the captives that fell to their lot," 
and outdid themselves in cruelty to these wretches ; but 
God seems to have permitted their misfortune only to dis- 
play his mercy in their regard. The missionaries, who 
were accorded hberty to converse with them freely, found 
theii' docility astonishing. They instructed them suffi- 
ciently in our holy mysteries, and baptized them all. 
These neophytes then sustained the frightful torture to 
■which they were sul)jected — not with that brutal insensi- 
bility and ferocious pride in which these savages glory on 

' Creuxius, Historia Canadensis, ' Rolation, 1039, p. 69 ; Creuxius, 
p. 241. Historia Canadunsis, p. 341. 


' t 


such occasions, but with patience, sentiments, and courage 
worthy o? Christianity, and which their executioners could 
not fail to attribute to the power of baptism.' 

This happy prejudice greatly advanced the cause of 
religion, and authorized the faithful to profess it more 
openly than they had yet dared to do ; for till then several 
had not complete liberty in cabins where they did not 
form a majority. Some even had been ill-treated for 
their religion ; and Avhen i, Christian fell sick, nothing was 
left untried to force him to call in the medicine-men. 
Many allowed themselves to be seduced, and some mis- 
sionaries were of opinion that on more than one occasion 
the prestiges of these charlatans were attended with 
operations visibly diabolical. 

Yet the allies lost all benefit of the advantage which 
they had gained by their not acting in concert. The can- 
tons, on their side, more aroused than ever by the check 
which they had received, resolved to take a memorable ven- 
geance ; but not to draw too many united forces on them at 
once, they set every engine at work to prevent the French 
fi-om assisting their alHes, and at the same time to create 
in the latter a distrast of us. They sent out three hun- 
dred warriors, divided into several bands j and all the 
Indians that fell into their hands were treated with the 
iniiumanity habitual to these barbarians. On the con- 
trary, some Frenchmen, tr.ken prisoners in the vicinity of 
Three Rivers, received no injury. 

Some time after, several parties appeared in the neigh- 
borhood of the same fort, and for several months held in 
check all the French settlements. Then, when least ex- 
pected, they offered to make peace, on condition that our 
allies should not be included. This proposition was made 
to Mr. de Champfiours, who had recently succeeded the 
Chevalier de Lisle as governor of Three Rivers, and was 
brought in by a French prisoner named Marguerie. The 



Rcvernl pri- 
soners are 
baptized at 

of tlio Iro- 
quois to clo- 
taoli tfia 
from tlia 


■ t ' ; 


' Relation, 1639, p. 67 ; Creuxius, Historia Canadensis, p. 241. 




;■ I 

Thoy treat 
with tlio 
former in 
bad faith. 

1640. man added tliat neither lie nor his foUow-pvisoneiB could 
■"t"^ ' do aught but praise the treatment they had received from 
the Iroquois, but that he did net think withal that it was 
very prudent to treat with them. 

The advice was sound : but they were not in a position 
to make war ; so they concluded to negotiate, keeping, 
howe\t;v, well on their guard. The ChevaHer de Mont- 
magnj', notified by Mr. de Champflours of what was occur- 
ring, descended to Three Eivers in a well-armed barque, 
and sent the Sieur Nicolet and Father Ilagueneau to the 
Iroquois to ask back the French prisoners .vhom they 
retained, and to learn their disposition in regard to peace. 
Those deputies Avere well received. They were seated as 
mediators, on a buckler.' The prisoners were then brought 
to them bound, though but slightly. A war-chief imme- 
diately made a very studied hai-argue, in which he en- 
deavored to persuade them that his nation had nothing so 
much at heart as to live on good terms with the French. 

In the midst of hit^ discourse he approached tlie pris- 
oners, unbound them, and flung their bonds over the pal- 
isade, saying : " Let the river carry them 30 far, that they 
be no more spoken of." At the same time he presented a 
belt to the two deputies, and begged them to receive it as 
a pledge of the liberty which he restored to the children 
of Ononthio.' Then taking two packs of beaver, he laid 
them at the feet of the prisoners, adding that it was un- 
reasonable to send them back naked, and that he gave 
them material for robes. He then resuired his discourse, 
and said that aU the Iroquois cantons ardently desired a 
durable peace with the French, and that in their name^ he 
begged Ouonthio to hide under his clothes the hatchets of 
the Algonquins and Hurons while the peace was in nego- 

' See Sagard, Histoire, p. 447. these Indians, and aU others after 

" Ononthio, in Huron and Inxiuois, tlidr oxftiuple, called tlie gnvornor- 

menns Gredt Afoitntiiiii, and this, gonernl of New France, Onontliio, 

thoy won; told, was the name of Mr. and the king of Franco, the groat 

de Montmagny. From this time Ouonthio. — Gharleruix. 






tiation ; declaring tliat on their side tlioy -vvoiikl commit 
no hostility. 

He was still speaking, when two Algonqnin canoes hav- 
ing appeared in sight of the spot Avhero the council was 
hold, the Iroquois gave them chase. The Algonquins, 
seeing no prospect of resisting so large a force, jumped 
overboard and swam away, leaving their canoes, which 
were plundered before the eyes of the governor-general. 
This outrage show(>d how little reliance could be placed 
on the word of these savages, and negotiations were 
broken off at once. The Iroquois having now no veil to 
hide their perfidy, threw off the mask and spoke with 
great insolence. The Chevalier do Montmagny under- 
took to bring them to reason, but they escai)ed at the 
moment when ho thought he had them ; and to complete 
his chagrin, he learned almost at the same time that a 
number of Huron canoes, coming down to Quebec, loaded 
with furs, had fallen into their hands. 

The position of the general was undoubtedly a sad one, 
exposed daily to similar affronts for want of troops enough 
just to keep in equilibrium the balance between two bands 
of Indians who, all together, could not have kept in the 
field against four or five thousand Frenclimon. But the 
Company of the Hundred Associates would not shake off 
their lethargy ; and the French colony, instead of increas- 
ing day by day, declined in strength and numbers^' An 
enterprise, undertaken about this time, to settle and fortify 
the island of Montreal, was some consolation to the Chev- 
alier de Montmagny, and for a time flattered him with the 
hope that the Ii-oquois would no longer dare to come and 
brave liim, as thoy had just done under his very cannon. 

The first missionaries had from the outset recognized the 
importance of occupying the island of Montreal, but the 
Canada Company did not enter into their views. It needed 
again private indiAaduals to assume the execution of a design 
so advantageous to New France, which the Iroquois war 
rendered actually necessary. Some persons of rank, even 



Position of 

the sovcr- 



f , 

( t 



iiiciit at 





more estimable for their piety and zeal for relij^ion, formed 
a society whioli proposed to do on a grand scale at Mon- 
treal what liad been attempted more modestly at SyHeri. 
There was to be on this island a French town, well fortified 
and able to resist all insults. The poor were to be received 
there and enabled to live by their labor. It was proposed 
to occupy the rest of the island with Indians of all nations 
whatsoever, provided they professed Christianity or wished 
to be instructed in our holy mysterirs; and they were 
more persuaded that numbers would come, fi'om the fact 
that, besides being a secure asylum against the pursuit of 
their enemies, it would always afford prompt succor in 
sickness and against starvation. It was proposed, even, 
to civilize them in time, and accustom them to live solely 
by the labor of their own hands.' 
It is in part The number of those who entered the association was 
■ thirty-five," — too many to allow prolonged action in con- 
cert : yet it began in a manner that augured success. 
Under the grant of the island made by the king' they took 
possession, in 1640, at the close of t solemn Mass, cele- 
brated under a tent. The next year Paul de Chomedey, 
Sieur de Maisonneuve, a gentleman of Champagne, him- 
self an associate, brought out several famihes fi-om France. 
He arrived in Quebec with Mademoiselle de Manse, a lady 
of good family, appointed to take charge of persons of 
her sex.* The Chevalier de Montmagny and the superior- 
general of the Jesuits conducted them to Montreal ; and 

carried out. 


' For the history of the aesociation, 
thus briefly alluded to, the main 
spirit of which was Mr. Olier, the 
founder of tlie Sulpitians, see Fail- 
lon, Histoire do la Colonie Frani;ai8e 
en Canada, i., pp. 379-493. 

" Mr. Faillon (p. 437) says the pre- 
cise numb(!r is not known. Dollier 
de Casson says forty. 

^ The island was coded to the 
associates Aug. 7, 1640, by Mr. de 
Lauson (ib., p. 394), -nd by the Com- 

pany of New France, Dec. 17, 1640 
(ib., p. 305). Mr. Fojllon makes no 
allusion to a royal grant, but men- 
tions a royal approval of the grant 
and tlie concession of certain powers 
(p. 409). 

* Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1643, p. 37; Helmont, Histoire du 
Canada; Faihon, Histoiro, p, 424. 
Mile. Manco arrived at Quebec Aug. 
8, 1G41, and Maisonnouve Aug. 34 
(Faillon, pp. 430-3). 



on tho 15tli of October Monsieur de Maisonneuvo was 1641-2. 
doulared governor of the island." ^— "-r— ' 

On the 17th of May following,* tho place chosen for 
tho French settlement was blessed by the same superior,' 
who celebrated the holy mysteries there, dedicated to 
tlio Mother of God a little oliapel, hastily erected, and 
left the Blessed Sacrament in it. This ceremony had 
been preceded throe months before — that is, towards the 
close of February— by another. All the as 'iates re- 
paired, one Thursday mornmg, to Notre-D de Paris ; 
tho priests said Mass ; the others received at Our Lady'3 
altar ; and all besought the Queen of Angels to take tlie 
island of Montreal under her protection.* Finally, on tho 
15th of August, the feast of the Assumption of tho Blessed 
Virgin was solemnized on the island, amid an extraordi- 
nary gathering of French and Indians.' Nothing was 
overlooked, on this occasion, to draw down the blessing of 
heaven on the useful establishment, and to give the 
heathen an exalted idea of the Christian religion. 

On the evenuig of the same day Monsieur de Maison- Trnditinn u 
neuvo wished to visit the '-.juntain which has given name oi"nt'inhab- 
to the island ; and two old Indians who accompanied him, ""isUnd!"^" 
having led him to the summit, told him that they be- 
longed to the nation which had formerly inhabited that 
country. " We were," they added, " very numerous, and 
all the hills you see to the south and east were inhabited. 
The Hurons drove our ancestors out. One part took 
refuge with the Abenaqiiis ; others retired to the Iroquois 
cantons ; some remained with our conquerors."* The gov- 
ernor begged them to invite their brethren to assemble 
again in their old possessions, where they should lack for 
nothing, and bn protected against any attempt to distiub 

• .1 

' Rt'liition de la N. Fr., 1633, p. 87. 

'' Dollicr de Ciiason (Hist, de Mon- 
tronl, MS.) and Faillon (Hist, de la 
Col. Fran(;nise, i., p. 43!)), Vie de Mile. 
Jlitnse (I., xl.) say May 18 : Le Clercq, 
Picuiier Etab. de la Foi, p. 50. 

* Rev. Bartholomew Vimont. 

< Relation de la N. P., 1643, p. 37. 
Mr. Faillon (\\ 436) says Feb. 3. 

' lb., p. 38. 

' Compare Perrault, Moeurs, etc., 
pp. 9, 165. 



1641-2. tliom.' Tlioy proiniHocI to do all that depoiulod on them, 
but ajiparcntly failed to bring together the remnants of 
thiH dispovHud nation,' which may perhaps be the Iroquets 
mentioned in my journal.* 

' Rulation de la Nouvcllo France, 
1643, p. !)8. 

' Crouxlua (Hifltoria CanadenRis, 
p. <)74) B|>cHk8 of traces of the anck-nt 
town aH still remaining in his time, 
and the AlKonquins called it Minitik 
Wtcn enta^!;^K'l'*^ — " island whore 
there was a town (Relation, 1G43, 
p. 80). 

• Journal, pp. 1 1 0, 1 1 1 . They were 
■undoubtedly the Iroquet. Seo Re- 
lation, 1(140, p. ;i4. Charlevoix sup- 
poses them to have been Ilurons j 
but thoy were Algonquins, and were 
called by the Hurons Onontchataro- 
nons : Relation, 1033, p. 20 ; 1043, 
p. 01. It is not necessary to suppose 
them the inhabitants of Ilochelaga. 
A Huron town generally had Algon- 
quins camping near, and the account 
of the origin of the war between 
the Irrxjuoio and Algonqiiins shows 
this to have been the case In early 

times. The statement, however, 
here given clashes with that of Per- 
rault (Ma-urs, Coustumos, etc., dos 
gauvages, j)p. 0, 105), followed byde 
la Potherio (Ilistoiro du I'Am^rique 
Heptcntrionale, i., p. 288) ; unless we 
are to supixwo Hurons in early times 
to have expelled the Iroquet, and 
that then the Iroquois and Algon- 
quins settled there till their war 
came off, when Hochelaga was de- 
stroy e<l, and the Iroquois fell back 
to New York and the Algonqulns to 
the Ottawa. It is more likely, how. 
ever, that in this incidental mention 
of an Indian's remarks, the words 
Huron and Iroquois hav(! been trans- 
posed. If the chief said his ances> 
tors were driven out by the Iroquois, 
and that some took refuge with th ^ 
Hurons, the account will agree with 
all others that have been handed 
down. See Journal, p. 109. 




W'liKN Charlf'vnix wrote, imt' iiij^ liad licfii itiililiMlinl liciuiiijj: on Wm Hct- 
tlt'ini'iit of tht) IkIiuuI of Mdiiticiil oxccpt tlio tmrt, " L<'h V( rilubli'H 
MotifH," wliicli appi'uri'd in 1074. (Sco vol. i., p. 82.) Tlio Society of 
Mniitrea! piiliiislieil tin HtiiterneiitM, and tlie SiilpitiaiiH had not tlio rule of 
wiiliny to tlieir SupeiiorH, wliicli, eHtalilinlieil l)y St. I^iiatiuH in the caHO 
of tlio JoHuitH, in order to keep alive a feeling? of brotherhood and edill- 
caticii anionpf the widcdy-Hcattered inoiiiborH of the order, Ikih led to tho 
preHcrvatioii of no rnueli inl'orniation. 

The early hintory of the movement iiaM, however, in our (hiy, found an 
investigator and chronicler in tho laboriouH zeal of A[r. Faillon of St. Sul- 
jiiee, who has issued a weries of valuable works, all beariiif;' on the; history 
of Montreal. lie treats tho origin of tho setlli'ment as entirely supernat- 
inal : llistoiro do lo Colonic I'rauyaise, i., p. 382 ; Vie do Mih;. Mame, 
vol. i. The first one inipolled lo undertake tho settlement was a gentle- 
nnm named .Teromt! le Royer de la Dauversiere, of la Fleche, ii' \njoii. 
The second, similarly moved, in 1(>3('), was a young clergyman, Jicv. 
John James Oiler,' who sulisecjuently instituted tho seminary of St. Sid- 

' The Rev. .lolin Jniiii'M Oliir di' Vcr- 
lii'Uil was l)i>rii at. Paris, Scpti'iulicr W, 
KisO, Hccimil son of .IniiH's Olicr, HiTrctary 
tn Henry IV., uud master of rei|uenlM in 
tliat l\iMf;'s palaee. After a careful educa- 
tion under Ids father's care, he endiraced 
till) ecclesiaHticul utute, niul becaino iliti- 
niately connected witli St. Vincent do 
Paid ; inthien<'ed by whose example Ik; 
he^'an to give missions in Aiivergiie, whiTo 
he held thealibeyof P(' brae, and etrecteil 
great good. Uefiising a bislioprii" and tho 
coailjutorship of C'lialons sur Marne, hu 
accepted th..' parish of St. Sidpicc, at Paris, 
ill Itil'J, then in great disorder. Aided 
by some clt>rgyinan with wliom lie had 
lived la comiminity at Vaiigirard, he 
entirely reformed liis luirish, and then 
began ft long coiiti'inplated work, the 
founiling of a tlieological heiiiinaiy for the 
proper (raining of candidates for the (iriest- 

VOL. 11.— U 

hood. Tliis he effected, with tho royal ap- 
probation, in l(it."i. His institute, known 
as the Seminary of St. Sulpice, has ren- 
diTed immense service to religion, and 
STMin led to similar establishments in other 
jiai-ts of France, under the direction of hla 
community, commonly styled Suljntinns. 
In .America tln'V have seminaries at Mon- 
treal and Baltimore. 

Mr. Olier resigned his ]iiuisli in \t'i5'i, 
and retired to his seminary, wh -re ho 
died A|iril 'i, l(i."i7, lit the age of forty-nine, 
revered by the best and Imliist men in 
Friince. Ho wrote a Tri' on Holy 
Orders, a Christian Catechism of tho In- 
terior I/ife, A Christian's Day; his letters 
have also been published. His life was 
written brietly by Father Uiry ; nmre at 
length by Mr. Nagot. of St. Siilpico, in 
ISIS : and by Mr. Failhni of the same 
congregation {i vols., 8vo ; Paris, 1853). 

I I *: 



pice at Paris. They finally met and resolved to obey the common in- 
spiration. The next who joined Avas Peter Chevrier, Baron of Fancamp, 
who, in 1640, sent out provisions and tools to Quebec to serve for the 
coming settlers. The celebrated Baron de Renty and two others were 
subsequently associated. John de Lauson, the proprietor of the Island 
of Montreal, induced by Father Charles Lalemant, ceded it to these 
gentlemen, August IT, 1G40. To remove all doubts, the associates also 
obtained a grant from the New France Company on the 11th December, 
1640 ; ratified and approved by the King, February 13, 1644 : Edits et 
Ordonnances Royaux, Quebec, pp. 20, 24. The associates engaged to 
send out forty settlers, to be employed in clearing and cultivating ; to 
increase the number annu. Wy ; to supply them with two sloops, cattle, 
farm-hands ; after live years, to erect a seminary, maintain ecclesiastics 
as missionaries and teachers, also nuns as teachers and hospitallers. On 
its side, the New France Company agreed to transport thirty settlors : 
Archives du Seminairc de St. Sulpice, quoted by Faillon, i., p. 401. A 
leader of the new colony was found in Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maison- 
neuve, a gentleman of Champagne, who had applied to Father Lalemant 
to aid him in getting service in Canada. 

The six associates then contributed twenty-five thousand crowns to 
begin the settlement ; and Mr. de Maisonneuve embarked with his coi- 
onists, on three vessels, from Kochclle and Dieppe, in the summer of 
1641, and arrived himself at Quebec on the 20th of August. Mile. Mance 
had reached there previously, as had those who came in the thivd vessel. 

The Chevalier de Montmagny, in consequence of the hostility of the 
Iroquois, endeavored to persuade Mr. de Maisonneuve to winter at Que- 
bec, but he went on resolutely. After being installed governor, as stated 
by Charlevoix, he wintered his colonists at Quebec, where he had a store- 
house and dwelling, and at Salute Foy and St. Michel, where Mr. Peter 
de Puiseaux, Sieur de Montrcnault, offered him a hospitable welcome. 
Here, during the winter, boats Avtrc built and timber prepared for 
houses ; and on the 8th of May they embarked, and, as stated in tho 
text, arrived nine dayd after, and having heard Mass, began an intrench- 
ment around their tents. This fort and all in it were nearly swept away 
by an inundation, but the nest spring the necessary buildings were all 
erected. In 1643 d'Ailleboust brought over more settlers, reaching Que- 
bec on the 15th of August, the day alluded to by Charlevoix.' 

' Le Clercq, Etablissement de la Foi, 11. 45-GO, is devoted to Montreal. 


r ( 

I } 




The assurance of the Iroquois, in appearing in arms in 1642. 
sight of Three Eivsrs, and the boldness with which they 
had insulted the Chevalier de Montmagny, gave that gen- 
eral deep subject for thought. He rightly deemed it a 
duty to omit no precaution against a surprise, and put 
himself in a position to meet all the efforts of a nation 
which no longer used any disguise, and seemed bent on 
employiL'j alike artif ce and strength to gain the mastery 
of the whole country, — the more especially as the Dutch of 
New Netherland, if not openly declaring in their favor, 
would undoubtedly furnish them with aid in more than 
one way. 

It was accordingly resolved to erect a fort at the mouth Fort Eieho- 
of the river which then bore their name, and is now called 
Sorel River, this being the route they generally took to 
come down into the colony. It was completed in a short 
time, notwithstanding all the attempts of seven hundred 
Iroquois to oppose it. They fell upon the workmen when 
they least expected it, but were repulsed with loss. The 
fort received tlio name of Eichelieu, already given to the 
river, and a pretty strong garrison was stationed here." 
Had the Canada Company been willing to incur a similar 
expense for the defence of the Huron country, those 


' Montmngny arrived, with work- 
men, cannon, and soldiers, Aug. 13, 
1642 : Relat. do la Nouvello France, 
1042, p. 250 ; Creuxius, Hist. Canad., 
p. 351. The Frencli, in this action, 

were led by Corporal dn Rocher, the 
governor being on a vessel in the 
stream : Creuxius, Hist. Canad., p. 
51 . The Indians were two hundred. 
Sec post, p. 143. 



1642. Indians would have escaped many evils ; and so, too, would 
^■""Y^"^ the whole colony, which soon felt the result of the misfor- 
tunes that overwhelmed the Hurons in the succeeding years. 
Namoroim The moment was an auspicious one to erect a strong 
amotiK tiio barrier against the Iroquois at that point, all the Huron 
urous. ^Q.y^^g being in movement to embrace Christianity, and, as 
a necessary consequence, adhere more firmly to us. Aha- 
sistari, one of the most esteemed chiefs of the nation, was 
the instrument especially used by Heaven to effect a 
change which seemed to the missionaries miraculous ; for 
the very men who had till then been most rebeUious to 
grace, now showed most ardor for instruction and baptism. 
Astonishing things were told of this chief.' He was, 
indeed, a very brave man, to whom actions of more than 
ordinary valor had, perhaps, led men to attribute still 
more bviUiaut achievements. It is certain, however, that 
his merit alone, and the credit he enjoyed in all his nation, 
had long made the missionaries conceive a strong desire of 
winning him to Christ. 
History of a There was no great probability of success, this Indian 
being extremely attached to his superstitions; but the 
difficulty of these great conversions is what often reassures 
apostoUc men, who know that grace, which is aU-powerful, 
is often pleased to triumph over those who resist its inspi- 
rations most stubbornly. They were, therefore, not dis- 
heartened, and continued to make frequent visits to the 
Huron chief, although he always received them quite iU. 
Yet he yielded at last, and even began to look upon them 
with favor. They gradually found him less removed from 
the Kingdom of God, and at last he began to relish their 
conversations on religion." 

They then devoted themselves more iuan ever to his 
instruction. He heard them attentively, proposed his 


' Relation Huronne, 1642, p. 68. ' He never showed any aversion 
He was a cliief of the Attinguee- to the faith : li<!lation du la Nouvelle 
uongnahak. France, 1042, p. 08. 



doubts, and when tboy were explained, manifested bis con- 1642. 
viction. He requested baptism, but the Fathers' thought ^— "^""^ 
it unwise to admit to the bosom of the Church, on a 
single request, a proselyte of this character, deeming it 
proper to make him long desire that favor. One day, 
when ho was earnestly soliciting it at one of the public 
conferences that I have described, the missionary who 
presided asked him to inform the assembly what had 
given him his first desire to become a Christian ; and he 
repUed in these worls, which I take, Uterally, from the 
missionary's own letter : 

" This thought engaged my mind even before you came His vooa- 
to this country. I often ran great risks, and on many oc- christimi- 
casions I happily escaped, v/hen all my comrades perished "^* 
at my side. Some powerful genius, I said to myself, must 
bear especial watch over my days, and I could never 
banish the thought that this genius must be infinitely 
superior co those who are honored among us. Nor could I 
avoid regarding as silly all that is told us of dreams. No 
sooner had I heard Jesus spoken of, than I felt assui-ed 
that he was the protector to whom I had so often been 
indebted for liberty and hfe. Stubborn an adherent as I 
may have since appeared of our practices and traditions, 
I nevertheless felt interiorly moved to adore Him alone ; 
and if I have so long deferred obeying this impulse of my 
heart, it was because I wished to be instructed before 
making the avowal. Even when I seemed least disposed 
to hear you, I undertook no enterprise without commend- 
ing myself to Jesus, and I put all my trust in him. For a 
long time I have invoked him every morning; to him I 
attribute every success; and in his name I ask baptism 
from you, that he may be merciful to me after death."* 

The missionaries thought it wrong to withhold this His baptism 
satisfaction longer from a man so well prepared. He was ""'^ '*'"'''■ 


' The missionaries at this town ' This address is more simply and 
were Fathers Gamier and le Moyne : beautifully given in the Relation, 
Riltttion, 1043, p. 70 IG-ia, p. 59. 




on Iiidiun 

ba^itizcd the same clay' by the name of Eustace. Ho soon 
after raised a largo war-party, in which he would receive 
none but Chri.stiaus. His baud being ready to start, ho 
led it to the missionary of his town, in whose presence ho 
thus addressed them : 

" Brethren, we all servo one same Master ; let us then be 
but one heart and one mind. TVe must carefully avoid all 
intercourse with the pagans ; and all our brethren, who are 
in need and affliction, must find consolation and solaco 
in us. Let us carefully hide the faiilts of Christians from 
the eyes of the heathen, and, on all occasions, let them 
see that religion unites us more closely than the ties of 
blood and interest over did. As to our kindred, who do 
not profess the same religion as oxirsolves, it is good 
that tliey kuoAV that deatli will separate them from us 
forever, and otir ashes cannot even be mingled with 
theirs. Let us publish everywhere, but by example 
rather than by word, tl"e holiness and excellence of faith 
in Jesus, and endeavor, if possible, to make all the world 
embrace it." 

If the Canada Indians spoke thus only on the relations 
of the missionaries, I admit that I would have held such 
harangues as very siispicious, whatever veneration I might 
have for those who gave them, and notwithstanding the 
air of sincerity which greatly prepossesses us in their 
favor. Still, not only should the experience of all ages con- 
vince us that good souse, native eloquence, and exalted 
sentiments are found wherever man exists, and do not 
always depend on education ; but I do not hesitate to say 
that those who have seen these savages wiU not accuse me 
of attributing to them an elevation, a pathos, an energy 
foreign to them.' Did not the Greeks themselves admit 
that there was more nobility in the simplicity of the 
speeches of Barbarians than in the studied harangiies of 

' Holy Saturday ; Letter of F. 
Charlee Gamier, May 22, 1042. 

" Compare Colden, IliBtory Five 
NatioDB. New York, 1727. 



Athens?' Moreover, there is no uoubt but that the Holy 1642. 
Ghost iuspirod this uoopliyto. ■— ~r—— ' 

About tho same time some Jesuits received a deputation Excursion 
from the Saulteurs, inviting them to visit tho tribe. These " tour». 
Indians then occupied the country around a rapid, in tho 
midst of tho channel by which Lake Superior empties 
into Lake Huron. This rapid has since been styled Sault 
Sainto Marie, and from it we have given these Indians, 
who are an Algonquin tribe, with a name (Puiioirigeueieu- 
hak) very hard to pronounce, that of Saulteurs." Tho 
missionaries were not displeased with the opportunity thus 
presented of knowing the countries lying beyond Lake 
Huron, which no one of them had yet traversed. Fathers 
Isaac Jogues and Charles Kaimbaut were detached to ac- 
company tho Chippeway deputies, and their visit had 
every success that could be reasonably expected. They 
were well received by these Indians, who seemed very good 
people ; but the missionaries, having been recalled when 
they began to instruct them, the seed of ths divine word 
had not time to bear fruit,' and the nation, not being as 
well disposed when the missionaries returned some years 
later, this happy commencement had no result ; so that, 
down to this day, there are very few Christians among 
the Indians of the Sault.* 

Meanwhile the Iroquois, assured of support from the 
Dutch at Manhattan, who okeady furnished them with 

' Strabo, lib. vii. 

' PauoitigouL'ieuhak, tho Outclii- 
p<)U('s, Ojibways or C.'hipi)oways. We 
shall hereafter translate timiUeurs 
by Chippeway. 

^ Chipjxiway missions still exist 
in Canada and the United States — 
tho latter uiuli-r Bishop Frederic 
Baraga, of Sault Ste. Marie, author 
of an Ojibway grammar and dic- 

* They left St. Mary's in SeiUem- 
ber, and, after seventeen days' sail, 
reached Sault Ste. Marie. Their ob- 

ject was, not to establish a penna- 
nont mission, but only to see tho 
field : Relation de la Nouvclle Franco, 
104:.', p. 97. Father Charles Haym- 
bault died soon after, at Quebec, 
Oct. 23, 1()43— the first of his ordisr. 
The country on the lakes had al- 
ready been visited, and to some 
extent explored, by John Nicollet, 
who in 103!) made a treaty with tho 
tril)e8 on Oreen Bay. As to him, see 
Ferland, Notes sur les Hegistres do 
yui'bec, p. oO ; Discovery and Ex- 
ploration of tho Mississippi, p. xxi. 

• ' 




The Diitcli 
Bupply ttiu 

with iirniH 

niid iiiiinui' 





arms nud ammunition, and to whom tlioy sold tlio fura 
Hwopt away from our allies, continued their raids and 
plundering. The rivers and lakes swarmed with their war- 
parties, and trade was no longer possible, except at great 
risk. The Chevalier de Montmagny complained to tho 
Governor of New Nctherland, who contented himself with 
a coui"toou8 but very vague letter, and made no change in 
his course ; there was even a suspicion that ho, or at least 
those under his orders, urged on the Iroquois against us, 
although it had been agreed that tho allies of the two 
nations should commit no hostilities on the two colonies, 
and the French had faithfully kept the agreement.' 

It is trao that our Indians were neither in a state nor a 
humor to trouble the Dutch ;' far from seeking to raise up 
new enemies, they scarcely thought of defending them- 
selves from the Iroquois. The Hurons especially, eithe'* 
from indolence or fear of provoking an enemy who had 
acquired a suiicriority over them, which they could no 
longer dissemble, or because they were not yet fully per- 
suaded that the Ii-oquois aimed at their whole nation, saw 
their frontiers desolated without taking any steps to check 
a conflagi'ation which surrounded them on all sides. 
These losses, nevertheless, as to which they remained so 
tranqviO, weakened them so at last that terror spread 
through all their towns ; and when the enemy no longer 
saw fit to cloak his real design by any pretext, he found, 
as he had anticipated, a terrified people, incapable of oflfer- 
ing the sUghtest resistance. The consequence was that 
tho Huron Church, cultivated wHh so much toil, had 
scarcely begun to bear fruit unto salvation, when its 
pastors were smitten, and the flock not only dispersed, but 
almost entirely destroyed. 

Father Jogues, whom we mentioned above, was the first 

' This correspondence escapes the ' Montmagny is said to have 

researches of O'Callaghan and Brixl- prevented war-parties against tho 

liead in New York, and of Ferland, Dutcli : Relation de la ^ouvelIe 

Faillon.Martin.andotliers in Canada. Franco, 1643, p. 6a. 




on whom tho storm fell' On bin roturn from S.anlt Sto. 1642. 
Mario lio had roccivcd orderH to go down to (Jnubtnv for a ^-""~ir-~^ 
nuitti'r wliich admittcnl of no dolay.' Ho was not ignorant s«v<nii iiro 
of tho dangers tliat besot tho way; ho obeyed, neverthe- tho iro- 
less, without a roply, and embarking on tho IJUh of Juno, 
1042, ho arrived at Quebec, witliout any untoward eireum- 
stance. On the Ist of August' ho sot out to return, with a 
convoy of thirteen canoes, well armed, and manned by 
brave men. 

Tho strength of this escort was, apparently, tho ca so of 
its niin, by inspiring all in it with overweening confidence. 
It was afterwards asc(>rtaiiied, from tho letters of Father 
Jogues, that tho chiefs of this band, which consisted 
mostly of Christians or proselytes, thought far less of 
guarding against any sudden attack of the enemy, than of 
exhorting their men to sutrer for ; and most of them 
manifested sentiments which filled him with confusion. The 
wonder is that thoy persevered tiU death in these heroic 
dispositions. It is not astonishing that He, who can turn 
even crime to good, sometimes, for his own glory, permits 
men to stray from the laws of prudence. 

Be that as it may, the Hurons were not more than fifteen 
or sixteen leagues from Quebec,' when, on the day after 

' Helalion de la Nouvelle Franco, 
1C43. p. 2. 

' The main authority for tlio cap- 
tivity of FatliiT Jofjuos is liin Latin 
letter, (if Aug. !i, 1()4:!, written nt 
RenRsalaerswyck. It is piihlisliod 
in Alegairibe, Mortes lllustres, and 
in Tanner, Sorietas Militans, p. 511, 
altliotigh with variations from a 
Bworn copy of the original, ])reBerved 
at Montreal. It is given by Father 
Bri'ssani, in Italian, in his Hrevo 
Kelatione, ]). 77 ; in French, in Mar- 
tin's Bressnni, p. 18S ; and in Eng- 
lish, in tlie Jognes Papers (N. Y. 
Historical Society' ' '11., series II., vol. 
ii.), and Sliea's Perils of the Ocean 
and Wilderness, p. 10. Not to mul- 

tiply citations, tho references will 
be to Tanner, except where tlie man- 
u.icrijit diffi'rs. Besides this paper, 
which thi' Relations give In sub- 
stance only, there are letters and 
accounts in those volumes, and a 
narrative from his lips, by Father 
Buteux, still im])ublished. Creux- 
ius (Ilistoria Canadensis) gives 
Jogues' captures and sufl'erings, pp. 

vas-s-u ;i78-!i;!. 

' Aug. 3, according to the letter of 
Aug. !), Hi i:i, MS. (see Martin's Bres- 
sani, p. lilO) ; altliough the Relation 
do la NouvelK? France, l(i47, p. IS, 
Bays tliey leli 'I'lirie Rivers .Vug. 1. 

■■ Fioni Three liivers: Mary of tho 
Incarn., letter Sejit. :Ji), 1013. 



. £■ 

MoRt nro 

1642. their doparturo,' at dawn, as they were about to embark, 
""v-*-' tlioy pLTccivcd an Iroiiuoia trail on tlio bank of tlio rivor; 
but tliey doHpiscd an ouomy to whom th»^y doomed tliem- 
Bolves far superior in nnmbers, and whom tliey conse- 
quently deemed not rash euo.igh to begin an attack. 
They pursued their way without taking any precaution 
against siiiiniHO, and became the dupes of this unpar- 
donable security. The Ii'oquois braves were seventy in 
number. One division lay in ambush, behind some bushes 
that covered a point close at hand, which the party had 
to pass; the other had crossed the rivor and concealed 
themselves in tho woods.' 

\s soon as the Hurons came within reach of the first 
l-tuty, a well-delivered \ olley of raiisketry wounded several 
and riddled every canoe. This siidden and unforeseen 
attack threw the Christiana into disorder ; but some of the 
most agile promptly sprang ashore, and succeeded in 
escaping. The bravest, supported by three or four French- 
men, who accompanied Father Jogues, for some time 
made a resolute defence in their canoes , but, as the wi ' 
poured in, and there was no means of flight, they wci ^ at 
last obliged to surrender, except a few who escaped in the 
confusion caused among the Iroquois by their resistance ; 
the rest were seized a)jd bound. 

It had depended on Father Jogues himself to follow the 
first who took flight ; they indeed did all they could to iu- 

*'^'oner."'* '^^^^ ^"^ > ^^^ *^^® Servant of God, as calm amid this 
tumult as if he hr ■ 1 been at full liberty, baptized a catechu- 
men, and prepared him for any event. To those who 
urged him to seek safety he replied that they did right to 
escape, but that it did not become him to abandon his 
children when they rfiost needed his assistance. Charity, 
exacted by duty, does not fully satisfy an apostolic heart. 
The combat ended, the Hurons all taken or fled. Father 


mnUe?* liiin 

' Second day nftor their dcparturo capture tlicishiuds in Lac St. Pierre, 
(MS.) Martin (nressi\ni, p. I!l0)and forty -five h'agues from Quebec. 
Ferland (i., p. 316) think the place of " Thoy all landed and fought on 

• >1 

/>i-r>Ji:ji iciAAt JO£;ii£S. -5. J. 

. .'• r.Y- :Hi •(,■■■ -'::: 
.7'.*.'.**;; .v r.*-"* -■«**' 




J<)f,ni('s liml (li.schiirj,'(ul his miiuHtry to its full extent ; hut 
he si}j;lu'(l for niiiityrdom, luul ho holiovcd that tho Horvict'H 
which he could ifiiilci' tlic ciiptivcH, liy coiiHoliii^ and cx- 
iiDiliii;,' thciu to ilciitii, WHS u sutHcicutly justilliihlo niotivo 
for exposing himself to it, aud ho would not miss tho 

]le accordingly advanced towards the Tro(|uois, who 
seiiued to ])ay no attention to him, tiiinking only of em- 
liarking with their capture, and lie nnule himself tho 
lirisouer of tho first ouo ho mot, saying that ho would not 
lu^ separated from his beh)vcd children, whoso sad fate ho 
iiut too clearly foresaw. A Frenchnnm, Willam C!outuro, 
with whom tln^ holy nnin had como down from the Huron 
country, had fled among tht) first; but ho was no sooner out 
of danger than ho was seized with shame for having aban- 
doned Father Jogues, and, without retlejting that he could 
no longer bo of any service to him in tho hands of tho 
Irocpiois, ho used as much exertion to rush back into tho 
danger as ho had used to escape it." 

Father Jogues was pained to see him again, aud ro- 
l)roached him gi'iitly with his imprudence in a course that 
could avail no one ; but the error was committc.l. Couture 
had been seized as soon as ho api)eared, aud Ijound with 
the other captives. Moreover, some of tho best Iroquois 
runners had started in pursuit of the fugitives, aud 
brought in several. As they arrived, the sighs of Father 
Jogues redoubled ; aud in a letter which ho wrote to his 
Provincial in Franco, soon aftt!r his arrival among the Iro- 
quois, he declares that ho felt, on this occasion, tho reverse 


Bhorc, till, soeing the approach of 
thu otliiir blind, they brokt? ami Bed ; 
TnnniT, p. 513. The Latin phrasu is 
gi'iicrul, but JofjucB evidently took 
no part in tin; fight. 

' Hcliition di' la Nouvelle France, 
1047, p. 18 ; Letter of Aug. 5, Tan- 
ner, p. 513, and MS. 

'^ Letter of Father JugueB : Tuu icr, 

p. 512. C'oiituro was recovered some 
years alter, and dying in 1T03, agi.'d 
ninety-four, left a numerous ixwter- 
ity in Canada. Monscjigneur 'I'ur- 
geon, Arclibishoi) of tjuebec, and 
Monscigneur IJourget, Hislio]) of 
Montreal, are both dcHccmlid from 
this companion of Pallirr .Ioi^uch: 
Ferland, ('ours d'llistoire, i., p. ;U7. 

A Krenoh- 


tlui Kitriio 




How nil nro 

of iho, maxim so universally rcccivetl, that " misery loves 

The first thing the captors diil, when they no longer 
feareil pursuit, was to inform their prisoners not to expect 
any quarter. Couture, at the commencement of the attack,' 
having killed an Iroquois, was a market! man, anil the first 
to feel the rage of the savages. They first crushed all his 
fingers, after tearing out the nails Avith their teeth. Then 
they ran a sword through hi'i right hand. Father Joguea 
could not behold him mutilated in this way without being 
moved to his heart's core ; he ran to embrace tne young 
man, and as he wished to encourage him by the thought 
of the eternal truths, ho found him in sentiments which 
charnieil him, and more absorbed, he says, in his Saviour's 
suiferings than in his own. 

At that moment three or four Iroquois, rushing with 
a kintl of fury on the missionary, rainetl doAvu on his head 
and naked body — for they had begun by stripping all the 
prisoners — so numy blows with their clubs and stones, that 
they thought they had killed him. He laj for a consider- 
able time, indeed, senseless. He had scarcely begun to 
recover when they tore out all his nails anti gnawed off his 
two forefingers with their teeth." Another Frenchman, 
named Rene Goupil, qttite an able surgeon, who had been 
recently received by the Jesuits as a brother," was treated 
in the same way ; but nothing was done, that day, to the 
other prisoners. 

Some time after the booty was divided, and the captives, 
twenty-two in number, were also tlistributed, contrary to 
custom ; this allotment being generally made in the village 
from which the war-party sets out. At last they took up 

' He killed a great chief, on bis had entered tlie novitiate of tlie So- 

■way buck to join the missionary : eiety, but was Ibrced by ill health to 

Relation dc la N. ':'., 1647, p. 19. have. He then came to Canada and 

"Tanner ;„ ijl:!. became a rfoH^*' of the mission. Ho 

' (Notice Pur Rene Qou])il,]), had some surgical knowledge, whic!\ 

215^ says he was a native of Angers, proved useful. 



their march, which lasted four weeks.' The wounds of Fa- ) 642. 
thcr Jogues and the two Frenclimen had not been tbessed, ^— "v^-^ 
and worms were soon engendered ; yet the prisoners had 
to march from morning till night, with nothing scarcely 
given them to eat : but the holy missionary was touched 
only at the sight of his beloved neophytes, destined to the 
stake, four or five of them being main columns of the 
Huron Church, He dared not flatter himself with the 
same lot, unable to behove that the Iroquois Avould, in his 
case, proceed to extremities, and by putting him to death 
make irreconcilable enemies of the French. 

After eight days' march they mot a party of two hundred They moot 
Iroquois, going to try their fortune. Great was their joy " Shu"" 
at the sight of so many prisoners, who were turned over en lo^iheir 
to them for some time, and whom they treated with "^"i"""^®- 
incredible barbarity," after firing a general volley in honor 
of Agreskouvj.' The Indians imagitie that the more cruel 
they show themselves on these occasions, the greater will 
be the success of their expedition. This party was, how- 
ever, deceived in its expectations ; for, having appeared 
before Fort Richelieu, they found there the ChevaUer de 
Moutmagny, who killed several, and compelled the rest to 
retire in disorder.' 

In the event just mentioned. Father Jogues was not 
more spared than the rest, but he was not so mutilated as 
to disable him from rendering the services required of 
slaves. This confirmed his beUef that the Iroquois would 
not, by putting him to death, deprive themselves of the 
advantage they might derive from a hostage of his chai ■ 
acter." From the spot where the two parties met, they 

ngiiiii re- 
fuses to 

' Two weeks only. 

' This took plnco on the eighth 
day, on an ishmd in Lake Cham- 
plain (.Jogais, Letter, Tauacr, p. 513). 
After leaving the lake on the 10th, 
they marched four days on f(xjt. 

^ Tlio war-god of the Hurous and 
Iroquois. Ante, p. 1C9. 

* This is the same event referred 
to on p. 131 ; Tanner, pj). 513, 518; 
Kelation de la Nouvelle France, 1043, 
jip. 50, 51 ; Lettres de Marie de I'ln- 
curnation, p. 305. 

' There is no trace of such reflec- 
tions in the writings of Father 

' -f 



1642. made ten clays' joumey in canoes, after wliicli they had to 
^^""y^^ march again, and the i^riaoncrs, most of whom could 
scarcely stand, were, moreover, loaded with the baggage 
of their pitiless masters. 

Father Jogues, in his memoirs, states that the first days 
his captors did not stint them in food, but that this gi-adu- 
ally diminished, and that, towards the close of his march, 
he was no less thau three times for tweuty-fonr hours 
without tasting food, tlieu' provisions having almost entirely 
failed, on account of the circuitous path which they had 
been obliged to take to avoid encountering hostile war- 
parties. He adds, that neither he nor Goupil, his com- 
panion, Avere bound like the rest at night, so that they 
might easily have escaped ; but the reasons which had 
prevented him at first diverted him to the last, and the 
young surgeon would never consent to abandon liim.' 
nio pris- At last the whole troop arrived in a village of the Mo- 
tortured in haA\k canton,' where the captives were again told that they 
ingM sue- were doomed to the stake. Hero they wers treated with 
oessivoiy. ^^^^^^ inhumanity that not a spot on tiieir bodies was left 
Avithout a bruise or a wound, not a feature recognizable. 
After enduring the first fury of the women and children, 
they had to ascend a kind of scaffold, and at a signal the 
three Frenchmen received some blows with a scourge on 
the shoulders ; then an old man approached Father 
Jogues, attended by an Algonquin woman, a slave, to 
whom he gave a knife, ordering her to cut off the mission- 
ary's right thumb. 

This woman, who was a Christian, at first stood as if 
stupefied, then declared that what she was ordered to do 
was utterly impossible. The old man, however, resorted 
to such teiTible threats that she obeyed. The holy man 
afterwards declared that his fear of seeing the woman tor- 
tured on his account, and the joy which ho subsequently 
felt on seeing her escape the peril by her obedience, 

' Jogues, Notice sor Rene Gtoupil, ' August 14. Jogues (Kocietas 
p. yo. MilituuB, p. 51'")) cuUm it Auilugorou. 


enabled him to endure the pain which she gave him ; yet 
sho made liim suffer more exquisite torture by the irreso- 
hite and trembhug manner in which she performed the 
operation, than if cruelty had guided her hand." 

The prisoners remained on this scaffold a day and a lialf, 
surrounded by a confused crowd of savages, Avho were 
allowed to subject them to any treatment short of death. 
They were then taken to a second village. Here, contrary 
to custom, they had to run the gauntlet ; wliereas, accord- 
ing to rule, this should be practised only in the first town 
they enter. There Father Jogues, unable longer to endure 
his nakedness, asked an Iroquois whether he was not 
ashamed to leave him in that state after having had so large 
a share in the booty. The Indian seemed to feel the re- 
proach, for he went and got a box-covering and gave it to 
the missionary, who used it as best he could to cover him- 
self ; but as the surface of his body was all raw, this cloth, 
rough in itself and bristling with bits of straw, caused him 
snch acute pain that he was forced to abandon it. Then the 
sun, pouring down on his wounds, set bleeding afresh by 
this cloth, formed a cnist which fell off, from time to time, 
in pieces." 

It is impossible to detail the cruel and imworthy treat- 
ment which the captives endured in the second village, 
especially at the hands of the young. The torture lasted 
two days, and no one thought of giving them any food. 
At night they were tied and shut up together iii a cabin, 
but pain and hunger prevented sleep fi-om bringing any 
truce to their miseries. They were treated with nearly as 
great inhnraauity in a third village, where four Hurons 
were brought in captives by another war-party.' 

These were catechumens whom Father Jogues recog- 



i I 

' Tanner, p. 515. 

' lb., p. 510. 

' Th<! Moliawks were the Iroquois 
canton noarcHt to the Dutch, who 
adopted the Mgonquin name for the 
Vol. II.— 10 

trib»!. The tribe was typically, and 
as a unit, " The Oroat She Bear" 
(" Gonniag.'<ari") ; Bruyaa, UacinoB 
AgniercH. This term, in Algonquin, 
was " Mnqua," or, as the earlier 


'"42' nized and baptized. At this same place Couture had 
a linger cut off, and would not have escaped ui ^hat had 

Dutch WTitrrs give it, " Mnhakuaaa" 
(" Mcgapolonsia'' in N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., BiTios H., vol. iii., p. ir)3). This 
word becnmo ultimatoly " Mohawk." 
Sco intfrmediatc forms in O'Calla- 
ghnn's Index to tlio New York 
Coll. Documents. The tribe, as in- 
dividuals, called themselves " Oa- 
gTiit'gut'haga" or "Kajiiijahaga;" 
the last syllable, haga, meaning 
people (BruyaH, Megapolensis). Thi^y 
were not a numerous tribe, and con- 
tained only th(! three primitive fam- 
ilies — the Tortoise, Anamire ; the 
Bear, OehhiH , n.l the Wolf, Ok- 
riiiho (Megapolensis, p. ISO). They 
generally formed three towns ; but, 
after a laiwe of over two centuries, 
th:) data are too indefinite to deter- 
mine their site with abscdute accu- 
racv Father Jogues names three 
towns — Otigi 'ncnon, Andagoron or 
(Jandagorou, anil Teonoutogen — 
which he calls the most remote of 
the canton. The first was, according 
to the text of the Latin letter, twenty 
leagues from the Dutch post. Me- 
gapolensis gives three towns — As- 
Bi.Tuea. of till' Tortoise ; Banagiro, of 
the Bear ; and Thenondiogo, of the 
Wolf family (p. 159). Jogues, on 
his second visit, descended the 
OTogue, or Upiier Hudson, to Fort 
Orangt?, and then followed the trail to 
the first town, Oneugi><re — former- 
ly Ossenienon. Wentworth Qreen- 
halgh, in 1677 (Doc. Hist., i., p. 11), 
gives four towns — Cahniaga, Cana- 
gorha, Canajorha, and. Tionondogue. 
The Jesuit missionaries, who subie- 
(juently establislied permanent Mo- 
hawk missions, call Oandawague the 
motlern Cauglmawaga, the place of 
Ooupil's and Jogues' death (IMation, 
IGliS, ]). (i ; 1070, p. 23). As to Teonim- 
togen there seians no doubt, its name 

having been retained by the village 
near Fort Hunter, (freeuhalgh de- 
scribes it as having a doul)le stock- 
ade, as containing thirty houses, and 
being on a hill a bow-shot from the 
river (Doc. Hist., i., p. 11). It was 
then north of th(» river, but was, soon 
after, removed (il)., ii., p. 50) ; and 
Morgan (League of the Inxiuois, 
mai)) represents it as south of tlio 
Mohawk. Father Jogues, in repre- 
senting it as the most remote, means 
remote from the French, it being 
evidently nearest to the Dutch. 
The Andagoron or Oandagoron of 
Jogues is apparently the Canagorha 
of (ireenhulgh. It was on a Hat, 
with only one stockade and sixteen 
houses, and may be the Giineguhaga 
of Morgan (p. 410), in Danube, Her- 
kimer County, opposite E. Canada 
Creek. The Ossernenon, OsserrTon, 
or Oneug^ire of Jogues will then bo 
the Cahniaga of (ireenhulgh, tho 
Oandabagm' of 1068-70, and Caugh- 
nawaga of our times. This is 
the only town placed by Morgan 
north of the Mohawk. He places it 
near the mouth of the creek, (ilreen- 
halgli describes Cahniaga as d()ul)ly 
stockaded, with lour ymtin, each I'oiir 
feet wide, containing twenty-four 
houses, and .;ituatc on tho edge of a 
hill, about a bow-shot from the river- 
side — meaning, apparently, Caugh- 
nawaga Creek — the Mohawk being, 
as we may infer from Jogues' account 
of (ioupil's death, three (juarti'rs of 
a milo distant (Notice sur Keue 
Qoupil, etc., p. 41). Si'e, too, Uelar 
tion, 165;}, p. 15. This is, too, evi- 
dently tho Andaraipie iAn<la«uguc), 
taken by Courcelle in ()ctol)er, 1660 
(Doc. Hist., i., p. 77), with its triple 
])alisades and supply of water in 



not a man belonginj^ to tlio town taken him from his tor- 
turers to his own ciibiu, where he wcnld not permit him 
to bo touched. Nothing was more consoling to the mis- 
sionary than the piety of this }oung man, and in general 
of all his comrades in bondage. Not one, amid these 
great and fearful tortures, failed to maintain his fervor ; 
some even seemed afflicted at the insufficiency of their 

At last, after seven weeks" constant martyrdom, all, 
contrary to their expectation and in spite of oft-repeated 
threats, were informed that none were to be pt t to death 
except three chiefs. Among these was tJie brave Eustace, 
whose conversion has been recently related. He, as well 
as the other two, received his death-sentence as a sincere 
Christian, and, till their last breath, they carried their 
heroism as far as imagination can conceive. As soon as 
they had been given up to the deputies of the villages 
where they were to be burnt, the other captives' were led 
back to the first village of the three, through which they 
had been paraded. Here they were to bo distributed. 

Ui) to this time, as they belonged to no one individually, 
no one took any care of them, and, on reaching this vil- 
lage, thoy were in a state of complete exhaustion ; more- 
over, they were soon thrown back into a state of suspense 
as to their fate, from Avliich they had just been delivered. 
The war-party, repulsed at Fort Richelieu, came back, 
breathing only vengeance. The chief, and some of the 
bravest, had been killed, while the number of wounded 
was considerable.'' The prisoners, after having been so 
long the object of the insolence of victor}^, were now 
doomed to experience the rage and disappointment , 
defeat ; and, notwithstanding the hoi)es which had been 


Piety ftnd 

fervor of tlio 


The lives of 

all but tlirea 



Some of the 

Dutch lip- 

ply for the 


' Tanner, p. 510. 

" lb. Thu Latin letter says seven 

' Joguos and Qoupil were taken 
from Auilagoron, where the council 

was held, to Ossernenon, and Coutuie 
to Teonontogon. 

* Tiiniier, pp. 513, 518. Sec ante, p. 
l:i3. The Relation, 1043, says three 




Thoj are re- 

of Ken(5 

kindled in tlieii' hearts, tliey expected it to cost them their 
livcH. The friends and kindred of the dead counted upon it, 
when the Dutch, who were by chance in the vilhige, asked 
that the three Frenchmen should be given up to them.' 

This request embarrassed the Iroquois, and led to a 
kind of negotiation, in which the fury enkindled against the 
prisoners somewhat abated ; but this was all the benefit 
which the French derived. The council at last rei^lied to 
the Dutch, that the French were no longer at theu' dis- 
posal, it having been decided to restore them to their 
countrymen. This was a mere pretext, but whether the 
Dutch understood it or not, they pressed the matter no 
further, and retii'ed. Some of the more moderate of the 
Iroquois had, indeed, advised that Father Jogues and his 
two companions should be sent back to Ononthio, but all 
the others opi^osed it strongly. The three Frenchmen were 
then given to different masters ; Couture's was in another 
village, and was apparently the same chief who had already 
rescued him from the hands of his torturers." 

Eene Goupil knew his only at the moment when that 
savage dealt him a blow on the head with his tomahawk, 
of which he expired a moment after. He was a young 
man of great innocence of life and of admirable ingenu- 
ousness. Although he had commenced his novitiate at 
Eouen, he was sent to Canada in his secular habit, that ho 
might exercise his profession with more liberty and deco- 
rum ; but though he did not wear the religious habit, his 
condiict was not the less strict, and his piety merited the 
first crown of martyrdom in New France ; for his master's 
motive in thus depriving him of life was, that an old man 
having seen him make the sign of the cross on a child, had 

' Father Jogues, in his letter (Tan- 
ner, p. olS), Bfiys the Dutch oilicial 
(Van CiirliT) oame "do libcrutionu 
noHtnl acturus," not by chance (He- 
lation dc hi Nouvelle Frimcc, l(i4;3, 
p. 04). I'orViin Curler's own account, 
Bee 0'( 'ullughiiu. New Nelhcrland, i., 

pp. ;335,4C3,404; Do Vrios, Voyages 
from Holland to America, translated 
from the Dutch by lleury ('. Murphy, 
New York, IHSa, p. 137. Van Cuj'- 
ler was accompanied by Jacob Jansen 
and .lohn Labadie. 
■' 'I'miner, p. 518. 



told liis mastor that if he kept Eon6 ho would kill tho 
■whole villai^'o Mitli his spoils. 

Father JogiioH, who had admired his virtiio in life, did 
not scruple to invoke him, after so precious a death, as a 
confessor of Christ. Ho even expected to share his crown. 
He witnessed tho execution, and not doubting:; but that 
they liad also resolved to make way with him, he was 
about to kneel at the murdoj-er's feet to receive his death- 
blow in that posture ; but the Indian bade him rise, be- 
cause, though he deemed him as guilty as his comrade, 
he had no power of life or death over him. Tho apostolic 
man, again disappointed in his hope of martyrdom, tliought 
thence forward only of sanctifying his cliauis, and rendering 
his bondage useful to those who had done; him so unieh evil.' 


At first he was rather closely watched, but in the sequel 
he had a little more liberty, and he even traversed, unop- 


protits l)y 

posed by his master, the whole Mohawk canton in which itrto'Ini'iko 
he was, and the only one which, till then, had openly Gw'i'known 

In one of his excursions an event '" .^Iloi^'™" 

As he went 

declared against us, 

occurred which gave him great consolation 
from cabin to cabin, in a village near his o^vn, to see 
whether he could find any dying children on whom ho 
could confer bajitism, he heard a voice at a distance calling 
him ; he ran to the spot, and entering the cabin from 
Avhicli the sound came, he beheld a sick man, who looked 
at him steadily and asked whether the missionary did not 
recognize him. He replied that he did not recollect having 
seen him. " And T," suid tho Indian, " recognize you well. 
Do you recollect the daj- Avhen you were hung up by the 
arms with ropes, that cut deep mto you and gave you such 
intense pain ?" " I remember it well," replied the mission- 
ary. "And I," continued the Indian, " was tho one who 
took pity on you and cut you down." ' 




' Jogues, Novum Holsiuin . . ' Relation do la Noiivcllf France, 

et Notice sur Rmr G,)Uiiil, yp. 22-- IGtT, p. ;!2 ; l()4;i, p. 81 : Cnuxius, 

44 : TanntT, p. .TIS. Rinr wsis killod llibtoria Cauiulcnsitf, p. U81. 
on St. MicliiiL'lV ilii^', Si'pt. 29. 



, t 

I. 'i 

1642. Tlin aorvant of Ood, ovorjoyod to find a innn whom he 
]iad loii^' Hoiij^Iit to exi)i'(!ss liis f^'vutitudc, threw liiniKclf 
upon liiH nock and cmbraccil liun : " Brotlicr," ho said, " it 
dopondrt only on yoiUHolf to let me render to you, a hun- 
dredfold, all the good you did me, and the memory of 
whieh is as fresh in ry mind as it was at that moment, 
when you d ■nio , reat a charity. An enemy, more 
cruel than al; i"o. H;t,n tortured mo, holds you in fetters : 
you are, perhr.. .;, t>.(. r'; last moment of your life, and if, 
before that fata; , Jinenr t 'lioh will close your existence, 
you do not throw off the yi;i».o li this pitiless master, what 
will become of you ? I shudder for you when 1 think of it. 
Eteriml flames will sun-ound and burn but never consume 
you. The most horrible torments you have ever conceived 
to ghit your vengeance on your enemies, do not approach 
what will be suffered through all eternity by those who do 
not die Christians." 

These few words, pronounced in that tone which renders 
apostolic men so powerful in words, made all the impres- 
sion the missionary could desire on a heart in Avhich 
charity had paved the way for the operations of grace. 
The sick man asked to be instructed ; and the missionary 
had scarcely begun to explain the chief mysteries of the 
faith than he perceived that an unseen master anticipated 
his teaching, and impressed the truths of Christianity in 
this predestined soul. The sick man opposed no doubts 
to our most incomprehensible mysteries. Ho believed, 
was baptized, and died, a few days after, in the arms of 
the servant of God, in all the sentiments which character- 
ize the death of the saints.' 

A conquest of this kind was more than enough to make 
his bondage precious to the man of God ; but it was not the 
only one, and ere long the whole Mohawk canton, which 
he had bedewed with his blood, produced an abundant 
harvest. Another Indian, wishing to save his life, re- 

• Relation de la Nouvclle France, p. 82. 



er (if utiier 

coivod on liis arm a blow of a tomalmwk, aimod iit liis life, 1642, 
and liouvcn rewarded him in tlio aanio uuuincr as it did r-^ 
the Indian I have just niontiouod.' Many other sick finut 
Indians listened with docility to the instructions of tho 
holy missionary, in whom they were always aeeompaniod 
by all that the most tender and ingenious charity can 
inspire a f^reat heart ; and by his earnest care a great 
number of children went to swell tho choir in heaven that 
folloM'8 tho Lamb without spot." These conversions cost 
liim much toil. Tho mere jcnirneys were a great torture 
to a man whose strength was exhausted, and wlio was 
forced to live almost entirely on roots. Not that the In- 
dians refused him the necessaries of life ; but as, gen- 
erally, nothing was set before him that had not been first 
oilered to Agreskoue, he did not beheve that ho cotild in 
conscience touch it.° 

It was about this same time that a nation dwelli'!|' 
about south-southwest of tho Huron country, and four i • 
five days' journey oft', was visited by tho Jesuits, who 
announced to it the kingdom of God.* These Fathers 
give it, in their memoirs, no name but that of the Neutral 
nation, apj^arently because they declined to take any part 
in the war then desolating the whole country.' But it 

Neiitor nn> 



' This case is niisplncptl here. 
Tho Indiiiii woundfil in tlic arm, 
while tryiiij; to siivo Fatlier Jnf^iu's, 
vaa Kifitsnoton, wounded when tho 
inisHioiiary was killed, in l(il7 : Ki-- 
hition, 1048, p. 0; Crcuxius, Ilis- 
toria ranadcnsis, p. G09. 

' Relation de lu N. P., 1047, p. 
81 ; 1043, p. 81 ; Tanner, p. 523. 

a Tanner, p. .'531. 

* The Neuters lay on hoth sides of 
tho Nia(,mra (Ui^lation, 1041, p. 71 1. 
Bressani inakeM them one hundred 
miles I'roni the Ifuroiis, and extend- 
ing over a territory of one hundred 
and fifty miles (.Martin's Bressiini, 
p. 02). Tho Hnrons and Neuters 
called each other Attiwandarouk, 

mnnninp; " people of a lansfunge a 
little different" (Relation di'la Nouv. 
France, l(i41, ]). 73). The .Jesuits 
were not the first to vl.;. them, as 
renuirked helow. 

' Tho name Neuter is t;ivcn by 
Ohampluin, Voynjres. ed. KilO, and 
ed. 101^3, p. 37;i; Tal.le, p. 7 ; Sa^ 
gnrd, ((rand Voynge. p. 311. Dail- 
lou's letter, July IS, 1037 (in Sagard, 
pp. 880-03. Lo Clercii, i.. p. ;iOO) 
dcHoribes their country, whieli evi- 
dently included oil-siiringK, since he 
luentions among their products very 
go<jd oil, wliicli they call li touron- 
ton. Sagard (]>. !-l);j) pay.s the word 
means "Uh,ho\v much there is I" not 
inapplicable to tho oil in that region. 





164Z. could not, in tlio Hoqiiol, avoiil its utter doHtruction ; 
altli()n;,'li to sliit'ld itHolf from tlio fury of the Irocjuoia, 
who, uiiprovokod, luid inado suvonil iucuiHions into tlioir 
territory, tlioy offered to take their side and join thera 
against the Hiirous, from whom, apparently, they Hpran<,'. 

This step did not save* them. The Iiocjuois were then 
in a d(>stmctive nujod ; and as lions, when once they havo 
tasted blood, cjinnot f.,'lut themselvcss with it, and no more 
spare tliosi; who feed and fondle them than those who 
hunt them, tJiese barbarians swoojx'd down without dis- 
tinction on all whoiu they met in their c(mrso : and now 
no trace is left of the Neutral nation. These Indians 
•were, it is said, lar},'er, stronj^'ei*, and better made than 
most of the rest. They had almost all the manners and 
eustonis of the Hurons, except that they were even more 
cruel to their j)risonei-s of war ; for they burnt women 
with the same cruelty as men, while the Hurons killed 
them on the spot. They also showed less modesty, wero 
not so sede^itary, and lived rather by hunting than by 
agriculture, cultivating the ground but little.' 

Clod had his elect among these savages, but only few in 
numbei, and Fathers Chaumouot and de 13rebeuf wore his 
instruments to separate the few good grains scattered in 
the mass of tares." As early as 1020, Father de Daillou, a 
lleeollect, penetrated to thr.-ir country ; but as he did not 
know their language, he could announce Christ (mly by 
1643. signs. This holy religious suffered greatly on this excur- 
sion ; but he Avas consoled by the hope that his sweat 
would fertilize that sterile field.' 

The two Jesuits whom I have just named had been in- 
vited by the leading men to visit the tribe; but they 
did not find the Neuters by far so favorably disposed 

Frnit» of 
(tract' on 
this iiiis- 
' sioii. 

' Relation de la Nouvello Franco, 
1641, p. 73. 

' IJolatinn do la Nouvillo Frnnco, 
IVtli, \'y>. 71-81 ; Chaumonot, Auto- 
biograpliju, p. 5lf. 

' See his inten-sting letter in Sa- 
gard, Ilistoire du Canada, p. 880-02 
— abridged in lo C'lercq, Etablisse- 
ment do la Foi, i., p. yid ; lielation 
do la N. P., 1641, p. 74. 

( ARTK 1)K 



Dri'.Hl'f*' i'ui' IfN MimiiHfpils (111 Dcjio.Ml ilcs Carles iMaiiK 
ft •JouriuMix (If hiMiiriiu- 

/i/r\ HfHinhufnui'iir if Ihihoifrofthf i/r In Miinnf 



' t 



ill J'rtnt 

~ \!'>irviAV,r-V'.lniii' \ / ',f< 

V-'"- lb ' ^- N^ /'«ui/ir/iiiri-^ JZ_ 




.<e / 

■ <\^ 





V^,, "'7^ "'*'U a(ftii'iiif 









fCl '/' L I'liiiii.v.yr il,, » 
I J- J -Uiittt *.^ 

V^ J •Vtiiill ,/„ ffrrxlft > 

1 ''-S' 


^'•(i^fci"- ■■''!, 

ii luiiu'tu-ll 


|,/ > ^ f')! iiii/iiiiriihiiv III 




■ I'U/J ■ 

l.iciie.v (•(•iiiiiiuni.v ilr /•'idiicr ilr Ji,Si '/tn.rtw 
\i .. ./ i' .7 ^ 

\>. ^ii^l^ •mmilU.llMMItt, ~tlli..»M.».i.!:n.i.r.:ii;ini,i..»i».mi^ 

k-rmnan ■"lii'liT'-'IMf'T li 


■iiiiiii;. ^'g'lii 


U/imlhi/iil -S'l'ii/f) 


t . 



to hearken to tli(>in. Still, tlieir charity to the sick, their 
mildness uud tlieir pjitience, Avon the hearts of some, 
whom they succeeded in making fervent proselytes. This 
first success would have had consoHng results, had it been 
possible for these missionaries to jirolong their stay among 
this people ; but thoy were soon recalled to the Hurons, 
whose misfortunes increased daily.' 

It was not only Avar that desolated them : famine and dis- 
ease inHicted no less serious ravages among them. But if 
all these complicated evils Avere stumbling-blocks for the 
hardened, they strengthened the faith and increased the 
piety of the true faitliful. They were even the uistru- 
ments employed by God to draAV many of the heathen to 
his Avorship. Clearly defined marks of the vengeance of 
an oiFeuded Deity contribu'.ou also. Soon after Father 
Jogues' capture a whole Huron village was destroyed. 
The Iroquois entered at daybreak, and the sun rose on 
CA-ery cabin in ashes, every hihabitaut, of whatever age or 
sex, slaughtered by the conquerors. Only some score 
escaped through the flames. This village had never 
been Avilling to receive the gospel, and had carried its 
impiety so far as to defy the God of the Christians. Its 
destruction Avas regarded as a chastisement of heaven, 
and uuiuy profited by so striking a mark of God's 

A less melancholy event produced no less salutary 
results for the H'lron nation. One of the Avar-parties Avas 
setting out, when the idolaters, forming the majority, 
Avishcd as usual to consult the god of Avar ; and the medi- 
cine-man, to whom they applied to knoAV his will, promised 
them victory if they went soutlnvard. While they Avcre 
engaged in their superstitious rites the Christians assem- 
bled apart to pray ; and Avhen thoy learned the demon's 
answer, or that of his tool, the youngest, armed Avith a holy 



ol'dcid oil a 

Huron vil- 


' Rclntiim de la N. F., 1041, p. 75. towD of Ehwno. See Rclution da la 
• Tills alludes, nppiirently, to the Nouvulle Francis, 1041, p. OS). 




Its result. 


given by 


Jogiies to 
the gdviTii- 

indiguation, and with gestures that attracted the attention 
of the whole village, conjured the Almiglity not to permit 
success to verify the word of the LuLor of lies. " Thy 
own Glory is at stake," he added ; " show that Thou art 
the only arbiter of our lot. If the promises of the enemy 
of our salvation are accomplished, these men will blas- 
pheme Thy holy name ; biit let us rather perish all than 
witness so great an evil." ' 

These sentiments will perhaps appear to some above 
the scope of an Indian, and especially of an Indian con- 
vert ; but it must be remembered that they can come in 
no man, but from Him to whom it is as easy to inspire the 
most gi'oss as the most cultivated of men. The young 
man did not stop there ; for addressing his fellow-braves, 
lie said : " My brethren, let us beware of yielding to the 
enemy of our souls, by following the route he marks out. 
Let us go westward. Wo shall, to all appearance, run 
greater risk, but the God of armies will be on our side." 
The two bands accordingly separated. The Christians 
met noae of the enemy and no mishap : the idolaters were 
defeated with severe loss. Then several Indians, struck 
by an event which attested the ignorance and impotence 
of Agrcskoue, or rather the imposture of the medicine- 
men, openly declared for the Deity whose power the 
young Christian had so greatly exalted." 

Meanwhile, tidings reached Quebec fi'om Father Jogues, 
who was supposed to be dead. One of the Hurons taken 
with him escaped and reached the Chevalier de Mont- 
niagny. He told him that the missionary was in the 
hands of an Iroquois chief, who hud no power o^er him, 
the canton having declined to waive its right to dispose of 
him ; that it seemed, from time to time, disposed to send 
him back ; but that the holy man was in constant danger, 
and his life hung by a thread, amid a fierce, capricious, 
and superstitious people, whom the Dutch plied Avith 

' Relation dr la N. F,, 1044, p. 70. « lb. 

. i 



drinks that filled all the land with drunkards and caused 1643. 
fearful disorders.' ^— v— ' 

A few days after, the governor-general received a letter 
from Father Jogues himself. It stated that the whole 
Iroquois nation was in arms, and seemed resolved to give 
the Hurons no truce till it destroyed them ; that their 
project was to ruin all their villages, take all the prisoners 
they could, so as to incorporate them in their cantons and 
to fill up the losses made by war ; that if the French 
delayed any longer to assist an allied natioii, already num- 
bering many Christians, whose trade was useful, not to 
say necei'sary, to the French colony, its loss was certain ; 
and then men would repent, Avhen too late, for not having 
sustained it. He added that they should not be withheld 
by fears of what might happen to him if the efforts of the 
Iroquois were repulsed ; that they shoiild be convinced, 
once for all, that the way lo bring these savages to terms 
and assiire the safety of his own person, was not to humor 
them at the expense of our allies, but to inspire them with 
respect for the French name ; that imder any event he 
would be overjoyed to sacrifice his life for the cause of 
religion, the good of the colony, the honor of France, and 
the preservation of his beloved Hurons." 

The governor admired the devotedness of the mission- Pnavailinj; 
ary ; and, in his inability to give the Hurons the aid ''to'deiwer* 
they required, deemed that nothing should be neglected, '""" 
and no time lost, to save a man whose captivity had 
akeady cost so many tears. He had just learned that 
some Algonquins had brought into Quebec a Sokoki cap- 
tive. This tribe, lying near New England, was then allied 
to the Iroquois. He ransomed the captive ; and though 
he had been very badly treated by those in whose hands 
he was, he was so well cared for, by the governor's orders, 
that he was perfectly cured. He was then loaded with 

' Rolation de la NouvoUe France, Nouvelle France, It) l:i, p. fi(j ; PorUs 
1043, 1). 6.'i ; 1044, p. 71. of the Ocean and ^Vilde^nes8, p. 

' See the letter, Relation de la 03. 



1643. presents and pnt iu the hands of an Abenaqiiis, who led 

^■^"^-""^ him back to his village.' 

This man not only avowed openly his obligations to the 
French, bnt also induced his tribe to send and ask Father 
Jognes from the Mohawks. Deputies were appointed, 
who snj^portcd their request with presents. These depu- 
ties were w ell received and their presents accepted. They, 
in fact, no longer doubted the success of their negotiation, 
because there is nothing more sacred among the Indians 
than the obligation incurred by such an acceptance. 
Nevertheless, when the time came for explanation, the 
Mohawks declared bluntly that they were determined not 
to restore the missionary to liberty." 
He lenrns About the month of July, this same year, the village 

death is .ie- where the servant of vlod was sent off a large party to 
fish. He had changed masters, and was now in the 
hands of an old woman, on whose treatment he had reason 
to congratulate himself. As she resolved to go with the 
party, he was obliged to attend her. Ho had scarcely 
reached the destination, when he heard that some Huron 
prisoners had been brought down to the village he had 
left, and biu-ned. He experienced a poignant grief ;>*" 
having been unable to be present and attend them 
death ; and fearful that the scene should be renewed in 
his absence, he sought and obtained ; .■■.... ission to return.' 
On his way he passe:! a Dutiii settli v ent, which he 
entered, and was there assured thet h.c « jakl be infallibly 
burned on his arrival in the village. The proof alleged 
for this was the fact, that an Iroquois party having been 
again repulsed at Fort Richelieu, this check was attributed 
to him ; because a Huron had deserted from that party 

' Relation de la N. F. liMll. pp. 
41. 77. 'I'lic Si)kokiiii.'< (So(iu;ikiuks, 
thcise of the Soutlirnilaml), were an 
Alf^onquin tritw, lyini; between the 
Moliepnns and the Abi'nakin. The 

ia styled by DruUletes (Xarre du 
Voyag:e) the river of the SokokiS, 
Mauruult, Hist, dea Ab., p. 5, 1^3. 

"■ Relation de la N. F., 1043, p- 77. 

" Relation de la Nmivelle France, 

Connecticut (Ivunnteguk, 1-onfjriver) 1467, p. 33 ; 1043, p. 75. 



and carried a letter from the missionary to the governor 1643. 
of the French. This was the letter already mentioned, 
and all the circumstances were exactly true.' The holy 
man subsequently avowed that this information at first 
fiUed him with alarm, but that, after gathering strength 
fiom prayer, he, without a struggle, offered to God the 
sacrifice of his life. Thus the Almighty permits the great- 
est souls to feel, from time to time, all their weakness, in 
order that they may in nowise depend on theii* own 
virtues ; but when they humble themselves in His pres- 
ence, by acknowledging tl'eii' need of His aid, He is never 

The servant of God accordingly prepared to pursue his 
way, resolved to meet any event, when a Dutch officer, 
who commanded in that district, arrived at the post. 
Perceiving a European led by a band of Indians, he asked 
who he was. He was told that he was Father Jogues, and 
they added that he was on the point of being burned. He 
was touched ; and as he sought an opportunity to gratify 
the Chevalier de Montmagny, from whom he had recently 
received a service, he felt that he could do nothing more 
agreeable to that governor than to obtain the liberty of 
the missionary." He formed a plan ; and it is even 
asserted that orders to that effect had been sent out to all 
the commandants in New Netherlaud by tlie States- 
General, in consequence of the most urgent request of the 
Queen-Eegent of France. 

Be that as it may, the officer, after deliberating for a a Di 
time on the means of carrying out his project, called 
Father Jogues and told him that there was a vessel at 
anchor quite near the post, which was to weigh forthwith 
for Virginia ; that he would be secure there, and once 
at Jamestown, -would find convenient opportunities for 
going to any point he clioso. The holy religious, afte 

flc< era 
to ver 
hi -om 

tlir laUldg 

01 the Iro- 


' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1643, p. 75 ; Momoirs, MS. 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1048, p. 71}. 



Ho accepts 
the oll'ur. 

1643. testifying his gratitude, asked a night to deliberate on 
Lis offer. This surprised the commandant not a little, for 
ho could not conceive how a man in so critical a position 
could hesitate for a moment to extricate himself. 

The servant of God spent the whole night in prayer : 
and after considering that his death was certain if he re- 
tiu'ned to his village ; that such a death could be of no 
benefit, but, on the contrary, only remove still further aU 
hope of peace between the Iroquois and the French ; that 
not having started on his parole, but under an escort 
assigned by hi.^ captors to watch him, he was not bound 
to refuse the means of escape offered ; and that by saving 
his life he might also be useful to the tribes in Canada, he 
returned to the commandant early next morning and told 
him that he i)ut himself at his disposal. This officer, with- 
out losing a moment, began by inducing the Indians not 
to start that day, as they intended. Ho then went to 
make t^^ure of the crew of the vessel, and all being well- 
disposed, he notified Father Jogues to come the next night 
to the Hca-shore, where he would find s joat ready to take 
him on beard 
He escapes. The difficulty was to baffle the vigilance of his guards, 
much greater by night than by day, and to avoid meeting 
other Iro(iuois, who kept coming and going incessantly in 
that qiiarter. He was shut up at night in a barn, and as 
they did not gi-" e him an opportunity to examine whether 
there was any other outlet than the ordinary door by 
which he could steal away, as soon as he was shut up 
with his guiivdians he made a pretext for going out. He 
V as scarcely however outside, when a dog, set loose on a 
neighboring farm, ran on him and bit him in the leg. He 
went in badly Avounded, and the barn-door was immediately 
barricadcsd, so tliat he could not open it without great noise. 
All the Indians then lay down around their prisoner.' 

' Relation de la Nouvello France, nadcoalB, p. 389 ; Buteux, Narre, 
1643, p. 70; Creuxius, Iliatoria Ca- MS. 

•^ »..v'^; 



The servant of God then doenicd fliglit impossible, and 
easily persuaded himself that heaven did not approve it. 
He bowed to its decrees and slept calmly. A little before 
daybreak a servant of the place entered by a docn- which 
the Indians had not noticed. Father Jogues, who awoke 
or was no longer asleep, motioned to the man to quiet the 
dogs ; he rose softly, went out with him and made his way 
to the riverside. He found the bout, but without sailors, 
and so high up on the bank that ho could not succeed in 
getting it afloat. Ho got as near the vessel as ho could, 
and called to them to send some one to him. No rejily 
came. He went back to the boat, imploring the Almighty 
to increase his strength if it was His will that he should 
escape from the hands of the Iroquois. His renewed eflbrts 
succeeded ; the boat was at last pushed into the water and 
he reached the vessel.' 

He was well received, put down in the hold, and a case 
laid on the hatchway, so that if the Indians came on ^ oard 
they might be left to search all over without any fear of 
their finding him. On two occasions he sjjent twenty-four 
hours in this kind of dungeon, shut out from the light of 
day and almost stifled. At the end of that time they came 
to tell him that the Iroquois insisted, with violent threats, 
that he should be given up, and the tone of their remarks 
induced him to believe that they did not wish to get into 
trouble with them. Like Jonas, he rephed : " If for my 
sake this great tempest is upon you, cast me into the sea." 
He was then informed that the commandant wished to 
see him at his house. He made no reply, and in spite of 
the sailors, who would have kept him by force, got into 
the boat and was taken back to the post." 

The commandant assured him that he would be safe in 
his house ; adding, that all in the place agi-eed that it was 
best for him to leave the vessel, then on the point of sail- 
ing, so that they could assure the Indians that he had not 


' Rel., 164;J, p. 77 ; Buteux, MS. ' Rel., 1643, p. 78 ; 1647, p. ;J3. 




■^Tn (irrivos 

Ho crng-ios 

over ti> 



gone, and thus treat more iimiciibly witli them. Father 
JogucH conoeived fully the extent of his danger, l)ut as 
escape no longer depended on him, he told the officer to 
dispose of him as he chose. Two weeks after, that is to 
say, about the middle of September, several Indians camo 
from the village where he had been a slave, bent apjiarcntly 
on forcing the Dutch to give him up.' 

The commander Avas greatly embarrassed. Ho was in no 
condition to resist tlio Tmlians if they resorted to violence. 
Ho oft'ered to ransom their prisoner, and finally succeeded 
in inducing them lo accept some presents. He then sent 
Father Jogues to Manhattan,' where ho embarked in a 
small vessel of fifty tons, which sailed on the 5th of No- 
vember for Holland. The voyage was a favorable one; 
but a high wind, that sprang up as they were entering the 
British Channel, compelled the captain to put in at Fal- 
mouth, in England. As soon as they camo to anchor all 
the crow landed, leaving only a single man to guard the 
vessel. In the evening robbers came on board and seized 
all that suited them, leaving Father Jogues almost naked.* 

He would have died of cold and hunger had not a French 
ship come by chance to anchor in the same port. The 
captain, informed of the missionary's condition, gave him 
sei; , tnable relief. On Christmas eve, Father Jogues hear- 
ing that a collier was about to start for Brittany, asked a 
passage on board : it was cheerfully granted, and he 
lauded, in a sailor's garb, between Brest and St. Paul de 
Leon.* On the 5th of January' li^e presented himself, in the 

' For his condition wliilo concealed 
on shore, see Relation do la Nou- 
vello France, 1047, p. 33. 

» Reliition de la NouvcUe France, 
1(547, p. 34. Father Jogues wrote 
an interesting description of the 
Dutch colony: Novum Btlgium, De- 
Bcriiitiou de Nieuw Netherland et 
Notice sur Rem' Ooupil, New Yorlt, 
1802. I'ubli^lied also separately, 
in Englibh, with notes, in 4o. 

' 0'Call£ghan, New Netherland, 
i., p. 386 ; Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, 1043, i)p. 79, 81. 

■* This ix)rt is properly St. Pol de 
Leon : Relation de la N. F., 1047, 
p. 34. CreuxiuH gives some details 
as to his liiniling in France, which 
are not in the Relation : Historia 
Canadensis, p. 391. 

' Jogues, Letter of January 5, 



same giiiso, at tho door of tlio College at Rennos, and 
asked for tho rector, for Avhoui, ho said, he had tidings of 
Father Jogxxcs. Tho rector came down at once, and tho 
supposed sailor, without uttering a word, handed him an 
open letter given him by the Governor of Manhattan, with 
tho view of obtaining for him in Holland whatever he 
might need to reach France.' 

Tho rector, before rcaduig tho paper, asked him what 
had become of Father Jogues. The holy man looked at 
him with a smile. Tho rector recognized him then, fell on 
his neck, bathed him in tears, and was so affected that for 
a time ho clasped him to his heart, unable to utter a word. 
Tho servant of God remained a few days at Eennes and 
Bet out for Paris, where his escape was known and ho liim- 
self irapati(!utly expected. The Queen Mother wished to 
Bee him, and gave him a welcome worthy of her piety.' 
The Pope, from whom he solicited permission to celebrate 
tho divine mysteries with his mutilated hands, rephed that 
it Avould be unjust to refuse a martyr of Christ tho right to 
drink the blood of Christ: " Indignum esset Christi mar- 
tyiom, Christi uon bibere sanguiuom." 

It must be confessed that the holy missionar;y was then 
in a delicate position for virtue less soUd than animated 
him. Nothing is so apt to seduce a heart, where a spark 
of ambition and self-love remains, as to see one's self 
honored on such just grounds, as a saint who has done 
and suffered what seems to exceed the powers of man. 
But Father Jogues, taught that God is jealous not only of 
the glory which emanates from his own excellenco but 
also of that which he derives fiom our virtues, which we 
owe to his grace, would not expose himself to lose the 
fruit of his toils and suffermgs by the least feeling of 
complacency. Never was man more deeply grounded in 
humility ; it was his esiiecial characteristic, and he was, 


IIo nskg a 

tioti to uny 
Mntis with 
lii.^ iniitilat- 
cil liiintU. 
Tho I'opo's 

Hia especial 


' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1647, p. 35. 
Vol. II— 11 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1647, p. 35. 



1644. tliorcforo, far rcmovod from nny idea that ho had dono 
^""-r"—' mif^'lit for whidi Tloavon should lay up any reward. 
Ho retiirna Ho wus iiot oveu tempted to remain in France, where ho 
NewHwMiuh received applause, and ho in fact remained only till tho 
there, departure of tho firHt vessels that sailed for Quebec. Ho 
found tho affairs of New Franco in a pitiful state. HiH 
beloved Hurons were everywhere a prey to the Ii'oquois, 
and for somo time no tidings from their country had 
reached Quebec, unless to announce the defeat of a party 
or tho destruction of a town. The number of Christians, 
nevertheless, increased daily, and their faith gatlured 
strength in these very adversities which had so long re- 
tarded their conversion. 

These times of storm and persecution have been in all 
infant churches seasons of plenty in all heavenly benedic- 
tion, and have never failed to bo fruitful in good Christians. 
Canada, to tho close of the last century, was a very strik- 
ing proof this truth, and wo have seen mpny illustrious 
witnesses. I enjoyed oven the happiness of living with 
some of those who were actors on that bloody stage, and 
who could, like Saint Paul, show on theii* bodies the marks 
of Christ. But not only were tho apostles of New France 
not unworthy of being compared with the founders of the 
noblest chm'ches, but somo of their neophytes also re- 
called the fairest days of the Primitive Church ; and I 
should deem myself wanting the fidehty of history were I, 
in deference to what is called tho taste of our age, to pass 
over in silence tho more wonderful facts of this kind that 
I find in tho annals of Canada, and more capable of glorify- 
ing him who, from tho heart of barbarism, could raise up 
true children to Abraham.' 

At the very time that God seemed to have abandoned 
the Hurons to the fire and steel of the Iroquois, it was im- 
possible to enter a town without meeting some of those 

' Relation de la Nouvello France, 
1647, p. 30. 
' Creuxius, Ilistoria Canadensis, p. 

409 ; Lettru de M. Marie dc I'lncar- 
nation, il la Siiperieuro dus Ursu- 
lines, Sept. 29, 1(143. 



clioson houIh whom f^raco raiHcs nlinvo man, to f otifoniul 1644, 
thoso whoso passions h)wor tlicm hciioatli tho ^,'rii(h' of ^— -,— -^ 
beasts. Tho apostolical spirit aiiiiuaU'd nuiii}-; tlioro wck! Korv.imml 
throo who midortook to pn-ach tho gospel to tho Nontor the iiuVuiih. 
natiou,' wluTo tho niissioiiai-ios, on account of thcii- small 
mimbor, could not make a long stay, and the Lord blessed, 
tlu'ir zeal bcyimd tliuir hop( s. To the lively and pathetio 
e'uHpienco natural to these people, thoy added the force of 
cxam])lo, alwr^ys more persuasivo than tho most eloquent 

Among iicso now apostles was one, Joseph Taondo- 
choren, who had been taken with Father Jogues, ami had 
been indeed tho first to bear to Quebec tidings of the holy 
mi.<sionary.' One day a number r,f heathens, who were in 
company with him, expressed great surprise at his ii'ver 
allowing a single word to escape him evincing the sligliti-st 
resentment against the Iroquois who had treated him so 
cruelly. " It is," he re[)lied, " because God (hfJuses over 
sufferings endured for his sake joys so pure and consola- 
tions SI' striking, that no animosity can be felt against 
those who liave been tho instruments." He then spoke so 
forcibly on the excellence of the Christian religion, and the 
miraculous manner in which it changes the heart of man, 
that most were moved and many convinced of the necessity 
of embracing it." 

The island of Montreal was gradually filling up with 
settlors, and the piety of these new colonists gradually 
prepared the Indians who had intercouiso with them to 
submit to the yoke of tho Faith. Their mt)st frecpicnt 
intercourse was with the Algonquins, living on an island 
formed 1 >y the Ottawa ; but their chief ' seemed imbued 

' Relation de la NouvpU.! Frnucc, ' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 

104-t, \i\<. !)(i, 07. They wcn^ Biirna- 1041, p. Hi. 

liy OtsiiiDnannhout, Stephen Totiri, ■< Tess-elias, called l)y the French 

and his brother. ]e Borgue de lisle ; Relation d(; la 

' Kelution de la Nouvello P'rance, Nouvelle France, l(i4:i, p. 54 ; Creux- 

1044, p. 81. iuH, Ilistoria Canadensis, p. 373. 






m m 

■ 40 

IL25 II 1.4 

■ 2.0 








WEBSTER, N.Y. 14500 

(716) S73-4S03 








of MIL Al- 


with nn unconqnorablo avoision to Cliristinuity, niid ally 
as he was, or sought to be doomed, of tho Froiu-h, the 
MirnoiilniiR inissioiuirios found in him a more difticult anta<,'onist Hum 
the lro(nu)is themselves. It was not that he was more 
wrajniod uj^ in his superstitious praetioes, hut he was 
a man violent to feroeity, extremely' haughty, and ill- 

God seems at times to delight in triumphing over some 
of these intractable hearts and i)erverso souls, whose con- 
quest all nnist admit to bo sol(>ly tho woik of His all- 
powerful mercy. Such wis, to all ai)pearance, the conver- 
sion of tho .Vlgonquin chief. Every thing was supernatural 
in tho manner in which tho unexpected change was 
wrought. Tliis savage had a nephew,' who took it into 
his head to settle on tjio island of Montreal, ]^[r. do 
Maisouneuvo, to whom he went, neglected no argument to 
confirm his intention ; and as his main ol)ject was to gain 
him to Christ, ho begged Fr.ther Yimond and Father 
Poncet, who w(>re hapjiily then with him, to instruct tho 
Alg(mfiuiu in our mysteries. 

The}' joyfully consented, and found in this man and in 
his wife so much mildness and docility, that, after tho 
ordinary trials to test tlKsir constancy, they baptized thorn 
both. These two converts had promised to settle on tho 
island, and they kept their word. They did more. Tho 
gi'aco of tho sacrament had enkindled in them a zeal for 
the salvation of souls — a Z(>al soon blessi'd with finiit ; but 
the conversion most yoarn«>d for was that of their uncle. 
Although thoy saw no human probability of success, they 
nevertheless undertook it, and were preparing to visit hun 
in his village, when they learned that lie had started foi" 
tho winter hunt. This mischanc!0 grieved them, but they 
soon saw that Divine Providence has modes of action un- 
known to men ; and if tlioy had not the honor of coutrib- 

' Joseph t-'mBsasikSi'ie : Rrlntum la ('"limio Krnnrnisi', i., p. 4flO. His 
de In N. V.. U\\'\. p. 5-) ; Crcuxius, tribe wim the KicliiHipiriiii, ralli-d by 
Hihi.Ciinod, p ;)*;!; Faillon, the IliironK IbbimiiaiTonon. 



uting to a conversion so (Icsinnl, except pprhnpn by wrost- 1644. 
inj,' it from H('av(>u hy tluur prayers, tlic manner in wliieli 
it was elV(>ete<l f^'ave tlieiii no less t'onaolutiou, and stienf,4li- 
eneil tlieir faith. 

One day, wlieu tlie husband was conversing,' witli Fatlier 
Viniond on the matter, tliey were both extremely sui'i)rised 
to see the cliief enter the room where tliey were ; but 
their astonishment iiiereastnl all the more when, in reply- 
to a tpiestion as to the luotivo of his eominj,', he stated 
that he was there to become a Christian. Father Vimond 
asked the nxjtive for so sudden a resolution, at variance 
with all his previously cxpres.sed .sentiments. Kj declared 
that it was impossible for him to tell it ; that, as he was 
proceeding from Fort llichelieu to Three llivers, a sudden 
change took place in his mind, v.liich he did not under- 
stand ; and that, by a movement which ho could not 
control, he had taken his way back to Montrinil, to be 
instructed in the doctrine of the Christians. Ho added 
that his wife was in the same disposition as himself. 
Then addressing Father Vimond : " Father," said he, " I 
ftni not well : nevertheless, if you refuse me this favor 
which I ask, I am resolved to go to the Hurons, whore I 
hope they will grant it.'" 

His nephew listened to all this like a man who knows 
not whether he dn-ams or is awake ; then, unablt; to con- 
tain the joy that transported him, he ran to Mr. d(! Alai- 
sonneuve to inform him what he had seen and heard. The 
governor wished to examine in person so improbable a 
fact ; and finding it real, embraced the conveit, assured 
him of his friendship, and told him that he would luider- 
tako to induce the superior-general to gi-atify his desire. 
Father Vinnrnd was not less eager to see the accomi)lish- 
meut of a work the results of which could not fail to be so 
advantageous to religion ; but the aflair was not one to be 

' Relation do la NouvoUe I'rnnrp, nadonsis, p. ;573 ; Faillon, riistoircde 
low, p. 55; Cri'uxius, lliutoria C"a- In f'olouii- Fnun.niw, i., p. 4iil. 





1644. treated prccipitntoly. Moreover, uuinbcrs of other In- 
^""^r^-^ diiiiis came iu daily for instnietion ; and two prieHts, who 
had also other duties to fulfil, were uuoqual to f'j great 
a task. 

This last difficnlty, however, was soon raised. All, 
iiichidiug the governor himself, aided the missionaries in 
iustnictiug the catechumens — women taking charge of 
those of their own sex; and as it was perceived that 
grace acted even more efficaciously within than the most 
touching exhortation could Avithout, at the end of eight 
days' assiduous labor all were deemed in a condition to 
receive bajitism. Mr. de Maisonneuve was god-father to 
the Chief of the Isle, and Madame de la Peltrie god- 
mother — a sally of somewhat restless zeal (soon, however, 
to resume its even tenor) having brought her to Mon- 
Forvor of Father Vimond never had reason to repent his facility in 
quill im"- receiving these Inilians into the fold committed to his vigi- 
*'*""'■ lance. Time did not relax their fervor. The whole was done 
by a kind of inspiration, and all recognized visibly what is 
one of the most important points of the science peculiar 
to apostolic men — that if the Author of Nature sometimes 
goes beyond the laws which he himself has established in 
the ordinary course of events, there are also occasions 
where his ministers should not confine themselves too 
scnipulonsly to the rules of measured prudence. 

The whole Algonquin nation felt the clTcct of the events 
just occurred at Montreal, and gradually the number of 
Christians there exceeded that of the heathen. Three 
Bivers* and Tadoussac' had also then- Indian missionaries. 

' T<'88«chat — Huron, On- 
dpeson, nnd by tlip Frencli, lo Borgno 
de I'IhIo (Kt'l., 1040, p. 7)— was bap- 
tizcKl Miircb 9, 1043 : Kclation di- la 
Nouvcllc France, 1043, p. 54 , Creux- 
iUB, Uifttoria Cnnadi'iiHig, p. 370 ; 
FailUin, Ilintiiire de la Colonle Fran- 
i^Be, i., p. 461. The iHiand wbicli 

he inhabited is the present lie des 
Allumetteg. It v/aa here that Father 
Jen>nin I.aleniant was aHsailed. 8ee 
ante, p. 111. 

' Helation do la Nouvello France, 
1043. p. 4.5. 

■' Ut^lation do la Nouvello France, 
1043, p. 32 ; 1644, p. 55. 


Nnopliytes woro seen undertaking prolonged journeys, in 
tho most inclement season, solely with the view to an- 
nounce Christ to trihes far remote ; and those who could 
not leave their towns lor so long a period did not allow 
their zeal to remain inactive. In public and private meet- 
ings they incessantly inculcated obedience to their pastors 
and submission to tho sacred laws of the Church. Those 
who had any authority over tho multitude could not 
bring themselves to allow any fault to pass unpunished, 
little as it might have attracted notice or given scandal, 
and it was often somewhat difficult to moderate their 
severity in the matter. 

At Sylleri esp'jcially men admired what the first-fruits 
of grace in a new-formed Christian fold could effect.' 
This town was not exposed, as it was some time after, to 
the attacks of the Iroquois ; but however httle its inhab- 
itants went from it, they ran tho risk of being earned off, 
and this had already happened to several. Deprived thus 
of all recourse to tho chase, on which these tribes cannot 
avoid relying, they were often reduced to want of the 
actual necessaries of life. The French did all in their 
power to reli(!ve their more pressing wants ; but being 
themselves generally poor, their charity was a feeble re- 
source for so many famishing creatures. Besides the 
little ^aste and skill ever shown by Algonquin tribes for 
the cultivation of the earth, these Christians, often com- 
pelled to shut themselves up in tho palisades of their 
towns to C8cai)e the Iroquois war-parties that were in the 
field, were unable either to till their fields in safety or to 
count on reaping tho little they had sowed. 

This wretched state, to which there was no apparent 
remedy, did not, however, diminish tho confidence of these 
fervent proselytes in Divmc Providence. Ill-disposed 
men in vain used every stratagem to withdraw them from 
the service of a God who, they said, forsook them, and let 



' Relation do la Nouvello France, 1643, pji. 8, 12 ; 1044, p. 4, 






invi'Titcil ill 

Franco tlio 

Ji'.HiiitA of 


Their jnsti- 

tln'ir cncniits and his own trinni))]i. Not only was their 
faith inoof to :i ttMiiptation which often oveironies thoKo 
born and hron},'ht np in tlie Itosoni of tlir t'huirli, hut it 
did not even eool tlieir /.e.-d, and their niiinher.s daily 
inoreased. Proselytes eaiiie to Syil.ri from the far North, 
and it was not niiusual to see the very men entering tho 
fold who had used the greatest exertions to seatter it. 

Sueh was tht; situation of Christianity in New Franoo, 
wheu news eanie that astounded evi'ry man of lienor iu 
the coh)uy. Who, in fact, could imagine that mission- 
aries, whoso sanctity, labors, and disinterestedness wero 
admired by all, coulil all at once see themselves under the 
necessity of making statemeids to justify their ccmduct, 
and persuade tlu; public that it was not interests of trado 
that kt'pt them in the midst of barbarism, exposed to all 
tho dangers tliat we have witiu-ssed? Yet this was 
asserted in Europe ; and destitute of all ])robability as 
these calumnies were, they were spread with tho greater 
assuranet>, as many gave them eredenco. 

Tho Company of Ouo Hundred Associates was no less 
amazed at these clamors than tho inhabitants of New 
France, who saw the falsehood with their very lyes. As 
tho Company was most deeply interested in i)reventing 
tho trado imputed to the Jesuits, and bettor able to know 
the facts by means of the agents which it maintaint!d in 
Canada, it deemed itself boiuid in honor to defend tho 
accused, and did so by an authentic declaration, which is 
in these words : 

" Tho Directors and Associates in the Company of New 
France, called Canadii, having heard that some persons 
are persuaded, and spread the report, that the Society of 
the Jesuit Fathers has a share ui the embarkation, returns, 
and trade carried on with that country — seeking by this 
means to lower and destroy the I'steem and value of the 
grt'at labors which tiiose missionarii's undertake in said 
ccmutry, with ineredil)le pain and hardshi]), at the peril of 
their life, for the service and glory of God, iu converting 

mSTOllV OK Ni;W I'KANti:. 


the Tniliaiis to tho faith of Cliiistiiinity iviid tho Ronmn 1644. 

Catholic Apostolic iclif^ion, tii which they have made; and <— 

daily make f<reat ].rot,qcHs- of which the said Coiiii)aiiy in 
particularly iiiforiiu>d, Imvo doomed thomsolvoiq hound liy 
tho^-ation of ("hristian charity to disalniso those who 
entiMtain this Ipclief by tli(« J)eclarati<m and (Vrtitieato, 
which they make l.y these presents, that the said Jesuit 
TathorH aro not associates in tho said Couipany of New 
France, either directly or indirectly, and liave uo interest 
in tho sales of goods mad(« there. In testimony whereof, 
tho present Declaration has lieen signed liy the said 
Directors and Associates, iind sealed with tho seal of suid 
Company, the first day of Decendjor, 1G4:{. 

" Di: LA FkKTK, Abl).' (!.■ la Jfngdoleine. 

13ki!ui vi;ii. Fleuuuu. 

lloilINXVU. Caset. 

Sadouet. BoritGCET. 

liEiMuyER. Clahentin. 

"Compared with the original Ijy a Councillor, Secre- 
tary to tho King, House, and Crown of France. 

" Jolly.'" 
This document had its ofToct with these who had no 
need of being undeceived ; and it was not without some 
ijidignation on their part that they, some time after, 
beheld the Jesuits of Canada, so revered iu Old and X(!W 
Fri'.nce, play, in the " I'n^vincial Letters," the part of 
traders :' but their justification was tho news received in 
the fnllowing years, telling that, while they w(!re thus 
blackened in their own countiy, all without exception 

' Itclution (lu Iu Nouvell.. Pmw,; whs tlnis ingoniniisly made into 

^''f'''I''^2. triul.'. On ihis iKMiit" «•.• Lij.iino 

■•' l-Htcr V. JJi'iiv.T skins, in Vu- Itdatinn dc la Nouv.ll.- l''iuMfi' 

nada and in N.w Nnlirrland, w.r.^ l(;;ii!, ,,. I7;i. Rflutinns In.'ditrs! 

regard. 'd as ni.w\ : just as, in Vir- 1072-!t, ii., ;!ll. 1),. hi t'otlicrio! 

gi'iia, tolMino, its siapl.', was a rw- Histoirn (\v I'Ani.'riiiue Sopteutri- 

opiizcd vaiuf. Till' nK-cipt by the onale, i., 207. 
luibsiouaries of uiuouiits in beavi-r 








woro ('(^ifroutiii}^, witli a conrftgo wortliy of their vocation, 
tlu' stiiki! aiul all tlio lionoiH of captivity ; that many had 
uhoady pfiishud b;'neath tho tiro and Hti'ul of tlu- Jro- 
quois ; that otla-iH witc languiHliing in fottcas ; ami that 
tho places of thoHO who had fallen victiius to their zoal 
wero iiunu'diat«'ly tilled up by their lirethri'n, whom dosiro 
of a Himilar lot had made jealous of their suflerings. Hero 
is tho first proof. 

For three whole years tho Huron missionaries had 
received uo supplies from Quebec, so that their habits 
wore falling to pieces ; and win(» having failed for INIass, 
they wero obliged to gather wild grapes in tho woods to 
servo their need, and for want of flour, wero on tho point 
of being obliged to forego the celebration of the holy mys- 
teries. Their extremity was not unknown at (^uebei', but 
it was not easy to remedy it. At last some Hurons, who 
Imd oxi)osed themselvts in winter to the perils of a jour- 
ney on tho ico to Qui'boc, woro loaded, on their return, 
with ail that the missionaries needed.' They earnestly 
desinid to have a Jesuit to accomj)any them — the more 
especially as, besides the fact that Father Joguos had not 
vet retunied from Franco, Father Davost' was past all 
es rtiou and died soon after; but tho superior-general did 
not daro to propose to any ouo a mission of which he saw 
all the danger. 

Father Francis Joseph Bressani, a Roman Jesuit, to 
whom all that befell him in America had boon foretold 
in France, and whoso coinage had only derived fresh 
strength from tho prediction, no sotmer imdorstood tho 
difficulty in which his superior stood than ho oflfered to 
attend tho convoy, and his offer was accejjted. Ho em- 
barked in tho latter part of April, 10-44,' with a young 

' Rclnticm de la Nouvelle Franco, to France : C'arnyon, IVwiimcnts Tn- 

1044, )). ;tl). .'iliUi, xiv., p. 112; Hilation de la 

' Fatlicr Anibrow' Davngt arrived Nouvelle Fmnco, l({4:t. p. HO. 

in Cuiindii in Miiy, UV.i'.i, anil (lied ■' April 127, 1014: HrcHHinii, Brcvo 

at Hca in 1043, un hin pausnge buck Relatiune, p. '6i (see ante, vol. i., 



rreiu-liniiiii and hIx HinoiiH, two uf whom liml r(H*(«iillv ''*'^" 
f.sfa|M'il from tln' liaiids of tlin Iro(|uoiH. Tlitir journey, 
as far as Tlirt'c Hivtis, was suiTcssfiil cnon^li ; but au 
ai-ciiiciit, which dchiytd tlit-iii a wliolc ihiy at tlio ciitranco 
of Lake St. Pirrrf, Ihn-w tlicm into the Inmds of their 
enemies. The missionary'rt canno waH wrecked ; liie next 
ni),'ht thero was u lieavy fall of snow, (h-layiu},' the ])arty 
still more; and some of tln-ni, tiring' iminiideiitly at wild- 
geese,' tliselused their preseneo to an l»o(juois [tarty not 
far olV, who at ouce formed an andmseade. 

The next day' Father 13ressani, do\ddin^ u point, sud- llo Utnkon 
denly found himself in the midst of three hostile canoes. ' quoia. 
The disadvantaj,'e Iniinf,' too K'^'^d, no combat ensued. Tho 
two other Huron cannon, which followed, seeing the miH- 
bionary taken, plied thoir paddles to e8cai)e, but two Iro- 
quois canoes, stdl better maimed, awaited them behind 
another point, and stopjied them. The Christians, althouj^h 
only two in each canoe, and much encumbered with bag- 
gage, resolved to defend themselves ; one of tho bravest 
aimed at an Iroquois, but was anticipated by another, who 
shot him (K-ad in his canoe. No more was needed tomako 
his comrade and those in the other canoe throw down their 
arms. They were instantly taken and bound.* 

The Iro([nois then proceeded to divide their booty ; for 
binci' tlu'V had bt'gun to nnike war on the French, or rather 
Binco they had sei-n how the French acted on such occa- 
bious, they were uo longer content, as of old, with the glory 

p. W) ; Relation Abrogro do 
(juol(|Ui'8 MisKioiiH (It's IVrrs dc In 
('(iiiiimpiicdu Ji'HUMtlaiiH la NduvcIIu 
KiaiiiT, liy I'utlicr I'lMx Murtiii, S.I., 
MmitmJ, ISoU', j)|i. i;i— 1.5 ; Relation 
di- la Nouvollc Krancc, Kill. )>. :i!l. 
For tt lift" 1)1' l'"ullit'r HrcsHnni, m:e 
the French truuHlutiou of liia Hri'Vc 

' Tliey flrtnl ot an cnfjli', snys 
Brestioni, Hrcvc lU'liitione. |i. '.Vi. 

' Next (lay but ono : HrctiHttnl, 

BroVd Relatifino, p. 33. He makes 

the pliic<' of nviiturr twenty -two or 
twenty-fouriniles from Three Hivere, 
iukI seven or eight from Fort Rieho- 

■' Tho attacking'' |Jiirty uiiinlKTed 
iwc iityueven : Hresisiini, p. ;ii ; Mar- 
tin's cilitioM, p. 1 1 7. The nrcount in 
the Relation de la Noiivelle Franco, 
11(44 (p. -11), (liffrH slitrlitly. The 
Huron killed was U(.'rtrand Sotrios- 



'"44> of victory, but tlio hope of plumlcM- had full iih inuoli to do 
with tlii'ir wiir-piirtii's iih tho di'siro of injuring tlwir 
oiiomit'H. Tlu-y ln'pm, iiion'ovcr, to uiuh-rMtaiid tlnir tlf- 
pontloiu'o ou tlu'ir Dutcli nci^'hhorH, aiv\ the l>ooty swept 
from their oiiemieH ouuhled them to obtain from New 
Nethcrlaiid miuiitiouH needed to currv on the war. 
His miffer. The l>o(<ty divided, these savages cut up the body of tho 
Ills' on|!iiv-' fallen Huron, cooked and ate it. Tlu'y then exultingly 
' ^' took up their march homeward, loading ofl' their prisonerH, 
whom thoy almost allowed to perish on the way, yet forct^l 
to paddle without respit*'. As they approached tli(>ir 
journey's end they met a fishing-party, to whom they 
abandoned the jiriHoners for a lime ; these received tho 
captives with a severe bastinado. Tho Hurons escaped 
with that ; but tho missionary had his left hand cloven 
opeu between the third and little finger.' As socm as ho 
reached tho tlrst village of tlic Mohawk canton' he was 
subjected to horrible treatment, till he finally fill, witlumt 
consciousness or motion. To restore him, the}' cut ofT his 
left thumb and two fingers of his right hand.' 

A storm, which came up, dispersed the crowd, and the 
missionarj' was left alone, stretched ou a kind of scaffold, 
unable to rise and rapidly losing blood. In tho evening ho 
•was taken to a cabin, where his nails were burnt and hi.s 
feet distorted. Here, given up without reserve to tho 
fierce and malignant youth, he was loaded with outrages 
and treat«'d with the utmost barbarity'. He was there left, 
after dung had been forced into his mouth. Tho next day 
they began again, and surpassed i^ven what they had in- 
flicted ou him the night bofoi'o. They carried inhumanity 
so far as to lay food for their dogs on his naked body, that 

' Tliis fishing jinrty of four Iiun- tioni-, p. !1T ; Martin's i-tlltion, ppi 

dretl wtis on tilt' riijHT Iludtion. Ho 120-3; Kclntion do la Noarelle 

was torturod lioro for si'Vcrul days, Francr, 1044, jip. 43, 44. 

BO that hi' writi's, " 1 would not liuvo ' May :i() : Urossaui, Brove Rt'la. 

bolicvcd tliat man could linvo so tione, p. 38. 

hard a lifu :" Uri'iSBani, Breve Rcla- " lb. 



thoHO cvcr-fiiniishiiiR animiiln might tour him, nH they did 
in Ht'v«'iiil jiliucs.' 

At the fiid of fi few days — hiH body notlung morn thim 
ono wound, Hwarming in ovcry part witli WDrms-hc lu)- 
canu) HO loathmiino that nohody could endure the Htoneli, 
Ho sjill'm-d cxcnifiatiiig pain, cMiu'ciully in one le<;, whero 
an apoMtiiuine ulcer had formed, that deprived him of even 
a moment's Hleep. Providence made the cruelty of Iuh 
torturers remedy this evil ; for one of the savages, wishing 
to intlict a new wound, struck his knife into the tumor 
and laid it open. Tlw last act of the tragedy wiis now 
ah)ne h-ft, and all seemed to prepare for it. This thought 
alono gavo tho prisoner a shock which somotimca oven 
made him iusensibh* to his sufferings.' 

Humiliated to find himself still so weak, he had rooonrso 
to prayer, and implored tho Almighty to '/e his strength 
and support ; i's])ecially not to permit him to dishonor, by 
cowardi(u^. Ids religion and his august ministry, which ho 
had come so far to exorcise. At this moment he perceived 
old men coming from tho council held to decide his fate, 
and soon afterword was bnuight to him that the resolution 
•was taken not lo put him to death. This was tho last 
thing that he anticipated, and all shared his astonishment, 
in view of tho fearful state to whidi he had boon reduciil. 
The very men who took part in tho council could not ex- 
j)laiu why they had taken tho stop." 

The holy man roiurned thanks to Him who moulds 
hearts as pleases him, ami humbled himself in His sight, 
avowing his unworthiuess of tho grace of martyrdom. Ho 
was given to a matron, who treated him very humanely ; 
but tho stench exhaled by his body rendered him insup- 



Ill' i< ili'llv- 

I'l'i'il iiiid 



' BrcHsnni, Brcvd Holiitionc, p. liO ; Martin's edition, p. Vil. The d«- 

Mortin's cditinn, p. 12-1 ; liclntionde cision was nindc June 19 (says tlio 

la Niiiivclli' Frnncc, l(i44, p. 44. ' Hdntion do la Nouvcllc l''rnnco, 

' Hrc-Hiinni, Uri'vc Hclntidne, p. oO ; lfi44, p. 44), nnd V>y an nnstnibly of 

Martin'8 edit i(in. 1). 105. two thoiifiand : ("rciixius, Historia 

• Brustiuni, Brovo Uulationo, p. 44 ; CanadenBiH, p. 402. 




■ t 

8uil CMiiili- 

tioii of tlio 


I>iirtiiMt' to t1»» v>] olo oal)iii, nm\ tlicro Ix'iii^ no iiroHprt't, 
iiuilil iti'il as Ii«< wiiH, tliiit III* wiiiilil rvt'i- Ix' ill 11 cniiilitiiiii 
to rciiilcr liny HMvicf. Iiis iiiiHtrcHs Mi-nt him to tlm in'iirt'st 
1)iitcli ]ioHt to H(>ll iiiiii, if liny one tlicnt woulil l>uy liini. 
Tlit« Dutcli rifoiviul liitn conliitlly, HiitiHtit-d the IndiiinM, 
rind f,'iivt' liitn innixr nicdicid ciur.' Ah mum iih hi' wim 
iilili' to cnduii' II voya^»• lie wuh iiiiM't'd on 11 vchmcI, wliicli 
liindfd liiiii in Uoclu'lli' towardH tli<> cIoho of Novi iiiliii-.' 

To n-turii to tin* Iro'pKiis. IJi-nt, as thcHo Havaj,'»!H 
HtM-niftl to Im>, on pnnliinf^ tlir war to (>xtrrniity a,<j;ainHt uh 
ftH well iiH aj,'iiinHt our allifs, llicy nnvcitliclfss, from tinio 
to time, nliowrd Honn> inclination to poacc. The Cin'viilicr 
do >[ontmaj,'ny ardently dcnirt'd it, hnth bccauHo ho Haw 
liiniHclf not in a ('r)ndition to HUKtain a war, and buoauHo, 
ovrn foiild lie do ho sncccsHtiilly, lio Imd nothinj^ to ^ain. 
Even liad it ln'cn possihh" for liini to ('onc(>id his wrakmsH 
from his cncmit'S, he ini(.;ht, indi'od, liavo profited, 1)V soino 
furtnnato occasiun, to niiiko terniM not inconsistent with tlic 
honor of Fiance; but this resonreo was wiintiii},', and tho 
Iroi|Uois Iioasted aloud that they would soon forco tho 
I'Veiich to return across the sea.' 

Tims satisfieil as the governor was that tho menus ol 
disarming these savages was not to seek tlieiii, he never 
saw a nioment when \w could assume the tone which alono 
cuuld have rctaiued them in a strict neutrality towards ua. 

' Br<'snftnl, Urcvo Holiitlono, pp. 
42, 41!. Tliis work oontuiun tlirco 
IfttciM of tlic iiutlior, (Inti'd July 15, 
MM, Auc.'M, niU.nnd n Ihirdfnim 
lalu do in..'. Nov. IB. 1(144. Uo wiw 
pivi'ii up to tho Dutch Ain;. 10, 1(144. 
Kicft'H ))a8s|xirt, diitcd Sept. 'JO, is in 
CrcuxiuH, IliHti>riii Canndi'imiti, p. 
40:1. Scr ()'l'ullaj,'hnn'8 New Ni-lh- 
iTliiud, i.. pp. ;t:!(i, :i;i7. Mother Ju- 
chiTcuu (llistoirc dc I'llotrl nini) 
snyw liP wrut to Home nuil wan pro- 
Rcntctl to I'opii Innocent X.. who re- 
ci'ived liiiM BH nn njioHtle and kiHwed 
Lis soars (p. ,'):!|. For Hn-HMnni, sci; 

a llfp by R.'V, Follx Martin, 8. .1., In 
luH French edition of liretwitni ; 
Kelation AbroK<'o, .Moiitreul, ISW ; 
alxo Crunxlus, IliHtoria ('iinnth'nuig, 
pp. .'til.'>-40:i ; Hi'lution do lu Nou- 
vollo Fmnio, 1(144, pp. Al-Ti, otc. ; 
Sliea, Perils of thi> Ocean nnd VVll- 
dernoKH, pp. 1()4-:I0. Father Bres- 
sani, a native of Home, entered tlio 
S<H'iety of JesUH at tlie iipe of tif- 
ti'on, canii' to Canada in 1(14'.', and 
die<l at Horence, Sept. 0. l(iT'<>. 

'Nov. 1,"> : Helation du la Non- 
vello Franco, 1(114, ]>. ■I.'i. 

' Kelation do la N. F., Ki 14, p. 105. 



iriiiir ifiiii- 
orn to iiiiika 



thi' IrcH 

Forcod, tlicrcfon*, to Htt'jw nnbocoiiiiiif^ IiIh i-lmractor, lio 1^)4?. 
CII(lcilvori(l, ill liin illiiliililv to iln (illii iwiMc, In cover tlirm -^^f^^ 
witli sttiiic fiiir |iri't('\t, jiiut iit tlic risk of lu'iii^' tlir )iii|K> of 
iiiHiiiccrt) adv/iiiccH of an ciK'niy at onco wil}' ami savuK*'. lio 
prctciiilcii to li"li((vr tlu-m Hiiicoro, witli tho view, citing of 
d«Iivi'iiii'4 HoiiK^ caiitivt*. or sniiliii^ hoiii(< convov safely 
tliroii;^'!), and tliiis Have trade from total ruin ; or, indeed, 
to Hecuru Hoinu uioutlm' trure, if only tu gain lueanH to 

Some tiiiK? after tlio raptnro of Father llrcHsani, Mr. do Tli«jro». 
C'liampllour, f^overiior of Tliree Ilivers, infoiiiied liim tlmt imi' 
Home Hiirons had just reached his post with three InxjuoiH 
prisoiKTH ; that they had kIvcii one' to tho AI;.,'om|uiiis, 
'ndioni, with much dilVieiilty, lie had |ieisuaded not to put 
their captive to death till they heard from him. On this 
information the ^^eiieral proceeded to Three Uiveis, as- 
Hemliled th(« chief men of thu two nations, and told them 
that if they would put their priHoncrH at liiH di.spoHal, ho 
h(jped to uHt! them to cstahlish a iliirahle poaco hetwt'oii 
them ami the Inxpiois.' 

He then displayed the poods, with which ho expected to 
inirchttHo thoir compliance with his wishes; and he added, 
that to provent lieiiij^ deceived by their comnum foe, ho 
would at tir.'^t send hack only one of these; caj)tives, and 
tlmt he wouhl at the same time notify the cantons that, if 
they wished to savo tho lives of the other two, they must, 
without dehi}', send deputies, with full ]iowcr8, to treat of 
terms to restore traiaiuillity in the land. As soon as ho 
ceasod, an Algonquin chief arose, and taking by the hand 
tho prisoner given to his tribe, presented him to tho gov- 
ernor, saying that he could refuHo his Father nothing ;' that 
if ho accepted his presents, it was only to havo wherewith 
to wipe away the tears of a family in wl.ich this ca])tivo 

' Tokhrnlicni'liiarnii : Krlittion do '' Itclntion do la Nouvolle Franco, 

la Noiivclli' Kruiico, l(i4rj, p. ^-| ; lO-ll, p]). 1(1, 47. 
C'ruuxiiiB, lliotdria Ciinadoueiti, p. ■' lb., p. 47. 

' f 





pr.sscil 1)L'- 

twccii liim 

nnd tho 



was to replace a lost member : that, moreover, lie wonld 
bo c'liarmotl to have peace restored; but that to him the 
thiiifj; seemetl siurouiuled with diflicultioH.' 

The governor thou turned towards tho Hurous to hear 
their auswer also, but ouc of them, taking up the word, 
rei)lied, haughtily, that ho was a warrior, not a trader; that 
he had not left his town to traffic, but to carry ou war ; 
that his stuffs and his kettles did not tempt him ; that if 
he was so anxious fur his prisoners, ho might take them — 
he could easily replace them, or die in the endeavor ; that 
if that misfortune bifell him, he would have at least the 
consolation of djing like a man ; but that his nation would 
say that Ononthio had caused his death. 

This reply embarrassed the governor-general, but an- 
other Huron, a Christian, soon extricated Lim from liis 

" Ononthio," said ho, " let not the words of my brother 
indispose you against us. If wo cannot consent to give you 
Myt our prisoners, it is for reasons that you will not dis- 
approve. NTe should lose honor if we did so. You see no 
old man among ns ; young people, as we are, are not 
masters of their actions, and warriors would be dishonored 
if, instead of returning home with captives, they made 
their appearance with goods. What would you say your- 
self, father, to your soldiers if you saw them come back 
fi'om the war in the guise of mcichants ? The mere wish 
■which you express to have our slaves might take the place j 
of ransom ; but it does not lie with us to dispose of them. 
Our brothers, the Algonquins, could do what you ask of 
them, because they are with their sachems, who are an- 
swerable to no man for their conduct ; not being rest ained 
by the same motives as ourselves, they could not, in 
courtesy, refuse you so trifling a matter. Our sachems, 
when they know our intentions, -will, doubtless, pursue the 
same course. We all desire peace ; we enter into your 

• Rolotion de la N. F., IGU, p. 47; Creuxius, Hist. Cun., pp. 414-C. 



views; we have oven anticipatod thorn, for we have done 1645. 

no harm to our iii-isoners ; wc have treated tliem as men ^-^^i ' 

who are to he our friends ; but it does not become ns to 
forestall the consent of our seniors, nor dei)rive them of so 
brilliant an opportunity of showing our Father how thej 
respect his will. 

" Another reason also restrains us, and I am sure that it 
will be as legitimate as the first in your eyes. TVe know 
that the river is covered with our enemies ; if we meet a 
force superior to us, what will your presents avail, excei)t 
to embarrass us, and animate them tlie more to the combat, 
to profit by our booty? But if they see among us some of 
their brethren, who show that wo desire ])eace ; that Onon- 
thio wishes to bo the father of all the nations, that ho can 
no longer permit !ds children, whom he bears alike in his 
bosom, to contiinie to destroy each other, the arms will 
fall fi'om their hands ; our prisoners will save our lives, 
and they will labor much more eflScaciously for peace than 
if too great anxiety is shown to set them free.'" 

The Chevalier do Montmagny had no reply to make to The Hu- 
languagc so studied and judicious ; he even saw how advan- to"'treaf 7or 
tageous it would be to let the first advances for peace be 
made by the Hurons, and !ie omitted nothmg to induce 
them to it. He, accordingly, replied to the brave who had 
just spoken so wisely, that he strongly approved his 
reasons, and that, after all; peace was far more their affair 
than his. Still, learning that Father de Brebeuf wished 
to nvail himself of this occasion to return to his church, 
whose pressing needs had forced him to descend to 
Quebec, and whither he was taking two now missionaries,' 
he deemed it wrong to leave them exposed to the miseries 
which had overtaken Fathers Jogues and Bressani, aud 
he gave them an escort largo enough to protect them from 
all insult. 


' Relation i1e la Nouvello France, tiilis CImbnnel : Kolatiiii de la Nou- 

l""*-*' P 4H. velle Franco, 1«4.;, p. 49 ; 1045, p. 

* Futhere Leonard Garreau and Na- 40. 
Vol. 11—13 





1641,. Their journey was, in fact, witlioiit mishap, and on 

' ''^^ their arrival in tlio Hnron country, it was clccided, in a 

The Trfw general council, to send the two Iroquois prisoners to tho 

Kiiie.rciy Clicvalier do Montmagny. That governor had already set 

disposmi to , ,., , ,, . , 1.1.1 -1 1 ., 

pe»ce. at hberty tho prisoner placed m Ins hancis oy the Algon- 
quins ;' and the cantons, to show their inclination for 
peace, had sent back Couture, the young Frenchman who 
"Uowed iiimself to be taken with Father Jogues.' Ho 
was attended by the sahio Iroquois i)risoner just men- 
tioned, and by deputies fi-om the cantons, invested with 
full powers, as tho governor-general had required. 
Public an- As soon as their arrival at Three Eivera was known, 
given them, de Moutiuagny repaired to that place with Father Viaiond, 
peiiea^ find, after regaling them, set a day' on which to give them 
audience. On that day tho general appeared In the place 
of the fort of Three Rivers, which he had had covered 
with sails from the ships. He was seated in an armchair, 
with Mr. de Cluimpflour and Father Vimond* at his side, 
and many officers, and tho chief inhabitants of tho colony 
around. The Iroquois deputi(>s, to the number of five, 
were at his feet, seated on a mat ; they had chosen that 
spot to show more respect to Onouthio, whom they never 
adili-essed except as their father. 

The AJgonquins, Montagnez, Attikamegues, and some 
other Indians of the same language, were opposite, and 
the Hurons remained intermingled with the French. All 
the middle of tho place was open, to allow evolutions to 
be made without interruiition, for this kind of action is a 
sort of comedy, where very sensible things are said and 


' He set out May 21 : Lettres His- 
t(> 'iqucB (le la M. Marie vie I'lncar- 
nation, p. 115. 

" Keliitiou df la Nouvelli.' France, 
1045, )). 2;i ; LettrrH IIiHtori<iuoR do 
la M. Mari<' de I'liicftrnnti'iii, p. IK!. 

•' .Inly 2, 1(U5 : Creuxins, Hiatoria 
CnniulensiN, )>. 417. 

* Bartlioloniew Vimont came to 

Cnj-e Bretou Sept. 18, 1(529, and 
aftcf a year's stay returned to 
France. II(^ caino to Quebec in 
AugUHt, 1030, and was Huperior 
fmni 1039 to 1045. He returned to 
France Oot. 2«, 1059. nnd died at 
Vannes, July 1!!, KiOT. He prepared 
»ix volumes <>f tho published Uula- 


oxpressGcl bj' quite absurd gestures and maunors. With 
the western nations it is customary to plant in the middle 
a great calumet, as is sometimes also practised among 
the others ; for since, by our influence, all these nations 
have more afluirs to arrange with each, they have bor- 
rowed many usages from each other, and especially that 
of the calumet, which they now commonly use in their 

Tlio Iroquois had brought seventeen belts, which were 
as many words, that is to say, propositions that they 
wore to make ; and to expose them to the sight of all 
as they explained them, they had planted two posts, with 
a cord between them, on which to hang the belts. All 
being ranged in the order described, the orator of the 
cantons' rose, took a belt, presented it to the governor- 
general, and said : " Ononthio, give ear to my voice ; all 
the Iroquois speak by my mouth. My heart has no evil 
thought ; all my intentions are upright. We wish to 
forget all our songs of war, and let them give place to 
chants of joy." He immediately began to sing, his col- 
leagues keeping time with their he, drawn in cadence from 
the bottom of the chest ; and while chanting, he walked 
with great strides and gesticulated in a manner ludicrous 

He often looked up to the sun, nibbed his arms as if to 
prepare for the struggle ; at last he resumed a calmer air, 
and continued his speech. " The belt which I in-csont you, 
Father, thanks you for giving Ufo to my brother; you 
have rescued him from the teeth of the Algonquius, but 
how could you let him set out alone? Had his canoe 
turned, who was to help him to right it ? Had he drowned 
or perished by any accident, you would have had no tid- 
ings of peace, and perhaps have cast the blame on us, 
when it rested solely on yourselves." With these words 

' Kiotsaeton, or the Hook (Cro- Mario de rincnrnation, p. 118. Ills 
chet) ; LottroB Historiques de la M. asBociatu was Ani^'^gan. 







V i 

1 ■ 

I '!' 

1645. lio hung tho belt on tho cord, took anotlier, and binding 
it on Couture's arm, he again turned to the governor and 
said : 

" Father, this belt brings l)ack your subject : but I was 
far from saying, 'Nephew, take a canoe, and return to 
your country.' I should never have been tranquil till I 
had sure tidings of his arrival. My brother, whom you 
sent back, has sufTerod much, and riin great risk : he had 
to carry his pack alone, row all day, drag his canoe over 
tho rapids, bo always on the watch against surprise." 
The orator accompanied his words with very expressive 
gestures. The spectators sometimes seemed to see a man 
urging on his canoe with a pole,' sometimes turn off a 
wave with a paddle ; sometimes he seemed out of breath, 
then took heart again, and for some time remained calm 

He then pretended to strike his foot against a stone, 
while carrying his baggage; then he hmped, as if lamed; 
" Even," he cried, after all this pantomime, " if he had been 
aided to pass the most difficiUt sjjots ! Indeed, Father, 
I do not know where your mind was, to send back one 
of youx' children alone and unaided. I did not do the 
same with regard to Couture. I said to him, ' Let us go, 
nephew ; follow me, I will restore you to your family at 
the risk of my life.' " 

The other belts refen-ed to the peace, the conclusion of 
which was the subject of this embassy. Each had its 
special signification, and tbe orator explained them in as 
gi-aphic a manner as he had done the two former. 

One smoothed the roads, the other calmed the ri^ers, 
another buried the hatchet ; there were presents, to show 
that henceforward they might visit them without fear or 
distrust ; the feasts that they would give each other ; the 
alliance between aU these nations ; their mtention, always 
entertained, of restoring Father Jogues and Father 13res- 

' Called, in French, piequer defond. 





saiii ; tlioir irai)aticnce to seo them again ; tho woloome 
thoy were preparing to give them ; their thanks for tlio 
deliverance of the last three Iroquois captives. Each of 
these articles was expressed by a belt ; and even had tho 
orator not spoken, his gestures would have made all ho 
intended to say intelligible. The most surprising point 
was that ho played his part for three hours, without 
seeming excited by it : he was also the first to give tho 
signal for a sort of feast, which closed the session, and 
consisted of chants, dances, and banquets.' 

Two days after, the Chevalier do Moutmagny replied to Re,,lyofthe 
the propositions of the Iroquois ; for a re2)ly is never 
made the same day. The assembly was as well attended 
as before, and the governor-general made as many 
presents as he had received belts. Couture spoke in his 
name, in Iroquois, but rithout gesticulation and without 
interrupting his speech." On tho contrary, ho affected a 
gravity becoming the one for whom he acted as inter- 
preter. When ho closed, Pieskaret, an Algonquin chief, 
rose and made his presents. "Here," said he, " is a stone 
which I set on the grave of all who fell during the wai-, 
that no one may go to move their bones, or think of 
revengu\g them." This chief was one of the bravest men 
ever seen in Canada, and almost incredible stories aro 
told of his prowess.' 

Negabamat, chief of the Montagnez, then presented a 
moose-skin, to make, he said, moccasins for tho L'oquois 
deputies, that thoy might not gall their feet on their home- 
ward march. The other nations did not speak, apparently 

' The proccotlings are given in de- 
tail in the Ifolation de la Nouvelle 
France, 1045, pp. 2;i-7 ; Lettrea His- 
toriques tie la M. Marie de I'lncar- 
nution, pp. 120-8 ; Creuxius, His- 
tima. Canadensis, pp. 418-20. 

- The Relation do la Nouvelle 
Franco, l(i4."), p. 27, Bays tho 14th. 
Couture is not mentioned. 

' As to Simon Picscaret, see Creux- 
ius, Historia Canadensis, p. 4(i5 ; 
Relation, 1041, p. 134; 104;{, p. 59 ; 
1045, p. 28 ; 1047, pp. 4, 08, 72 ; 1050, 
p. 43 ; Pcrrot, Mtrurs. (.'oust nines, etc., 
pp. 107 -!) ; De la Potlierie, llistoire 
de rAmerl(|uo Se|)tentrionale, i., p. 
2i)7; Coldon, Five Nations (New 
York, 1727), p. 11. 




J 645. because they had neither chiefs nor orators. Tlie session 
^-"'r'''^ closed with three salvos of artillery, to proclaim, as the 
governor explained to the Indians, the news of the peace 
in all directions. The Sui)erior of the Jesuits also regaled 
the ambassadors, who addressed him in the most cordial 
words. Good cheer makes these people very eloquent, and 
there is no eulogium which you may not anticipate when 
you give thom a hearty meal. These praises must not 
indeed bo taken too literally ; but they cost little, for it 
is not necessary to go to great expense to satisfy people 
who find any thing and every thing palatable.' 
Tiie ponce The next day the deputies took up their homeward 
the cantons, march." Two Frenchmen, two Hurons, and two Algon- 
quins end)arkcd with them, and three Iroquois remained 
as hostag(;s in the colony.' The treaty was ratified by 
the Mohawk canton, the only one hitherto openly at war 
with us. The two Frenchmen and their four Indian com- 
panions returned :.t the time set for them — that is to say, 
about the middle of September.' They brought back 
word that all the Iroquois solicited missionaries, that the 
Hurons and Algonquins of the Island' had also acceded to 
the treaty, and that all appeared tranquil. 

At this juncture Father Bres-sani arrived at Quebec, and 
barely took a few days to recruit before setting out with 
Father Poncet to return to the Hurons. On departing, he 
expressed an earnest desii'o to bo placed among the mis- 

' Relation do la Nouvelle France, 
1045, p. 28. 

' Saturday, July 15 : Relation de 
la Nouvelle France, 1645, p. 28; 
Lettres Ilistoriques, p. 133 ; Creux- 
iu8, Ilistoria Canadensis, p. 422. 

^ This was on September 8.% after 
the ratification. See Relation do la 
N< avelle France, 1045, p. 35. 

* Thoy returned, September 17, 
with Couture, and set out again on 
the 22d with all the Mohawk pris- 
ouers : Luleuiuut, Journal ; Rela- 

tion de la Nouvelle France, 1045, p. 
30 ; Creuxius, Ilistoria Canadensis, 
p. 423. Just before, a flotilla of 
sixty canoes came down from the 
Huron country, and others from the 
Upper Algonquins. There was an- 
other general assembly, and Cou- 
tur(^ explained the eighteen Iroquois 
belts : Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, 1045, p. 30 ; Lettres Ilisto- 
riques di- la M. Marie de I'lucarna- 
tion, pp. 129, 134. 
' The Kicliisipirini. 



Bionar'js to tlio Iroquois, if missionaries wcro accorded to 1645. 

tho cantons. He even made a collection for his old tor- " ■ ' 

turers, to teach them what kind of vengeance Cliristianity Father 
inculcates,— a sentiment well worthy of an apostolic man reniri,""to 
and a confessor of Christ, but whoso nobility these sav- "'" ""'■°"** 
agea were not capable of appreciating, and failed to Tirofit 

The next winter was marked by a scene never l)eforo wit- 
nessed since the arrival of the French in Canada. The Iro- 
quois, Hurons, and Algonquins, mingling together, hunted 
as peacefully as though all were of the same nation. By 
means of this good understanding the Huron missionaries 
received all the succor of which thoy had been so long 
deprived, made apostolic excursions in all security, and 
joyfully gathered their sheaves which they had sowed in 
tears ; but these halcyon days did not last, and the calm 
seems to have been granted only to give them time to gain 
breatl and prepare for new combats.' 

At the beginning of this same year, 164G, New France Death of 
lost two of its first missionaries. Fathcv Euemond Masse K^,em?,na 

Masse and 

Aiiiic du 


died at Sylleri, in the exercise of a zeal chat nothing ever 
rejielled, and which, sustained by great talents, was al- 
ways very fruitful. He was not as yet far advanced in 
years, but his travels and his hardships had worn on him 
extremely.' Father Anne de None soon followed him. 

' Relation de la Nouvelle Franco, 
161(1, p. i(f; Lettrus Histoiiqucs do 
lu .M. Jlnrii'do rinaiiiiaiiou, p. loO. 

- This briuf pi^aco onabli'd tUocol- 
o-d} to dovclnp again its trade in 
furs. Twenty-two of tin; soliUors 
from France accompanied tlic Hu- 
rons to the Wi'st in 1041, and re- 
turned with a large convoy the next 
year. The fleet, which sailed for 
France on Oct. 34, 101.5, carried out 
thirty thounnnd pounds of beaver. 
Another jwint in coniuiction with 
Canada sliould be noted here. This 
■was the effort made by the Society 

of Monti-.'al to hav(! an Pidscopal 
see e8tal)lished at Montreal. Tlio 
Rev. Mr. Lcfjuuftre, a zealous and 
wealthy clergyman of their society, 
was proiX)sed, and on his sudden 
death tlie matter was taken up by 
Cardinal Mnzarin and the French 
bislio|)s ; but finally fell tiirough : 
Fnillou, Ilistoiri! de hi Colonic Fran- 
(;aise, ii., p|). 47-50. 

' Father Eneniond JIasso (or Masse, 
as the Relations and Champlnin 
write) died yh\y 11-12 (L;ilemant. 
Journal, says May 1(11 — Rul)se(pii]it- 
ly, therefore, to the death of De Noue. 




i h 





1646. Ho set out from Thrco Rivers on the 30th of January, to 
go and fonfess tlio garrison of Fort Kii-lu'liou, ami pro- 
pare them to colelnato the feast of Cajitlk'nias. He wan- 
dered from the two sohliers and tlie Huron who accom- 
panied him, in attempting to go on ahead ; but lio lost his 
•way beyond recovery, and on the very day of the feast he 
■was found dead, kuticling amid the snow.' 

His l)ody was carritid to Three lUvers, where ho was in 
gn-at odor of sanctity. His obst-quies were celebrated 
with all possible pomp ; but more prayers were addri'ssed 
to him than recited for him. INIany even have declared 
that they found it impossible to i)ray for him. Others, at 
the sight of his body, were penetrated with a sincere 
repentance for their sins and made long-deferred confes- 
sions : so that we may say that his bones projihesied oven 
more happily than those of EUseus, which restored 
bodily life to a corpse by the mere touch ; whereas 
many recovered spiritual life on casting their eyes on the 
sad remains of a missionary fallen in the exercise of his 

The colony had scarcely begun to enjoy the delights of 
peace, when war had well-nigh been enkindled anew. 

The Jonrnnl here has after Massfi'a 
naiiK" tilt- words, " premier mission- 
nnirc! du t'linada," in Cliiirleviiix's 
Imi'.dwrltiiij^ ; yet, witli tlie .Jouruiil 
to guide liim, lie iiiiide do Nones 
dentil follow : Heliition do la Nou- 
velle Frauee, 1U4(), p. 11 ; Uressani, 
Breve Relatione, p. 75 ; Lettrea Ilis- 
toriques de la M. Mario do I'lncar- 
nation, pp. 148-53 ; Creuxius, His- 
torla Canadensis, p. 445. Knemond 
Masso was born at Lyons ; and hav- 
ing been socius to Father Coton, 
was sent to Acadiu in 1011. He was 
at St. Sauveur when it was attacked 
by Arga!. Ho returned to Canada 
in 1025, and was carried oflfby Kirk. 
Ho again returned in 1033, and died 
at the ago of 73. 

' Relation de la Nouvolle France, 
1040, p. 11 ; Bregsani, Breve Rela- 
tione, pp. 73-5 ; Creuxius, Historia 
Caniulousis, p. 4-1!). 

'■' Lalemant, Journal, February 13, 
1(!4j ; BresHani, Brevo Relatione, pp. 
73, 74 ; Relation de la Nouvelle 
France. 1640, pp. 9-11 ; Lettres llis- 
toriques do la M. Mario do I'lncar- 
nation, p. 153 ; Memoires toucliant 
les vertus, (manuscript, 1053); 
Creuxius, Historia Canadensis, p. 
440. Ho was of a noble family, his 
father being Lord of Prieres, near 
Rheims. A page at court, he be- 
came a religious and a missionary. 
He came to Canada July 14, 1020. 
Ho died at the age of sixty-three. 
Bays Du Creux. 




Tliroo Iiuliuiis of Syllcii, Imviiig gone a hlioit diKtiuico 
from their town, wcrt- nmidoroil. Another, travelling' 
with his wife, was attacked and dangironsly wounihjd. The s„ko. 
His wife was sealped and K'ft for dead. 13otli wcto ';;;,;; i;'::!;" 
fonnd in a pool of Uood and carried to the Hotel ""'l>'""^°- 
Dieu, where the husband died, but the wife recovered. 
All suspicions fell at first on tho Iroquois; but it was 
subsequently ascertained that tho assassins were So- 
kokis, who, embittered against he Algonquins, had 
used every device to divert the Iroquois from concluding 
peace with them, and failing, now sought all weans to 
break it oft'.' 

These accidents had, therefore, no evil consequences. Tlio Iro- 
On the contrary, the treaty of the preceding year was TiL'^w!' 
ratified by new deputies, who came to deplore Father 
Masse and Father de Xoue," and cover the two illustrious 
dead— that is to say, ofler condolence and presents to tho 
Jesuits on the death of their brethren. But as the French 
had as yet negotiated only with the Mohawk canton directly, 
these deputies warned tho governor-general to be on his 
guard against the others till they were all included by 
name in the treaty ; which would have been done already, 
they added, had Ononthio anticipated them by restoring 
to liberty some braves of those cantons held as prisoners 
by our allies. 

To all appearance de Montmagny would not have omit- 
ted so trifling a matter to secure the peace of the colony ; 
but I find nothing in ray memoirs. "We shall even see the 
four cantons soon fanning the embers of discord and set- 
ting all Canada in flames. It is certain that the wisest 

' This Indian, Vincent, died March Dieppe in 1639 (ante, p. 100). Tiny 

14: Lalemant, Journal, March 14, eixm alter estublished n house at 

and preliminary Estat du Pays. Sillery : Juehercaii, Ilisti.irr de lllo- 

Thc three Montagnais were killed tcl Dieu de Qiiel)e<', ]). ^7. 

October 13 : Relation do la Nouvello » delation de la Noiivcllc Frnnce, 

France, l(i4(!, p. li. The Hotel Dieu lfi4(i, p. 6 ; Creuxius, Hi.stoiia Cana- 

is the hospital urider tlie care of the densis, p. 41!) : De lu I'otlierie, Hist. 

Hospital Nuns, who came from do I'Am. Sept., ji., p. 44. 



lllSTuitV OF M;\V rilANC'K. 

) ' 

1646. course was tlion takoii to niaiiitain, at leaHt, the alliaiicu 
' ■" » "^ with till) Mohawkn, ami gaiu that canton to Cliiist.' 

FiiiliT I'athir Jof^nu's hail sown tho hi'ikI of tho Word tliiTO 
makoH two cliiiin},' Ills i!i|itivity. Ho knew tho hmguaf^'o ; ho anlriitly 
Mohuwks. do>sin'tl to jirolit l»y tho poaoo to jtroaoli tlio ^osikI Ihi'ie 
pulihi'ly ;" anil lio obtahioil without any ililliouhy jxrniis- 
Kiou to accompany tho last iloputios whou tlicy wore 
roturnin^ homo: Init tho {^'ovi rnoi-f,'fm'ial oxactcil from 
him, that aftor thoy siifcci'di'il in ini'ludiii^,' all tlio cantons 
in tho treaty, ho would nlurn to report tho disposiliuM in 
which ho found tho Irocpiois nation. I oven llnd, in somo 
uitnioirs, that tho Al^'oniiuins advised tho missionaiy not 
to appear in his habit, on this lirst visit, nor speak of 
rolif<ion, and that their advico was followed.' Bo that as 
it may, tho servant of CJod embarked on tho IGth of May,* 
aceomi)anied by tho Sieur JJourdon, one of tlio leadiii}^ 
men of Quebec,^ — two Algompiins followinjj; them in an- 
other canoe, loaded with presents to distribute anion^ tho 
Ii'oquois cantons, iu tho name of their luition.' On tlio 

' CreuxiuB, Hiatoria CanadenBis, 
p. 440. 

'Up had bopn at MontriMil, nnd 
thcro dri'w up his account of Nl-w 
Nfthi-rland and of Item' lioupil. and 
pnvc Kntlicr Hiitciix an nccimnt of 
liis cniitivity, wliicli the latter coni- 
niittud to writing, and whii.'li is ex- 

' Kilation dc la Nouvellc France, 
1010, p. 15. 

* From Three Uivers. They left 
Fort Hichelicu the Isth. IJelation 
do la NouvcUe France, ](il7, p. 3ti ; 
Lettres lli.^toriinu-s de la M. .Mnric 
de riiicarnation, p. 11(1 ; Creuxius, 
Ilistoria Cnniidtnsis, )>. ■t.')l. 

' .T<ihn Biiunldn, proprietor of the 
flefn of St. .lolin and St. Francis in 
the dependency of Quebec, chief-en- 
gineer nnd sulise<|uently jirocurator- 
geniTid of Niw I'riince, came over 
iu lUli^or lUu4. In lOliT heubtuiued 

tho Bflfcneury of rvnnlwurg (now 
Neuvillc nnd I'ointenux 'I'lemlili'H : 
Ferland. Notes Hur les Kcjfi.'*! res do 
yuelx'C, pp. 'iii, 7.'). 

' A journal of tliis journey of 
Fiitlier Jof,'Ui B was anionp tlie ar- 
chives of the .Ies\iif.<, wliicli pasKed 
into the bands of the Fn^dish (i<n- 
crninent. Smith had il in c<jni- 
piliiig his histi^ry of Ciinuda c' vols. 
So, tjuelx'c, lBt5); but it liiis never 
since ajjpeared. It is given ai)par- 
ently in substiiuco in the Ifelation 
of 11)40, p. 15, which Charlevoix 
seems to have overl(M)ked. The 
missionary went by way of Lake 
()eorf;e. called by the M<diBwks An- 
diataroctc — " when' the lake closes" 
^Onjadamcte, N. Y. Cull. Doc, iii., 
]>. 5."ilM, but to which he pave tho 
name of Ijike St. Sacrenient — Lake 
of the lilessed Sucriiment — from his 
reaciiing it on the eve of Corpus 



5th of June' they readied tlio firHt Mohawk town, whero 
thoy woio welcomed witli cve;y mark oi Hincere frieiidMliip. 
Father Joguca was rtt-ogiiizod by aomo wlio had niont 
cruelly ill-usod him, and who now paid him endless eour • 
tesy. What followed I know not ;' but the missionary 
certainly did not go beyond the canton of the Mohawks, 
whero he h'ft his box, saying that ho wished to fix his 
residence there, and that it would not bo long before he 

He then sot out again for Fort Richelieu, whero he 
arrived on the 27th <->( the same month.' Finiling de 
Montnuigny there, he assured him that he could rely on 
the Mohawks; but we must infer that the governor did 
not attach more weight than he should to this testimony. 
He was too enlightened not to perceive that a religious, 
situated as Father Jogues was, would see in these Imliaus 
all that he desired to see, and that he had really no other 


Cliristi, May 29. They forded tlio 
upper iluilHon (Oiogue', and then 
Btrufk tlie river a^ain at Ossaragm', 
ft lieiTingfisliing jxigt, wlienee they 
degcinth-d in canoes to Fort Orange 
(Albany), where they remained from 
the 4tli to the Kith of June, accord- 
ing to tlie Uelation ; but the InBt 
date ia evidently an error for Ctli. 
Ciiarlevoix is in error, tlierefore, in 
asserting tliat lie did not go beyond 
the caiiton of the Moliawks. From 
Albany Jogues wrote to bis benefac- 
tor, Megapolensis. 

' He runiaiiied at Fort Grange till 
the Cth, and the next evening 
reached OsserrVon or Oneugi^re, 
which the missionury called Holy 
Trinity : delation, l(i40, p. 15. 

' On the lOih of June, according 
to the Kelation, l(i4(i, the I'rench 
envoys met the sachems. Father 
Jogues delivered tlio presents, ex- 
pressed the joy fi^lt by the French 
on receiving their unibassailors, and 
the general sutiijfuctioa at the con- 

clusion of peace. lie assuretl them 
that a council-fire was lighted at 
Three Kivers. He then gave wum- 
imiu to rede<'m some prisoners still 
held, and to keep a lire for the 
French in the \\o\{ funiily. He 
then spoke tor the Algoncjuins, and 
gave a i)reMent to some Unondagas 
who were present, to prepare the 
way to their towns. Tlie sachems 
answered with j^jnip and marks of 
g(K)d-\vill ; Holution de la Nouvello 
France, lU4i!, p. 10. 

" This box i)roved fatal. The Mo- 
hawks eyed it 3U.«pieiously ; and 
till. ugh Jogues oi:<ntd it, to disa. 
huse them, he did not dispel the 
fears of the superstitioup .Mohawks: 
Hclation de la Noiivelle Fninco, 
104(i, p. 10 ; Memoires sur leg vertus, 
etc., MS. 

■* They left the Mohawk castle, 
June 10, and making canoes at Lake 
Oiorge, reiiclied Fort Uichelieu on 
the :Jah : Uelation de la Nouvelle 
Franco, lo40, p. 17. 

T / 




1646. rooflOQ for belioving tlioiu Kiiicoiol)' chiiu^jiHl iu our ro^^ard 
" -■ I "^ ' tbau hin uxtruiuo /etil uiiil hopo of luukiiig thuiu C'lirin- 
tiuuH. Yvt, iivurHu uu ho wuh to expoHu to thu ciipru-u of 
au iiicouHtuut puoplo a uiuu who hud buuu too hmlly 
troutud at tiu^ir hiiudM to bo uvur rugurdod fuvorubl^)' by 
thuni, h(3 (louHuutud to hiu kuc^piiig liiu word. 
nniitiiitipii Tlio Hurvuut of God, at tlio Huuimit of hiH dosireM, aud 
twvuii thu already iu iiuagiuation beholding the Iroquoiu erowdiiig 
aiMi'liu- urouud him to bo iimtructed iu our luyBtericH, Met out ou 
'""*• tho 2-lth of Sopteiubor, accomi)uuiud by Hoiue IndiauH aud 
u Fruuchmau.' It wum uoou after aHcertaiued that hoHtil- 
itiea had boeu renewed between the upper IroquoiH aud 
tho Hurous.* Tho upper Iroquois cotiipriHcd the four 
cautouH who had uot coucurred iu the treaty of peace.* 
Tho lower Iroquois are the Mohawks aloue, although 
some uiclude also tho cuutou of Oneida.* But to under- 
staud clearly what we have to say of this nation, which 
enters so largely iuto the history that I am writiug, it is 
uecessary to know the situatiim and nature of thu couutry 
which it occupies, the five cantons that compose it. 
Extent und The Iroquois couutry* extends betwoeu 41° aud 44" N., 
tiu) Iro- about seventy or eighty leagues from cast to west, from 
^""'try.°"° tbo upper part of tho river which has successively borne 
their uame, those of Kichelieu and Sorel — that is to say, 
from Lake St. Sacremeut to Niagara — and a little over 
forty leagues fiom uorth to south, or rather from north- 
east to southwest — from the source of the little river 
of tho Mohawks to the Ohio. It is bounded, there- 
fore, ou tho south by this last river and by Peunsylvania ; 
on the west by Lake Ontario ; Lake Erie on tho uorth- 

■ Relation de la NouvuUe Franco, 
1640. p. 17 ; 1(>17, p. 3 ; Ijettrus Uis- 
torl(|Ui-8 (Iu la M. Muriu du I'lncarua- 
tion, p. lUl. 

' U»'(,'i»irt' do Villtunario, 11th 
August, KUd ; Il'lation, 1040, pp. 
3o, •'"•l, o'J. Kut'ici- Jogues knew 
tLiH bufuru leaving .lie Moliawk, uh 

he wan warned to b« ou his guard : 
Ki'lation de la Nuuvelle France, 1047, 
p. 17. 

' liulation de la Nouvollo France, 
1040, p. 54. 

* Lalitaii, Mocurs des Siiuvagea, i., 
p. 10:. 

' Cumpai'e bmith's New i'ork. 

i I. 



WPHt ; on tlio nortlj hy liiiko St. Siicroin.Mit iind llio 1646. 
lliv«'r St. Ijiwniuo ; \>y N»'W York partly on tlio wmth ^"*"v— ^ 
and partly on thu HoiitlmitHt. It Ih wiitort'il hy Hovoriil 
rivtTH. Tho Hoil viuii'« in diffiTcnt parts, but in, gouornlly 
HpciikiiiK, very ftrtilo. 

TIm' Mohawk canton Ih tho uxpst northerly of all, and Ori«in of 
noaroHt to N»nv York. ThoHO of Ontida, ()n(!nda^'a, 
Cayn(,'a, and Sonoca follow in tho order in which I liavo 
jnst naini'd thoiii, ^oing W(>Ht, inclining a littl(> towardn 
tho Houth, which has ^ivcn thcni thu nani<< of I'ppcr 
CantoiiH ; uidcss it is inferred that they derive their name 
from Iteinj^ nn't in that order us you ascend the St. Law- 
rence and Lake Ontario, which that river traverses. The 
name Irotpiois is purely French, and is fornii-d from tho 
term l/lro or /A /o, which means / /kjc*' .vd/W- with which 
these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did 
of old with their <//>/ — and of Kour, which is a cry some- 
times of sadness, when it is prolonged, and sometimes of 
jr)y, when it is pronounced shorter.' Their proper name 
is Agounonsioimi, which means ((ihiit-iiuilirrs,'' because 
they Ituild them much nu)ro solid than other Indians. 

Through tho Mohawk canton, which was at tho time of 
which we are writing the most populous of all, a j)vetty 
river meanders agreeably, for seven or eight leagues, be- 
tween two beautifid prairies.' That of Onondaga contains 
a beautiful lake, called Ganmntnha* in tho vicinity of 

' ("liarlt'voix, Journal, p. :)3 ; I^a- 
fitau, Md'urH dfs Suiivnp's, i., p. 
Q'i. W' Ilcirnii. taking Ii'<H|UoiM to 
be an Indiuii iiiunc, ninkiw tlicni ilc- 
Bcmil from tin- Yrcunsof HcriHlotiiB: 
Du Origiiic (U'utiuin, p. IHl. 

'' Clmrlcvoix licro follows Lafitnu, 
Mcrurndi'M Sjiuvujfctt, i,, p. lOi Tlic 
Kelation (If la .Nonvclli' Kraiicc, lir^, 
p. 11, says Ilotinnonchicndi — tliat is 
to Bay, " tlio ooniplfkHl cabin." See 
aim) UiliO, p. ;!8. This m a Huron 
form. I'utlur Hruy as given the Mo- 
hawk form as Ilutinuugioiiiu ; Col- 

den, as HrKJlnunchHiouni (Ilistory of 
the Five Natione, N. Y., 17^7, p. l)j 
Morgan, the Seneca form, Ilodu- 
noHniiuce. The triinHlation, " caliin- 
niukers," is an irnr. It is a ver- 
bal form, nieanin),' ' tiny make («'. «., 
eoiiKtilule) a ndiin ;" Ih iire the 
" conipleti'd cabin' itself. This is 
the interpretation of Uruyaw, sup. 
iwrted by Dr. Wilson, a well-in- 
formed miidiTn Iri»niois aiitlinrily. 

•* The CohiH'w were npi'arenlly un- 
known to Charlevoix. 

* OuouUaga Luku, 





The elMrnc- 

teristioa ol' 

eucli t'liu- 


•\vliicli tlicrb are several salt-Hpvings, with the edges always 
covered with ver^ line salt. Two leagues further towards 
the canton of Cayuga is a spring of milk-white water, of 
very sharp odor, and resolving itself, when set on fire, 
into a kind of salt as acrid as caustic' This whole canton 
is charming, and the soil adapted to every crop. That of 
Oneida lies between Mohawk and Onondaga, and is in no 
respect inferior to either ; but the canton of Cayuga sur- 
passes all in excellence of soil and mildness of climate. 
The inhabitants even show some slight efifect, and have 
always seemed the most tractable of all the Iroquois. In 
the extensive tract of country occupied by the Senecas 
there are charming spots, and, generally speaking, the 
soil is good. Earth is said to have been discovered which, 
when well washed, yields a very pure sulphur ; and in the 
same place is a spring, the water of which, well boiled, 
turns into sulphur. It is added that this water takes fire 
spontaneously when violently agitated.' Further on, ap- 
proaching the country of the ancient Eriez, there is a 
thick, oily, stagnant water, which takes fire like brandy." 

The bay of the Cayugas and that of the Senecas, and 
the great marsh in the latter canton, I have spoken of 
elsewhere as places that appeared to me delicious. I may 
add, that coasting along the whole country from the On- 
ondaga to the Niagara rivers, I saw nothing but fertile, 
well-wooded and well-watered lands, if you except some 
sandy beaches which do not run inland ; but it may be 
that parts where I did not laud are not equally so.* 

Throughout the territory of the five cantons' all our 

' Rel., 1657, p. 3S. Probably a 
spring near C'ainillua. The color is 
from sulphur in a state of saspcnsion, 

' Thuro iH one quite like it six 
leagues from (irenobh;. — Vitarlecoix. 
Tbesi- sulpliur-spriuiis are prol>'aHy 
those on Oali Urclinnl Creek. 

^ Tlu'te an. apparently the <.'/iaii 
taunuc gassprings, near Fruloiiia 
aud IVtlund : N. Y. Nat. Ilist, Ueol- 

ogy, iv. Dist., p. 309. See Sagari, 
Histoire du Canada, p. 88i) ; also 
Charlevoix, Journal, p. 224. 

' Journal, pp. 214, 224. The Bay 
of tlie Cayugas may be Fort Hay. 

' Tlio French names of the Five 
Nations are, Agnii'gue, Onneiout, 
Onnontagui' (pronounced Onontaki'), 
Ooyogouin (Oyogouin), and Tsonnon- 
touaa. — Cliarkvoix. 



European fmit-trees can be successfully cultivated. Scv- 1646, 
eral grow there without any cultivation, and others are "-^"v^— ' 
found which arc unknown to us. The forests abound in Fmit-treen. 
chestnut-trees and nut-trees of two kinds — one bearing a 
very sweet, and the other a very bitter,' nut ; but by pass- 
ing this last through the ashes, they extract a good oil 
from it by means of the mill, fire, and water, in the same 
manner that we do from the sunflower. There are, in sev- 
eral parts, seedless cherries, very good to eat ;' a tree with a 
flower resembling our white lilies,' and a fruit of the size and 
color of an apricot, but with the taste and smell of citron.* 
There is a wild citron there, Avhich is only a plant. The 
fruit, as large as a china-orange, is very agreeable to the 
taste and very refreshing. It rises frou between two 
heart shaped leaves, but the root of the plant is poison- 
ous.* There are apple-trees, with fruit of the shape of a 
goose's egg and a seed that is a kind of beau. This fruit 
is fragrant and very delicate. It is a dwarf tree, requiring 
a rich, moist soil.' The Iroquois obtained it from the 
country of the Eriez. From the same quarter they also 
introduced a plant which we call the universal plant, the 
leaves of which, bruised, close all kinds of wounds. These 
leaves are of the size of a hand and shaped like a fleur-de- 
lis. The root of this plant has the odor of laurel.' These 
Indians have a number of other roots, fit for dyeing, some 
of which give very brilliant colors. 

> Rel., 1637, p. 33, The pig nut 
(Carya glabra). The we means the 
Indians. Sugard (Hist , p. TSn). 

■> Atoka: Kol., l()o7, yi>. 11, 83. 
Toca : Sagnrd, Dictionnaire, rerbo 
Plantce ; llistoiiedu Ciinuda, p. 770. 
Dr. .John Toricy supposes it to be 
a phyealis — tlie wintcr-clicrry. 

fera). See I'lantcs de 1' Am. Sept., p. G. 

* * ^ Relation de la X. F., l(ir)7, p. 
83. Compare C'hamplain, Voyages, 
lOl'.i, ed. LaverdiiTO, p. lil and noto ; 
«1. 1032, p. 2-18 ; La lloutau, Me- 

moires derAmiriqueSppteptrionale, 
ii., p. Ol. According to Dr. Torrey, 
these must be the [lodophyllum \>el- 
tatum (mandraki', m<ii/-t'jiph'). It ia 
much used by some scliools as a sub- 
stitute lor nierciiry. Sre Coi'S Con- 
centrated Organic Mrdicines, |). 225. 

' I'robably the pawpaw (asiniina 
triloba), calh-d by tlio Canadian 
French asiminier or asmiuier. See 
Dumont, Memoires de la Ijoulsiane. 

' Uel., l(i.)7, p. 33, Dr Torrey is 
accjuainted witli no native ))lunl to 
which the description cnrru^ponds. 


iiisToiir OF NEW fuancl;. 

1646. Besides rattlosnakca, wliicli are found among the Iro- 
quois, as in all the uioie southerly provinces of North 

mill diii- 

■• J 

America, there is a black-ynako, Avhich runs up trees, and 
is not venomous. This reptile has a mortal enemy, im- 
worthy aj)parently of him, but nevertheless waging a cruel 
war upon him. It is a little bird, which pounces upon 
him as soon as it perceives him and with one blow of its 
beak lays him dead.' The asps of these cantons are much 
longer than ours. Tigers are found there, of a light gray, 
not striped. They have a very long tail, and pursue the 
porcupines.' The Iroquois kill them on the trees more 
frequently than on the gi'ound. They are good eating, 
even in the opinion of the French, who esteem the flesh 
as equal to mutton. All have a very fine hair, in some 
ases reddish in color, and their skins are very good fur. 
But the finest peltry of this country is the skin of the 
black-squirrel.' This animal is as large as a three months* 
kitten, very lively, gentle, and easily tamed. Of this skin 
the Iroquois make robes, for which they command seven 
or eight dollars apiece. The pigeons are there, as else- 
where, birds of passage. A missionary observed, in an 
Iroquois canton, that every morning, from six o'clock till 
eleven, the air above a (nrgo in the river, about a quarter 
of a league wide, was seen to be completely darkened by 
the number of these birds ; that afterwards they all de- 
scended to bathe in a large jiond nf^'^" by, and then disap- 
peared. He adds, that only the males are then seen, but 
that the females come in the afternoon to go through the 
same manoeuvre. Finally, there are in the Iroquois coun- 
try stones containing diamonds, some all ready cut, and 
sometimes valuable ' 

I now return to the new acts of hostility, which soon 

' Tlio kingbird (tyrannus intre- color) .■ N. Y. Nat. Hist., Zoology, 1,, 

pidus), of wliidi such storioH are p. 47. 

Btill t!)ld ; N. Y. Nal. Mist., ZiH)logy, ' Black-squiTol (sciurue nigcr): 

i., p. 117. N. Y. Nut. Hist., Zoology, i., p. 00 . 

" Tlio Amuricdu pautbcr (fulls con- * Charlovoix, Juuruol, p. 171 



rekindled a fire wliieli had cost so much to extinguish, or 1646. 
rather wliich had only been covered nj) with aslics. ^^-y^-' 

The Iroquois were the aggressors. A band of their The Iro- 
braves approached a Huron village, with a view of carry- Tnunm'' 
ing off prisoners. Though they found them on their ^'""««- 
guard, they were reluctant to retire without effecting any 
thing. They concealed themselves in a wood, and there 
passed the night, during which a Huron, posted in a kind 
of redoubt, kept up a great noise to show that he was not 
asleep. Towards daybreak he ceased hia clamor. Two 
Iroquois immediately left the band, and gliding along to 
the foot of the palisade, remained some time listening. 
Not hearing a sound, one of the two chmbed into the re- 
doubt, and finding two men there sound asleep, toma- 
hawked one, scalped the other, and escaped.' 

The former died on the spot. The cries of the second Exploit of 
roused the whole village." On running up, they found one "'rons!"' 
of the two men dead; the other bleeding to death. The 
young men instantly took the field, and long followed the 
enemy's trail ; but he had too much of a start, and they 
could not overtake him. The Hurons soon had their 
revenge. Three warriors took the war-path, and after 
twenty days' march reached a Seneca village. It was 
night, all the cabins were closed, and the inhabitants 
buried in sleep. Our adventurers cut through the side of 
a cabin and entered, without awakening any one. They 
then ht a light, and by its aid each chose a man whom he 
killed and scalped. They then set fire to the cabin and 
escaped. They were pursued, but to no purj)ose, for they 
brought safely back to their village the trophies of their 

The missionaries beheld with sorrow these marks of a 
close of the peace. So well had they profited by its brief 

' Relation de la NrmvoUo Franco, 
1040, 1). 55. It must bavu occurred 
in 104.5. 

Vol.. 11—13 

' St. Joseph's. 

^ Relation de la Nouvello France, 
1040, p. 55. 



1646. ditration, that Christianity might ah-oady be regarded as 
" ^ » ' ' the prevailing religion among the Hurons. The gospel 
PrnLTCHs of began to be known, too, among several other tribes, for 
dii'ri itftho whieh the}' Mere indebted chieHy to tlie Hurons thcm- 
^^^'"'' selves. The Indians near Quebec and Montreal showed 
no less zeal. Not a year passed without giving their 
pastors new occasions for chanting the praises of God in 
some tongue in which Hi Holy Name had never yet been 
uttered ; but the Iroquois soon disturbed this tranquillity, 
so necessary to the propagation of the Faitli and the con- 
solidation of the colony, Avhich, deprived of all relief, was 
sunk in inaction.' 
Fatiier It was not long before Father Jogues lost faith in the 
tnrniiiL'to good intentions in which he had supposed the Iroquois 
*M°is™u to be. Even before putting himself in the hands of 
*'*"by hiT*^ those Avho were to take him to the town intended as his 
guides, residence, either from a presentiment, or from a conjec- 
ture based on new and surer information than had pre- 
viously arrived, the missionary, in his last farewells to his 
friends at Quebec, and by letter to those in France, em- 
plojed the expressions of a man who expected to go to 
the Mohawks, not to convert them, but with a kind of as- 
surance that he would speedily terminate his sacrifice there. 
He soon had no doubtful proof.' He had scarcely passed 
Three Rivers when he beheld himself deserted by all his 
guides. He remained alone with a young Frenchman 
named la Lande, perfectly at a loss how to continue his 

Any one but him would have retraced his steps, and this 
prudence seemed even to demand ; but the prudence of 
the saints is ».ot guided by ordinary rules, and is at leati 
to be respected. Convinced as the servant of God was 
that he Was to water with his blood a land that would 
produce saints, he was not a man to recoil at the moment 

' Relations de la Nouvelle France, 
.344, 1U45, lli4G. 
' Ibo et uou rudibo. See his letter : 

Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1047, p. 37. 
' Creuxius, Hist. Gonad., p. 458. 



when he beliold all preparing for the accomplishment of 
his desires. Ho pursued his way, and Avith much hard- 
ship reached a Mohawk village, where he was received, 
with little excei)tion, as though he had been a prisoner of 
war. He and his companion were stripped almost naked ; 
nor were blows from fist or club spared.' 

The reason for this strange change was never well 
known. Two letters from New Netherland— one written 
by the governor himself to Mr. de Montmagny, the other 
by a private individual to Sieur Bourdon, Fi.ther Jogues' 
companion the preceding year— after giving some details 
of the holy mis.sionary's death, ascribe it to the conviction 
in which the Mohawks were, that he had left the devil in 
their country.' The letter to the Sieur Bourdon added, 
that this perfidy was exclusively the work of the Bear 
tribe— the Wolf and Tortoise having done all in their 
power to save the lives of the two Frenchmen, even to 
telling the Bear : " Kill us, rather than thus massacre men 
who have done us no harm, and come among us on the 
faith of a treaty."" Both letters warned the French gov- 
ernor that the Iroquois designed to take him by surprise, 
and that four hundred men were on the point of setting 
out to strike simultaneously at the French colony. 

There is then every Hkelihood that this nation had con- 
c.'ivcd the same distrust of the gospel laborers as had 
been at first entertained by the Huroiis ; and what sus- 
tains this conjecture is the fact, that diseases having made 
great ravages that year in the Mohawk canton, and worms 
having destroyed almost all their grain, the mob were 
easily convinced that these misfortunes resulted from a 
spell which Father Jogues had left them in his box. 
Some pagan Hurons who had settled in this canton, 


' Letter of .Inn linbadic, in MS. 
Mcmoirog sur les Vertus, iind in Re- 
lation, l(i47, I). ;J8. 

" Rfltttion O.s In Nouvelle Franco, 
1647, p. 37, A Bworn copy of tlie 

original letters is preserved in the 
Memoires sur les Vertus, etc : Creux- 
iu8, Ilistorin Canadensis, p. 4.59. 

' Kelatiou de la Nouvollo France, 
1647, p. 38. 

tnriic-,1 the 





1646. bringing with them their pristine prejudices against the 
Christian religion, did not let so fine an occasion pass 
for communicating them to the Iroquois. They first 
seized this, and told the Mohawks that the disasters of 
which they complained began precisely at the time when 
they solicited missionaries. 

His death. Be that as it may, the apostolic man, seeing himself 
welcomed in the manner that I have described, asked 
whether any thing had happened since his departure to 
predispose the nation against him. The only reply made 
him was, that he, with his companion, was condemned to 
death ; yet that they should not be burned, but toma- 
hawked, and their heads set up on the palisades, that they 
might be recognized by any of the French who might 
pass by the village. In vain did the servant of God rep- 
resent to them the unworthy character of such a course ; 
the confidence with which he had come to put himself into 
their hands ; their invitations given to induce him to 
come and live ap^oug them ; their word so solemnly 
pledged to him ; the conduct of the French towards them ; 
their treaties, their oaths, and the little they had to gain 
by the war into which they were about to plunge anew. 
A fearful, gloomy silence showed him that he spoke in 
vain. He accordingly thought only of preparing for 
death, and fitting for it the young man who had so faith- 
fully clung to him. 

October 17. During the whole of the ensuing day, the 17th of Oc- 
tober, they said not a word to him till evening. Then a 
Huron came to conduct Father Jogues to his cabin, under 
the pretext of giving him food ; for neither he nor his 
companion had as yet tasted any thing that day. The 
missionary followed the Huron ; and as he was entering 
his cabin, an Iroquois, hidden behind the door, dealt him a 
blow with his tomahawk on the head, and laid him dead 
at his feet. La Lande met the same fate a moment after.' 

' Lrlnndc, a native of DiL'ppe, was Bri'ssani, Breve Relatione, p. 105; 
killed the next day : Memoire^, MS. ; Relation de la Nouv. France, 1U48, 



Their hoads were then cut off and set up on the palisade, 1646. 
and tlicir bodies thrown into the river.' ^— y-^ 

Such was the end of a man whose virtues and courage romcrsion 
the Iroquois themselves, years after, could not weary in °' alW".'"' 
admiring. His murderer fell, the next year, into the 
hands of the French, who delivered him to the Algon- 
quins. The latter burned liim ; but apparently the holy 
martyr did not abandon him in his lust moments, for he 
died a Christian.' Many favors obtained by tlie interces- 
sion of Father Jogucs have been made public, and we 
may affirm that the last ^ itury gave to the Church few 
saints of a more marked character ; but I leave the detail 
of these marvels to those who shall undertake to write 
his life.' 

The Mohawks thus violating the law of nations, ex- ThoMo- 
pccted to see all the nations unite to make war on them, ''.""w u™' 
and resolved to anticipate them. They took the field in *"''• 
every direction, before news could S2)read of what they 
had done on the Mohawk. One of their jjarties met Pies- 
karet alone, but durst not attack him, convinced that he 
would have killed half their number, as he had done on 

p. 6. Charlevoix liere gives October 
17 as the date ; but Brossani, Tan- 
ner, and Aleganibe. tlio Pelation of 
1640-7 (i). ii), and the MS. Mi;muiros 
touchant les Vortus, etc., the 18th. 

' I.saac JogiK's was born at Or- 
leans, January 10, 11)07, and entered 
the Society of Jesus at Rouen, in 
October, 1021. He sought the Etlii- 
opian niiswion, but on his ordina- 
tior. in 10!5(). ho was sent to Canada. 
After a short stay at Miscou and 
Quebec, he proceeded to the Huron 
country, and labored the: > till, as 
stated in the text, he came down to 
Quebec in K'Ai. His subsequent 
suflFerings and death are related in 
the text. His life is guxn in Ale- 
ganibe, Mortes Iliustres, p. CIO : 
Tanner, Societas Militons, p. 511 ; 

Bressani, Breve Relatione, pp. 77- 
105 ; the Relations de la Nouvelle 
France, especially 1047, p. IVJ and 
the manuscript of 1U53, Menioires 
sur les Venus des Peres de Noiie, 
Jogues, Daniel, Brebeuf, Lalemant, 
Garnier, et Chabanel ; Buteux, 
Narre de la prise du P. Jogues. 
Father Felix Martin has written his 
life at length. His family preserve 
his ijortrait and letters, and the for- 
mer is used in this work. Th(! tid- 
ings of his death reached Canada in 
June, 1047 : Lalemant, Journal, June 
4, 1047. 

■^ Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1047, p. 73. He was put to death in 
October, 1047. 

^ Relation, 10r)0, p. 45 ; Creuxius, 
Historia Canadensis, p. 499. 




1646. Rc-oral previous occnsions. Tliey were not ashamed to 
^"■'■Y'""^ meet him as a frieml, and, wliih^ ho mistruRtcd nothing, 
stal) him from bcshind.' Others loarning whore several 
Christian Indians wore gatliercd to hunt, fi'U suddenly on 
them, killed some, carried oft' others as prisoners — wreak- 
ing the most unheard-of cruelties on them. 

Hatred of Christianity thcnepforward redoubled the 
rage of these savages, and made the faithful who fell into 
their hands genuine martyrs." Neither age nor sex any 
longer preserved them from the stroke, as before ; and we 
are assured that on the occasion of which I am speaking 
they crucified a child three years old, and let it expire in 
torments — a torture hitherto unheard of among these na- 
tions, and to bo ascribed only to the rago which filled 
their hearts against the religion proclaimed to them of a 
God who died on the cross.' The French received the 
first tidings of these hostilities from some Algonquin 
women, who had escaped from the hands of their tor- 
turers by resolution and coui'age that would have elicited 
admiration in the bravest of men.' The history of one of 
these deserves to be known. 
Singuiiir She had been for ten days a prisoner in a Mohawk vil- 

escapc of iin . . 

Aitronqiiiu lage, and was as yet in ignorance of her final doom. She 
had, however, more ground for fear than for hope ; be 
cause she had been stripjied totally naked on entering the 
village, and had been unable to obtain the least thing to 
cover herself. One night, while lying as usual in a cabin, 
bound hand and foot with cords which were made fast to 
as many stakes, and sui-rounded by Indians who lay on 
the cords, she perceived that they were all soimd asleep. 

fpiin tlio 

' Relation do la Nouvelle France, 
104", p. 47 ; Creuxius, Historia Cn- 
nadi-nsis, p. 4G5 ; De la Potherio, 
Histoiro de rAmi'dquo Mcridinnnlo, 
i.. ]). 1)04 ; C'olden, History of the 
Five Nations (N. Y., 1737), p. 18 ; 
La'.cmant, Journal, March 122, 1047. 

' See Benedict XIV., De Canoniza- 

tionp ; Allocution of Pope PiuH VI. 
on the death of Louis XVI., as to 
what constitutes martyrdom. 

^ Creuxius, Historia Canadensis, 
p. 408 ; Relation, 1047. p. 16. 

* Creuxius, Historia Canadonsia, 
p. 470 ; Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, 1647, p. 8. 

i I I 



She immediately endeavored to extricate one hand, and 
succeeding in this, without much difficulty unboiuid hor- 
celf completely.' 

On this, she rose, went softly to the cabin-door, took a 
hatchi^t, and brained the one wlio lay nuidiest to her hand. 
She then spranj^ to a hollow tree, large enough to conceal 
her entirely, and which she had already observed quite 
near the cabin. The noise made by the dying man soon 
roused the whole village; and a?, no doubt was enter- 
tained of their prisoner's flight, ail the young men started 
in pursuit. All this she marked from her shelter, and she 
perceived that her pur-suers all took one direction, and 
that the rest had returned to their cabins, leaving no one 
near her tree. She immediately stole out, and taking just 
the opposite direction from that of the braves, she reached 
the woods undiscovered. 

No one thought of takuig that direction all that night ; 
but when day came, her trail was discovered and followed. 
The start she had gained gave her two days over her 
enemies. On the third day she heard a noise. Being on 
the bfink of a lake, she waded in up to her neck ; and 
the moment she perceived the Mohawks, she plunged 
entirely under, behmd some flags, under cover of which 
she put her head above water occasionally, to breathe 
and watch. She saw her pursuers, after a careful scrutiny 
all around, retrace their steps. She let them get to some 
distance ; then she crossed the marsh and continued her 

She travelled thirty-five days, living solely on roots and 
hemes. At last she struck the St. Lawrence, a little 
below St. Peter's Lake ; and not daring to remain in the 
neighborhood of the River Sorel, for fear of being sur- 
prised by some Loquois war-party, she hastily made a 
sort of raft to cross the river. As she approached Three 
Kivers, without well knowing where she was, she diacov- 


' CreuxiuB, Hiatoria Canadensis, p. 477 ; Relation, 1647, p. 15. 




■Who were 

the Abiiiia- 


crod a canoo, and foariiif^ lost it iiiif,'ht be an Iroquois, she 
pliiiif^L'd into tlio drptiis of the woods, wiioro hIio re niained 
till suiist't. Slio tlu'n approaclu'd tiu' river af,'aiu, and a 
nioniciit after junccivt'd tho fort of Throe Kivers. 

Almost at the same tinio she was discovered by some 
Hurons, whom sho recogni/od. Sho immediately hid her- 
self behind a bush, and cried t)ut to them that sho was not 
in a atato to show herself deccntl}*, and begge^ them to 
give her some covering. They threw her a robe, and 
when she had wrapped it around her, she came up and 
was brought to the fort. Here the account she gave of 
her adventures was with diflicnlty credited ; but so many 
similar examples occurred subsequently, that at last 
nothing of the kind any longer excited surjjrise. Men 
comprehended, at least, that fear of death or torture can 
make the feeblest undcrt; ke and accomi)lish what tho 
most hardy would not, under other circumstances, think 
of attempting." 

While the Iroquois by their perfidy cast aside the occa- 
sion oflercd them by Heaven of sharing in its graces, and 
renewed their ravages against our allies and their hostil- 
ities in the French colony, another nation — which yields 
to no other on this continent in valor, which surpasses all 
in mildness and docility, and which was then quite popu- 
lous — came forward spontaneously to swell the fold of 
Indian believers, and by its conversion to Christianity be- 
came a barrier for New France which all its enemies nc /er 
could force." 

These were the Abcnaquis. I have elsewhere remarked 
that this people inhabited the southern part of Now 
France, which extends from Penobscot to New England, 
and that the portion of the nation living in the vicinity of 
the Kennebec were called Canibas.' The subsequent 

' 1 ■ 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, Jfaurnult, Hist, dcs Abt'n., p. 11. 

1647, p. 10 ; Crouxius, Historia Ca- * Vol. I., p. 204. For the moaning 

nadensis, p. 4T!). of Abrnaqui, see Hist. Mag., iv., p. 

" KelutioB do la N. F., 1647, p. 61 ; 180 ; VetromUe'B Abnakie, p. 50. 

; f 



necessity of clnfomliiij,' thomaolvuH iigiiiiiHt the EngliHh and i6f6. 
thoir allies luuiiig foived tliein to unite with the Eto- "-^v"^ 
cLcniinH or Miilocitos, living mar the Penobscot, anil the 
Micniiic's or Souriciuois, the native inhiibituntH of Acmlia 
and all the eastern coast of Canada, the close union 
formed between thes(! three nations, their attachment to 
our inttrests and to the Christian religion, and striking 
correspondtaice between their dialects, have quite com- 
monly led to include them all under the general name of 
Abennqui nations ; and I shall hereafter conform to this 
usage, where it is not necessary to distinguish one of 
these tribes from another.' 

For some time the Canibas had frequented Sylleri, and 'Diey auk 
some were even baptized there.' On their return homo u"mi"Hiou- 
they inspired thoir countrymen with the desire of imitat- 
ing them, and the whole nation sent to the governor- 
general and the superior of the Jesuits to solicit a mis- 
Bionary. A people with a reputation for bravery, and 
able by its position between us and the English to bo of 
great service to us in case of a rupture with New Eng- 
land, was an acquisition not to be neglected. The depu- 
ties were very well received at Quebec, and Father 
Gabriel Dreuillettes set out with them iu the latter part 
of August, 1G16.' 


' As to tlipso tribes, see the Re- 
Intions do lix Nouvello Franco, 
for 1U37, 1041), l(i41, KilJ, 1(144, 
1010, 1017, lO.-.O to UI.V.' , 1000 to 
10fi4 ; Li'ttros Eilifiautcs ; Lcttora 
of F. l{;il(" 1111(1 F. do la Clinesi!. 
^V^liamMm's Mninc, i., ji. 40;J. His- 
toric dcs Almakis jiar rAbl)r J. A. 
Mauraiilt, Snicl, ISOIi. Halo's dic- 
tionary is tin- irrcat treasury fur tlie 
Abnaki lani,niiin;,.. For the Micniac 
hioroi^Iypliics and their origin, sco 
Historical Man-a/.in.-, v., p. 'iS\) ; I'ro- 
naca dello Mi^sioni Franci'scani, 
Rome, vol. iii , p. 40 ; Kaiider'a Mic- 
mac I'rayor-Uook, Vienna. 

' A chief was baptized at Siilery in 
1043 ; C'reuxiiis, Hist. Canadensis, p. 
y?'-3. Canibesinnoaks means " Tliosu 
dwellingneartiie Lakes: " Maiiriiult, 
Hist, des Abnakis. 

^ 1 iio Abnaki mission, and tliat of 
tlie Mohawks under Fatlier Jollies, 
wiro botli decided upon on .\piil 
20, 1(M(;. Tlio AlMiaki Mission 
was called that of tlie Assumption. 
Fatlier DniiUettes tivt out, Auj^ust 
2!t, witli two Indian canoes, under 
Claude, a good Christian : Journal 
of tho Superior (MS); Helation 
do la Nouvelh' Franco, 1017, \). 51 ; 
Creuxlus, Ilistoria Canadensis.p. 483. 



1646. His jonruoy wfts long aiul painful.' Tlio Alji'iiiiquiH, as 
*"*"!'''"' well ftM tlit'ii' iitinlilxMH, ai(^ iiuliilint. We liavo m'VtT h\u;- 
Th«ir ciiiir- coi'iK'd ill iiuliiciii^ tli<Mii to cullivalc tlio ground, and tiicy 
liavo even U'hs finocaHt for tlu! fuluro tlian otlior Indians. 
The conHcqucni^o is, that fow nioro friMiuontly Huffcr from 
hunger and a want of tho nu'iuHt luH'UHHariitH of lifo. Cut 
th«ir alViction for their niiHsionarios, their good diKjiosi- 
tion, tlieir sincere attaeliinent to the rreneli, tho essential 
Bervict'H which they have rendered to New France (which 
would perhaps not now exist had it not liad these Indians 
to oppose to the Irocjuois and English), and Htill more 
their unshaken constancy in tho I'aith, have greatly 
lightened foi the evangelical laborers tho rigors of this 
painful mission. 
Fntiior On tlie banks of tho Kennoboc, Father DreuiHettes 
wckdino.l lounu some tapuclim lathers, wlio liatl a liospice tliero. 
Csmicliins, Tlii'se religiotis had a house also at Pentagoet, and acted 
as chaplains, not only to tho French settled on all that 
coast and that of Acadia, but also to those whom trade 
allured thither. They receivotl the Jesuit missionary with 
great joy and all possible cordiality. They had long 
desired to see missions establisli((l among tho Indians ol 
those (pnirters, whom they deemed very fit for the King- 
dom of Ciod ; and they had even tlu^mselvcs entertained 
the idea of visiting Quebec, to induce tho Fathers of the 
Society not to leave any longer untilled a so 1 so well pre- 
pared to receive the seeds of tho Faith." 

Father DreuiHettes Fpent the whole winter and spring 
in visiting tho difl'erent towns of that country, baptized 
many children and some dying adults, finding in all a 
great desire for religious instruction. Even medicine-men 

' He apparently went uptheChau- Ignatius, of Paris) welcomed him at 

diere, ami then made a portago to first, tluy were forced, apparently, 

the Kennel)ec. by tlu^ I'lsliing t'ompniiies, to writo 

" As to the Capuchin miseinns, sen to Quebec and asl\ tlint he itliould 

Hittorical Magazine, vols. viii. and not return : Journal of the Su- 

ix. Though the Superior (Father perlor. 



(lofliirod tlu'ium-lvcH hin disciplt's, niul ImrntMl all tl'iil tiny \()^(t. 
IiikI UKod in tlu-ir (livinutioiiH.' Tiir liurvcHt MCfiiifil to "-"f"^^ 
him HO ripo and id)Uiidiint that, wiim tho roads hccaino llin flr»t lu- 
liassalilc, ho felt it iiin duty t«) rt'tuin to (^iu'lifo, to lay tiin aih'hi*. 
luifoi't! luH Hiiiu'i-inr tho condition in ^'hich ho fo\nid atVairn ''"' ' 
anion^^ tho Ahiiwuiui nations.' On his report stops woro 
taken to found u mission, whicli ]>ron>is('d tho sanio fruits 
of bonudiction as wore already yatliorod in tho most tlour- 
ishiuf,', and where the niissionarios hoped to labor with 
great huccohh, as there was nothing to be dreaded from 
the IrcMiuois there.' 

The affairs of Now Franco were in this state, when tho KoohII of 
Chevalier do Moutmagny received orders to resign his Mdntnift. 
government to Mr. d'Ailleboust, who had been for some ''"^" 
time in conunand at Thnio llivors, and to return to 
France.* Tho disobedienoo of the Connuandor do Poind, 
governor-general in tho West Indies — who had refused to 
receive a successor sent by the king, maintained himself 
in his ])ost in spite of tho court, and gave uu example of 
rebellion which some minor governors began to follow — 
induced tho king's council to adopt a resolution not to 
leave cohjnial gtrvernors in oftico for more than threo 
years, for fear that they should gi'ow to regard their 
domain as a country where they had too long boon 

Cieuoral laws have their objections, and it is unfortu- 
nate to bo j)laced in circumstances where it is impossible 
to remedy by necessary exceptions their action, when 
prejudicial to tho common good. A well-selected governor 
cannot bo left too long at tho head of a new colony. One 

' Relation (In la Nouvfllc France, 
1047, p. 53 ; CreuxiuH, Ilistoria C'u- 
nadcnsiH, \>. 4S4. 

' IIo rfai'hcil Sillcry, Juno 10 
(Journal of the 9u|icri(ir) — altlii)iij;li 
tho Helation di- lu NouvcUc Fruiicc, 
1647, p. 50, Huye 15tli — after funning 
a friendship with John Wiiialow : 

Helation do la Nouvello Franco, 1047, 
p. 50. 

' Father Druilli'ttes was not wont 
back, in conBoqiionce of loiters from 
tliii Capuchins : Journal of tho fciu- 
perior. July !(-4, 1047. 

* The news a\ine first in the fall 
of 1047. Sec nolo, p. 305. 




1646. t)ov()i<l of 111!' IiiIimiIh it>i|iiiiiMl for a ptiMi of llii« iin|ioi'- 
^"'~>'~" limc(>, or willi 'iiinlilicn (IcIiiiiH'iilnl lo (lio Hcivicp of Imm 
piiiit'c, (')iimol ln> I('1iiov(mI (00 hooii : luil t>V('('|t| in rauo <if 
liiiiilu'il iiu'iipiu'il V hikI M«'ll-grouii(li>(l friiiH of niinrmiilin'l, 
itiilliing Clin linppi'n nior(> falnl (o (Im> piojircHu of n colony 
wliicli iH nol well cHliiMiMlicd llnin llic frc(|ncMl cli(mf»o 
of f^ovcrnoiM ; iiiiiMnmcli iih moIIiI fonndiilinnM i'ci|nirc 11 
j;rcMl nniforniilv of ctnidiicl. ivml projcclM nniMl lie followed 
«tu( wliicli cfMinol ripen or lie execnied e\cep| willi (iinc, 
und H nt>w governor inrelv iipjnoveH Mn> viewH of Imm prc- 
(leceHHor or fiiilM lo consider HimI lie Iuih lu'lier. IfiM 
HnccesMor will \u\un llie siiine jndj;nii'nl on Ium in llieir 
(nrn ; fiinl llniw, \t\ ever liej^innini; nnew, 11 colonv will 
never leiive ilw infiincv. or ninKe l>iil slow indf^rcMn. l?n|, 
yel llicre lire circnniHljinccn wlieiu" prudence foiliidn 11. 
prince (o follow a course wliicli in reiilly Ilie most (>x- 
pi<dienl. Slid exirenie lo wliicli llieM(> (mkIm of eiirlh 
lire MonielinicH rediice<l, wliere I lie intiliililv lo wliicli 
Hi(\V me lironjriil, of reiiiedvin<; iin evil except liy iiii 
evil. \h well tilled lo iinpresn IIkmii willi 11 Hciiwe of lli<>ir 
iliK cimrno- 'I'lie ('li(>viilier de IVIonfniiigny fell into none of llio 
"' "i"iii» " ''•'•'""'^ "1^ wliicli I liiive Mpoheii. On llii> conlrmy, lio 
Bm.oe».Hnr, „|,„ii,,„^|y modelled Imm condiicl on lliiil of liin prede- 
ccHHor, mid conliiied liiniself lo following, mm fur mh in liini 
liiy. tlie plan wliicli INIr. di> ClimiipliMn lind tniced in IiIh 
tnenioiiH. lleiii-e il in ceiliiin lliiil, liiid llio ('miiidii ("oni- 
|tnn\ Hcconded liini. lie would litive |iiil llie colony on n 
very good fooling, imd lie \h greiilly lo lie priiiHed for 
liiiving MiisliiiniMl il iih Ii(> diti willi mo lillle power. IliH 
life, moreover, wmm mo exenipliiry, iind lie diHpliiyiMl on nil 
(iccHMioiiM MO niiicli wisdom, piety, religion, mid diMinler- 
CHledneHS ; lie spilled liimself so lillle w lien tlii> insolence 
of tli(> Iroipiois wiiM to lie repressed ; mid lie knew mo well 
how lo niiiiiitiiin Imm dignity in llie most delicnte circiini- 
hIiUiccm. Iliiit lie endeiired iMinself C(|iiMlly to I'Veiicli mid 
IndimiM. mid llie coiiil (<ven Ion;; proposed liini to the 

mSTOKV 111'- Nl'.U I'll VMM 


CKVi'iiKirM i>r iirw coI.iiiicH (iM M iiHuIcI wild coiilil mil lio t(']f\ 
too miicli Mliiilinl.' v^_ ^ _. 

IIIm Mncci'HMor' UMM M wurtliv u\i\u. full uf tcli.jion niitl 
f^toil will. I|(> lijid Im'!.iiij;o(| Io (he S...'i(-(v of IMontn'jil. 
ciiliri'lv nitiilo up of |>iitii>i iicimhhm. zoiltuiH I'nr Hie convt'i- 
Hinii ol' (li(> Ih'iUIkmi. II<> ri)ininMnili<i| in iliul iKlnnd .liiiiiifr 
(1 viMM{r.> wlii.'li IMi (I(> IMniNi.niii'iivi' IimiI Lecn ..l.jij.c,! lo 

llllllu' (ii (''riUICC. 'I'llcli •■ 1|( liMil |it|HH": ^(1 |||i> };nv(>rii- 

' Till' ClicvitliiT lie Mcin(imi)TH.v 
li'lY t'liimilii I'M llii' Ailmiiiil. Si'|ii 
V!:l. HMM K.-ilnn.l. wlin ..|ilo,;i„.H 
llli> ("lini'iird'r ol lliin uiivurnni , na i|,i 
till- UclnlloiiH (lli'liltioi". HUH, p, '0 , 
< 'ri'iiviiiH, IIIhIiiiIu ('iiimili'MHiH, |i 
M : mill Miillicr .liiclii'vi'iiii. In In-r 
IIW.iiriMl.. rili.l.'l m.Mi. |. 7th. h.Mh 
" W'l' linil iinlliin^ very niilln'iitio 
iiB til liim nllrr lliiN Mi-. \iiIm'iI do 
III ('lii'iiiivi' »ii\^<. iii'vci (lii'linu. I lull 
Ih< cliccl III Ml KillH. In I hi' liiiii»iiiil' 
IiIb kliininnii. Mr. ilo rnincy . ImiI 
IIiIr nmi'i'linn Ih Riippinli'il liy no 
pniiil' " ('(inm irillsldlri". i. p .'1(1:1 
IIIh rrniiiviil nmy liinc ronii'. (nn. 
rriiin llic iippoHilion ln-iwci'ii liini 
mill till' iii'w iHiliiny iil Mnnhi'iil 
Nci' Mciiiiilri' iii> Mr (|i> In riicniiyi', 
ill lllim, Ktiillnii. lllHliiin' ill' III 
CiiliMii.' I'^iinriilw. il . p til 

' Irl'lliM irAilll'llOllMt. Hl'luill'lir ill' 

»'iiiilim>:i'M, wiiB II (ii-nl1i'iniin nl 
riiiiinpiicni'. iilii fiiinlly nlii'iiily ili« 
tliiHiii^ilii'il III ini'ilii'liii' Mini (111- 
•'liiiri'li 111' "I'lil III riiiiHilii III 
l(ll;l. riniii purely ii'lljrli'iiB iiioIIvi-r 
111' li'.l mil II niiniiii'i of rnliiniRif). 
mill iliil iniirli I'm- lln' iii'« lnwn 
llii«ini'BH ri'ipilrliiK lii« n'lnni, ||,< 
unlli'il lor l''riiiii'i'. (tri, -Jl. m ( j 
(.l.iiinml of (III' Siipi'iliir or lln. Ioru 
ll») lliniiij! loiii'lniji'il IiIh iiMiihu. 
Ill' Biilli'il liiii'U. mill miiii'il on (lio 
yOlli AiikiihI. nils .loniinil of tl„. 
HiipnrliM , lii'liitioii ,|o III Nonvolli. 
Krmiri'. HUM. p -.« i|„ hniiinlil "nl 

n now Koynl U..yiilii||o,i. i|ii|o,| 
Mmrli ft. HUM. inoililyinc in iionio 
pnriiiiilmH iliiit of Mmi'li ";. kh;. 
"Iiiili iiniy lio I'liiiRiiloioil llio Ijrni 
t 'iiimiliiiii rlimlor « 'iiiniilinii Col 

I'll'. II . I . p r;;i lu iimi oi hum 

Ilio (lovoinor wiiN III lio I'lioNon lor 
Miri'o yoiiiH. lint nii,ilif |i,. ,.,^|, 
IHiinloil III' wiiM 111 linvo II I'oiini'il, 
i-oiiipiiHiiij. Ilio hjuliop (or. nil lliom 
wiiHoiic, Ilio Siipoiior of (Iio.Ii-hiiIIb), 
till' liiRl ttovoriioi. mill JHo iiiliiili 

IIiiiiIr i'Iiiiroii liy III,. , „ il |,„|| 

llioHMiiliiHnI (Jiiolio,. Monlioiil. mill 
'I'liri'i' Ulvorw If llii'io wiiH nu ox 
Kiivi'vnor In Ilio nilimy. iin inliiili 
iliinl HiiH I'liiiNiii in lilu pliii'o TIiIh 
loiiiilnlii'ii wiiR Ion,! Ill loiro. iiml in 

I'llll I'Otliplllillf «HH lllllllo llhll it 

«iiH iiol I'hIIikmmI Hirii'lly rii.lor 
tlii'KO I'liiiiiiiR Ilio fiiiioiiil ol Ilio 
lli'i'l Mini Ilio H\ nilii-H liiiil n lijijii lo 
iippi'iir ill I'oiiiii'il, tviili II ilolilirriilivo 

M'l w lo iiiiilioiM ri'liilln.i; lo ilioir 

I'oiiBlilin iilH 'I'll noil iippoiiiioil 

"I'l'i'iR I Ihoil miliiiloM olll.'oiH 

to 111' I'loi'toil miniiiilly mill loporl 
iiiiniinlly SolllorM ronlil Imiv Ihih 
of liiiliMiiH Willi I'oloniiil hihhIm. lint, 
woro I'oiiipolloil lo Inlio fiiiH III pull 
111' BloioM l''i'rlMiiil. ('oiirw il'lliH 
toiio. I. pp :i.-,(|, :i(i;) MiiilMnio 

• r AilllllOIIIlt (MmiImIIII llo H.Mllo(rlll'). 
tll..l|,;|, lolllrlMlll III llrnt 111 I-OIIIO lo 

Ciiimiln. tooU. iiovorllii'loHM. m pioiii 
liioni pint ill iiiiiii> of I III' pooil 
WimKh liojviiii III Moiilroiil. 



1646. ment of Three Elvers.' Thus he knew Canada perfectly, ' 
and was not Ignorant of Its necessities. He accordingly 
omitted nothing that depended on him to provide for 
them ; but as he was not better served than those who 
preceded him, New France continued, under his adminis- 
tration, to encoimter misfortunes which it would be unjust 
to ascribe to him. 

■ Creuxius (IliBtoria Canadensis, boust was governor of Montreal 

p. 502) says the same, but Faillon daring the absence of Maisonnenve. 

(Histoire de la Colonio Frangalse, ii., ile was never governor of Three 

p. 80) corrects the error. D'Aiile Rivera. 





: !*; 

! "1 

t J I 









♦ • -♦ 

^' . (I 


FoiNDKHs or I (jNvi:?>rrs. 

/IJI& ^ 







Quebec and all tho French settlements were then quite 1648. 
tranquil, and the Indians who had settled among us, or ^— y— ^ 
came to trade, profited by this calm. Commerce was smte of the 
confined chiefly to peltries, and it was especially at '"'""y- 
Three Eivers and Tadoussac that the Indians assembled 
to trade. Most of them came from the northern parts, 
and they were all instructed in the Christian truths. 
These they communicated to their neighbors, and they 
never failed to return with proselytes, who were then 
finally prepared for baptism. Sylleri, too, daily increased 
in population and fervor ; but the Huron church, although 
the most numerous of all, and fruitful in great examples of 
virtue, was a source of constant disquiet and alarm to the 

Nevertheless, this same year, 1648, brought some new Unfonn- 
gleams of hope that the Hurons and Iroquois would settie nttu'Vro'ot 
their differences. Tho Audastes or Andastoez,' a then '^® ^""°^* 
powerful and warlike nation, sent offers of aid to the 
former, who at the time had gained important advantages 
over their enemies." It was a favorable opportunity' to 

' Andastoo (says the Relation de 
la Nouvolle Prance, 1G48, p. 56) is a 
country beyond the Neuter nation, 
one hundred and fifty league. 3. E. 
\ 8. from the Huron? in a Ptraight 
line, or two hundred leagues by the 
trailfi, of Huron language. They 
were near the Swedes. Ante, p. 73. 

' Relation do la NouveUe France, 

Vol. II.— 14 

104«: p. 58. Du Creux'B map 
gives geographical data not in 
the Reflations. The Huron envoy, 
('liarles Ondauiondiont, who reached 
Andastoe early in Juno, there learned 
the death of Father Jogues. 

^ Father Bressani, who deacended 
to Quebec in July, brought news of 
a defeat of an Irajuois party by the 



1648, regain their pristine superiority over the Iroquois, but 
they woukl not profit by it except to enable them to obtain 
a favorable peace ; and by not taking the surest means to 
succeed in this, which was a vigorous preparation for war, 
they fell a dupe to the duplicity and bad faith of their 

To all appearance they declined the offers of the An- 
dastes, or at least failed to do what they could to profit by 
the offers of that nation ; and, in fact, I find no mention 
of any d. version made by those Indians in their favor. 
Thus the overweening confidence of the Hurons was really 
what began to enfeeble them, and at last destroyed the 
nation ; for while the Onondagas amused them with nego- 
tiations, the Mohawks and Senecas suddenly fell on two 
large hunting-parties from the town of St. Ignatius, and 
totally routed them.' Then for a time no hostihties were 
heard of, and this was enough to plunge the Hurons again 
into their former security. This was the object of the 
Mohawks. They took up arms secretly, and appeared in 
the field on a side where they were least expected. 

Father Anthony Daniel ministered &i >jxe to a whole can- 
ton, his ordinary residence being the town of St. Joseph, 
the first where they had undertaken to plant the gospeL' 
On the 4th of July, very early in the morning, while that 
rehgious was celebrating the holy mysteries, he heard a 

Hurons, who killed or took thirty. 
The superior of the Jesuits was so 
confident, that, as two hundred and 
fifty Hurons came down, he sent up 
Fathers Lalemant, Daran, and Ores- 
Ion — with two other Fathers, one 
lay-brother, three boys, nine me- 
chanics, eight soldiers — and they 
were to take in four more at Mon- 
treal, witli a cauuon ; Journal of Su- 
perior of Jesuits, July, August, 1048. 
' Relation do la NouvoUe France, 
1648, p. 4i) ; Creuxius, Historia Ca- 
nadensis, pp. 52y, 534. The Senecas 
al this time attacked the Aondiro- 

nons, a Neuter tribe next to the 

" This St. Joseph was not the town 
Caragouhaor Ihonatiria. Champlain, 
1619 (Laverdiere's edition, p. 28, 
note), where the mission began (ante, 
p. 77), that town liaving been aban- 
doned in 1038. Rel. de la N. France, 
1038, p. 50 ; 1039, p. 50. The name 
St. Joseph was thou transferred to 
Teananstayae (lb. letter of F. Charles 
Oarnier, MS.), tlie Tequenonkiaye of 
Cliampluin (Vo/. 1019, p. 28, .-d. 
liaverdiere) and of Sagard (Hist, du 
Can., p. 208); called also Ossossane. 



confused noise of people ninning in all directions, ex- 1648. 

clftiming, " They are killing us !" There was scarcely any- » ' 

body in the village at the time but old men, women, and A Huron 
children. The enemy, informed of this, had made his stnTjx.iby 
approach by night, and attacked at daybreak. At the h«wk»." 
first alarm given by the cries of the dying, the chapel was 
deserted. The priest had time oaly to terminate the sac- 
rifice, lay aside the sacerdotal vestments, shut them up 
with the sacred vessels, and run to the quarter from which 
the cries proceeded.' 

No sooner had ho reached it than the m^ .,iid and 
painful spectacle met his eyes : his beloved neophytes 
massacred unresistingly ; the enemy, like a pack of fam- 
ished wolves who find a sheopfold open, giving no quarter 
to the most tender ago or feeble sex ; old men, almost 
decrepit, gathering a remnant of strength from despair, 
fighting with no probability of success ; no one able to 
make sufficient eflfort to arrest the first onset of the assail- 
ants. He approached those who seemed disposed to die, 
at least, with arms in their hands, and warned them that 
these enemies, who could deprive them of bodily life, had 
no power over their souls, nri,; that eternity depended on 
their dying in the sentiments which ho had so often incul- 
cated upon them." 

He beheld himself at the same time surrounded by 
women and children, whom they pursued, tomahawk in 
hand, and who conjured him to take pity on them. Pa- 
gans even, whose obstinacy he had failed to overcome, 
threw themselves at his feet, and implored baptism. 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1649, p. 3 ; f'reuxius, Historia Cana- 
densis, p. 525 ; Oobat, Narratio His- 
torica eorum qua? Societns Jusu in 
Nova Francia, tortiter pgit et passa 
est, anno M.IK'.XLIIX. & XLIX, 
Oeniponti, 1650, p. 13; Memoircs 
touchant les Vortus dee Peros de 
Noue, Jogues, Daniel, etc., MS. ; Let- 

tre du P. Raguoneau in Carayon, 
Documents Inedits, xii., pp. 240-3 ; 
Bressani, Breve Relatione, p. 105; 
Tanner, Stxietas Jlilitnne, p. 673 ; 
Alegambe, Mryrtes IlhistreB, p. 643 ; 
C'haunionot, Autobiographie, New 
York, 1858, p. rid. 

'•' Relation de la Nouvelle Fitince, 
1649, p. 3. 

• I I 



1648. Tliero was not a momoiit to lose. Tho apostolic man 

^-*~ » ■- ' exhorted both clasHca, in a few words, to imj)hiro God'H 

Death of pardon for their sins ; then ho dipped a handkerchief in 

Amii'oiiy water, and baptized by aspersion those who pressed for- 

"""' ■ ward to roceivo tho sacrament. At that moment tho 

palisades .vere carried on every side ; and tlio blood which 

streamed from all tho cabins and in the square, rekindling 

the fury of tho victors, nothing scarcely was to bo seen 

but the dead and dying.' 

Those whoso ago and strength enabled them to seek 
safety in flight then earnestly implored tho missionary to 
escape with them ; but he constantly refused, and recol- 
lecting some sick persons whoso baptism he had deferred, 
he ran to their cabins and baptized them. He then 
returned to the chapel, to got the altar vessels and vest- 
ments and put them in a secure spot. There he gave a 
general absolution to some who had come for the purpose. 
Then his only thought was to offer to God the sacrifice of 
his life.' 

Tho Iroquois, on their side, no longer finding any one 
to oppose them, sot fire to the cabins, and ajiproached the 
chapel, uttering fearful yells. Tho servant of God, when 
he saw them coming, exhorted all who remained with him 
to take to tho woods ; and to gain time for them, went 
forward himself to meet tho enemy. Astonished at such 
resolution, the savages recoiled some paces. But recov- 
ermg fi'om their panic, they surrounded the holy man ; 
and not yet daring to approach him, alone and unarmed 
as he was, they pierced him with arrows. Bristling as ho 
was with the shafts, he still spoke with suiprising energy, 
— now to God, to whom ho oflfered his blood, shed for the 
flock which He had confided to his care ; now to his mur- 
derers, whom he reproached with their perfidy and men- 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 1C49, p. 4 ; Lottro du P. C'liarlos 
1G41), ]). I!. (inrnitT, 25 Avril, KMO ; UiigiU'Oi'iin, 

'' Kflation de la Nouvelle France, Vie de la Mere Cutlieriin', p M. 




aced witli tlio wrath of Hlixvcii,— aHHuriii},' tliciu, uovoitho- 
leHS, tlmt they would ever fintl tho Lord nuidy to receive 
them into favor, if tiu-y had reeoiu-so to Im bounty. 

At last, Olio of the luowt resolute advanced and pierced 
his heart with ii Kind of partiHau, and laid him di>ad at 
his foot. All iminediutely fill on Iuh body, and thero 
waH not ono of these furies who did not dip his liuuds in 
the blood. They then Htri[)ped the torn and bleeding 
body, and after treating it with a thousand indignities, 
flung it into the bla/ing chai)ol. The Huron nation was 
inconsolable for the death of this missionary, and thoro 
was no ono in the colony who did not revere luni as a 
victim of the most hoioie charity. Seven hundred per- 
sons perished in this disaster,' and the town of St. Joseph 
was never restored. Those who escaped, and those who 
wore absent at the time, took refugo at t'.e town of St. 
Mary's— a metropolis, as it were, of the country— where 
they were hit in quiet for the rest of the year and down 
to the ensuing sjiriug.' 

Almost at the same timo that this was occuiTing 
amongst the Hurons, the French, not without some aston- 
ishment, beheld an envoy arrive at Quebec from New 
England, sent to propose a perpetual alliance between the 
two colonies, independent of any nipturo that might 
ensue between the two crowns." Mr. d'Ailleboilt, finding 

' Relation de la N. F., 1040, p. 5. 

' Kelation dc la Nouvello France, 
1049, i>. 5 ; Gobat, Narratio Ilisto- 
ricu, pp. 20-311 ; Marie; de I'lncarna- 
tion, licttrcs IliHtorii|ues, p. 193 ; 
Chaumonot, Autobidgrapliic, p. 59 ; 
(jiarnier, Lettris, MS. Father An- 
tliony Danii'l— tailed by the HuroiiH, 
Antwen — was born at Dici)])o, in 
Normandy, in 1001, aud entered the 
So<'iety ofJcsusat tlieuf,a'()f twenty. 
Sent to Canada in 10:!;!, lie labored 
first at Cai"' Hreton ; but from July, 
1034, to luH death, July 4, 104S, on 
the Huron mission. Meek, humble, 

obedient, and pious, ig the character 
given by his contemporaries. 

■' Bruillettcs, Nam' du V'oyage 
faict iK)ur la Misnion des Abnaquiois 
et des Connoissances tire/, de la Nou- 
velle Angleterre et lies di«|)o8ition8 
des Magistrals de ci'tte I{('publi(|ue 
IHiur le seeours centre les Iroquois, 
es anneeu 10 iJ & 1051, ]). 31 ; Kela- 
tion de la No;; velle France, 1052, p. 
20. The elder Winthrop was the 
first iirojxiser of this step, according 
to Druillettcs, and wrote, in 1047. 
Epistola ad Dominum Jouunem 
Winthrop, New York, lb04, p. 0. 

1 64H. 

Donth of 







thiiiit witli 

New KiifC 


1; 1 


tho proposition fiivoniblo, by the lulvioo of Iuh council, do- 
piitcd Father DrcuilicttcH to Uoston, an i)Iuuipotontiary, 
to conclude and higii tlu> treaty ; but on condition that tho 
EngliHh Bhonld join us in making war on the Iroc^uoia. 

I do not exactly know what was then tho huccchh of this 
first journey of the luiwHionary ;' hut it ia certain that tho 
negotiation, after lauguitihing for a time, was rcHumud 
with more eamoHtneuu in 1051. TIuh in attested by tho 
following documeutH, preserved in tho Depot do la Marino, 
and which I deem it proper to insert, as beuig the only 
papers I could discover relatuig to this affair. Tho first is 
a letter addi'cssed by tho Council of Quebec to tho Com- 
missioners of New England, as follows ; 

" Gentlemen — Some years since, tho gentlemen of Bos- 
ton having proposed to us to establish trade between Now 
France and New England, the Council established by his 
majesty in this country imites its replies to- the letters 
which our governor had written to your parts, the tenor 
whereof was, that we would willingly desire this trade, and 
therewith the union of hearts and minds between our col- 
onies and yours ; but that we desired, at the same time, to 
enter into an offensive and defensive league with you 
against tho Iroquois, our enemies, who would prevent this 

' Tet till) archivoH of tho College 
of Quebfc containt'd Druillettcs' nar- 
rativt' of hiB voyage. Seo Drull- 
lettee, Narre du Voyage, etc., 1855, 
and a tranalation in tho CoUectioofi 
of the N. Y. Hist. Society, series II., 
vol. iii. ; also Epistola ad Douiinum 
Dom. Joannom Winthrop ; and let- 
ter in I'erland's Notis sur le Kegistre 
de QuelK'C, p. 95. He set out Aug. 31, 
1050, and after much sutfering 
reached Norridgewalk. After a 
ehort stay, ho proceeded to Coue- 
i^oc (Augusta), and presented hia 
credentials to .John Winslow, the 
Plymouth agent, who kindly accom- 
panied him to Boston. He saw Uov- 
ernor Dudley of Massachusetts, who 

refern'd him to Plymouth, as the 
Keunebc was under the jurisdiction 
of that colony. Uovernor Hradford 
welcomed him ; but the Kniich en- 
voy found that any aid against tho 
Iro<|Uoi8 could be decided only by 
the Commissioners of tho United 
Colonies, and he endeavored to in- 
fluence tlie delefrntes to that body. 
After doing all in his power to dis- 
pose the magiBtrutca favorably, ho 
returned to the Kennebec, visiting 
the New England Indian a|iostIe, 
Eliot, on his way. He reached his 
mission cafely, and in the spring re- 
turned to Quebec : Jesuit Jour., June, 
1051. The documents here given are 
in Canad. Col. Doc., II., i., pp. 10-12. 




L«ttur to 
aioiiurit of 
New Eiiil 

trailo, or iit U'list niidtr it Khh mlviiiita^nous botli for you 1648. 
untl (or iiH. Till' oMi^'iitiou wliicli, it hckius to uh, you —" ~f— 
show Id fot'l to rt'prt'SH tlio iuHolouco of theso Iro(|uoiH hiiv- 
ogoH — who maHHUcro tlio Sokokinoin and Alu'iiaiiuinoiH, 
your allicH— and tho oimii with which you could carry on luiiJ, ulft' 
tho war, by oiu" taking it up properly, aro two rcaHona 
which havo induced hh to follow up this juattcr with you 
in your Court of ComiuisHionor.s. AVo havo reipioHtod our 
governor to writo to you ofKcaciouHly. This is to join our 
excrtiouH to his, anil to assure you of tho disposition of 
our hearts, and of those of all in Now France, for thla 
trade with New England, and for tho designs of this war 
against tho Inxpiois, who should bo our common foo. 
Besides the Sieur do Dreuillettes, who already this winter 
began to negotiate this matter, wo have been phiased that 
Sieur Godefroy, councillor of 'jwr body, bo associated. 
The merit of these two dei)ii'i('s loads us to ho^jo a hapi)y 
result for the design. Tin y aro invested with necessary 
powers to that end, — that is to say, both to estabUsh lirmly 
trade between you and us, and to relieve you of tho ex- 
pense necessary to bo incurred in the war in (juestion 
against tho Iroquois. Wo bog you to givo them a hear- 
ing, and to act with them as you would do with us, with 
tho frankness natural to Englishmen as much as to us 
Frenchmen. Wo cannot doubt but that God will bless 
yoiu' arms and ours, when they aro employed in tho 
defence of Christian Indians, both your allies and ours, 
against heathen savages, who have neither faith, nor God, 
nor any justice in their course, as you may learn more at 
length from the said Sioiu's our deputies, who will assure 
you of the sincere desire wo entertain that Hoavou may 
ever contume to bless your provinces, and load you, 
gentlemen, with its favors. 

" Done in the chambers of our Couucil, established by the 
king, at Quebec, in New France, this 20th of Juno, lOol." 

Tho second concerns tho nomination of 8iour Godefroy 
to treat conjointly with Father Dreuillettes, aud is en- 



« ( 

!■ I ' 

1648. titlod, "Extract fiDin t1ii> Hi>f>;ist(>i's of tlio Aiu-icnl Ootiiicil 
^-^"^f^"' of tliis Country, Juno 'JO, Ki;")! :" 
K.'Kisirr of " The Council ussciublctl lit nine o'clock in tho nioniini' 

tllO t'olllU'il ill II-,.. 

otuntiioo, — invscnt : tlio governor; tlio rcvcicml I'lithcr Superior; 
McsHioui's ilo Manzc,' do (ioilcfroy, and ]\It<i;oil on tho 
proi)ositiou nuido to tho CJouncil, touching a cmtain ro- 
Bcriptiou niado liy tho Council, in the year IGIH, to tho 
end that a union bo made hetwoon tho colonicH of Now 
France^ and Ntnv England, to cany on connncrct^ with 
each other. TJio Cttuncil, desiring to meet their wishes, 
has nominated, and no'iinate, Sieur Oodefroy,' one of the 
coiuicillors of tli- Council established by his inajesty in 
this country, to procei d witli tho llov. Fatlior Dreuillottes, 
to tho said New l-iUgiand, to tho saiil Commissioners, to 
treat and act witli them according to the power given to 
them by tho Council, a copy whereof is inserted iu tho 
liasse, as also a copy of tho letter written to the said Com- 
missioners of New J'lngland l)y tho Council. And as to 
luerchandiso bi\)Ught by one Tlu)mas Yost,' on the assm'- 
ance and good faith of llov. Father Dreuillottes, the 
Council has decided to send and meet him, to point out a 
place where he may di'liver them, and that in its time. 

" Louis d'Aillebousl, lieutenant-general for the khig, and 
gov(nnor of all New France, etc., greetuig : 

" Having bi>en solicited and entreated, both by tho 
Christian Indians de))ending on (mr gt)vernmont and by 
the AlH'na(|uinois, living on the riv«*r of Kinibetpii, and 
others their allies, to protect them against tho incursion 
of tho Irocjuois, their common enemies, as it had boon 
heretofore practised by Sieur do IMontmagny, our jirede- 
cessor iu tins government, and having anew shown us 

' Maurc : JcHuit Jour., June, 1(150. dn Ui'])<Mitif:;ny: Ki'rlanii.NotcH, j). (17. 

'' .lohii I'liul (lixiclroy, shiii-ciij)- •' Vmi, in tin- Niirr , p. IH. Ap- 

tjiin, ■on of I{. Oodefroy, KHq., of St. jMirrntly 'I'liotnim Yi'O or Vow, who 

NiclioliiH di's ClninipH, lit I'liris. Ilo in l(ir>'J. projcclrd the condnit in 

wan an I'nrly wilier, and in l(l)(i Ann Htreel, HoHton : Siiviij^e, Oeneiil. 

murri'-'d Mary Miigdiiieu Iu (Jurdcur Diet., iv., \). (!U8. 



thiit (ill ihoir nations woro on tlio ])oiiii of Wuv^ folully 1648. 
(lostroy<>(l nnltiss wo spciMlily broii^'Iit a n^inody Wo, for 
those oausos and tlu^ f;;oo(l of tliis colony, and following 
tho oxproHM ordois given as in tlu< nanio of tlio <ino('n- 
rogont, niothor of tho king, to protect tho Indians against 
their said oneniics, have d(>pnted, and dei)nte, with tho 
advice of tho Conncil estal)lish(<d in this conntry and somo 
of tho most notable inhabitants, tlic Hieurs (Jabriol Dreu- 
illettes, pr(>acher of tho gos{)(>l to tlio Tndian nations, and 
Jolin Godcfroy, ono of tho C(mncillors of tho said Conncil, 
ambassadors for them to tlio gontI»>nion of N(>w England, 
to treat, (>ith(^i- with tho govi^rnors and magistrates of 
Now England, or with tho CuMit-ral Court of (!omniia- 
sionera and Deputi(>s of tho United Colonies, for assist- 
ance in men, and ninnitiona of war, and snp])lies, to 
attack tho said Iroquois in the most jirojx^r and con- 
V(>nient places ; as also to agree upon articles which shall 
bo deemed necessary to assur(> this treaty, and to grant 
to the said p(v>ple of New Engliuid tho trade which they 
have desired from us by their letttMs in the year 1(!47, 
with the articles, clauses, and conditions wliidi thev shall 
therein see necessary, awaiting (":e arrival of tli(> ambas- 
sador whom wo shall send on our beiialf to ratify and 
establish tinally what they may have agree(l upon. 

" W(! accordingly )n-ay all governors, lieutenants-gen- 
eral, captains, and others, to lt>t tiuMii i)ass fr<>ely, etc.'" 

To all Mpp(\arance, it was this condition of making war 
on the Iro(iuois which broke oil" the negotiation; and it 
was, in fact, exacting much from tho I'^nglish, who were 
far enough remov<>d from the Inxj-iois to have aught to 
fear from tluun, and who wen* (>ngagcd exclusively in trade 
and agriculture.' It is certain that the iillianc(> was not 

' Utitbrc (lie (liitti i>r tlicNc pniNTs doiif;-!!, or Id gmni lliciii lil-crty to 

tho roldiiy of Plyniou'li il('ci(l<Ml go lliriiii(;li llicir JiinHdiclicni tnr tlio 

Bgiiiiisl the l''ri'iicli I'lMiucHt. "'rhii HCnicsiiiil piii|Misi' :" |{ ^nU nt' thii 

roiiH (Icchirc ihcinsi'lvcH not to Ih' Cohmy of I'lynionlh, .liiiu' ."i. I(1."i1. 
wiUiiin- filhiT to iiUl tliciu ill thi'ir ' DiuilU'tlcKiiml (iodrlVov niuhcd 



1648, made — at least, on the footing proposed. On the other 

^■""■Y-^ hand, the Iroquois havdng been for six months without 

Snpinoness making any new attempt, th.e Indians once more forgot 

rons. that they had to deal with an enemy against wliom they 

should never cease for a single day to be on their guard. 

In regard to the Hurons, it was not the favilt of their 
missionaries that they were supine ; but these religious, 
imable to persuade their neophytes to adojit, for their own 
preservation, the precautions which pnidence dictated, 
redoubled their exertions to sanctify them and prepare 
them for any event. On this score they were met by per- 
fect docility. They foimd no difficulty in iuspu-ing senti- 
ments most suitable to the sad situation to which they 
reduced themselves by their inconceivable lethargy and 
blindness — unexampled, perhaps, in history. What con- 
soled the pastors was to see them, when necessaiy, faco 
death with a courage which inspired them, in txirn, to die 
as Christian heroes. Father Jogues and Father Daniel 
soon had imitators, who gave the Indian Christians the 
most exalted idea of their zeal and constancy. 
Two Huron On the IGth of March, 1G49, a party of one thousand Iro- 

towns de- 
stroyed by quois fell suddenly, before daybreak; on the town of St. 

Ignatius. It was strongly enough fortified against any In- 


dian attack, but it contained at the time only four hundred 
souls, and no watch was kept. The assailants accordingly 
had no trouble except to set fire to the palisades and mas- 
sacre people, — some asleep, and others not spared time 
enough to understand their position. Only three men 
escaped' to St. Louis, which was not far distant, to give 
the alarm there. 

Boston, but could not alter the dc- 
ciBion adopted by I'lymovitli. Tlu! 
general court refused : Hazard, ii., 
p. 18a. 

' The Iroquois lost only ten in the 
attack : IJelation de hi Nouvelle 
France, 104i), p. 10. For the full 
details of the loss of St. Ignatius 

and St. Louis, boo Relation do la 
Nou\elle France, l()4i), ]>. 17 ; C'reux- 
ius, liistoria Canadensis, p. 5!!7; 
Memoires sur les Vertus, etc., MS ; 
Qobat, Helatio Historicn, )>. 87; Ures- 
sani, Ureve Relnlione, |). 107 ; Tan- 
ner, Societas Militans, p. 53!J ; Uar- 
nior, Lettros, MS. 

' i^ ; 



The women and cliiklren immetliatcly fled to the woods,' 1648. 

and only eighty men remained, resolved to defend tliem- ^■^—^i ' 

selves to the last, and who would have done better to 
reserve themselves for a better 02iportunity. The town 
was, indeed, pretty well intrenched, and tl e flrst ap- 
proaches of the enemy, who came close on the three fugi- 
tives, cost him dear. He was even twice repulsed ; but 
under cover of a heavy fire of musketry, which brought 
down the bravest of the besieged, a division of the L-o- 
quois attacked a point in the paUsade, and effecthig a 
breach, entered the intreuchment, leading on the whole 
force. Then it became a massacre, and all the Hurons 
were soon liors de combat.^ 

They had with them Fathers John de Brebeuf and Fathers do 
Gabriel Lallemant, a nephew of Father Charles and and^LaUe- 
Jerome Lallemant, of whom we have spoken; and they™""""''''"' 
had been i^iable to induce either of them to seek a place 
of safety. Yet it would have been better had they sep- 
arated, and Father de Brebeuf used his authority to 
oblige his companions to follow those who fled ; but the 
recent example of Father Daniel, and the danger in which 
a number of catechumens were of dying uubaptized, made 
both believe that they should not leave them. They 
accordingly took post, one at each extremity of the line of 
attack, always in the most exposed spots, engaged solely 
in baptizing the dy;ng and encoui-agiug the combatants to 
have God only in view. 

At last all the Hurons wCre killed or taken, and the two 
missionaries were in the number of the latter. The vic- 
tors then set fire to the cabins, and returned, with their 
prisoners and all the booty, to St. Ignatius, where they 

' To the number of over five hun- 
dred ; Kclatiou do la Nouv. France, 
1040, p. 11. 

' St. Louis was but one league 
distant : Heliition de la Nouvello 
France, 104t>, p. 10. In the assuiUt, 

thirty Iroquois wore killed and many 
wounded : lb., p. 11. Tht> flames of 
St. Louis were diatiurtly sucn by the 
luissionarics at St. Mary's, which 
was only a league distant : lb. ; 
Creusias, Hist. Canadenais, p. 538. 


1649. had left their provisions and a reserve corps to cover their 
retreat in case of repulse. As the sound of these two 
attacks had drawn a number of Huron warriors to Lhe 
ground, the next two days were spent in skirmishes, the 
issue of which varied greatly, and especially near St. 
Mary's, which was only a league fi-om St. Louis. 

This was a pretty populous town, many Frenchmen 
residing there with the missionaries, and a careful watch 
being always kept. Nevertheless, two himdred Iroquois 
approached on the 17th, to see what face they made ; but, 
advancing somewhat too far, they fell into an ambuscade. 
Many were killed, several taken, and the rest pursued to 
St. Louis, where the main body was encamped. The 
Hurons, ignorant of this, were in turn taken by surprise. 
Wlien they least expected it they found themselves con- 
fronted by eiglit hundred men, and no means of escape 
left. Yet they did not lose heart. They fought all day ; 
and, in spite of the inequahty of numbers, the advantage 
was for a long time on the Huron side. But at last, spent 
with weariness, unable to wield their arms, reduced to a 
handful, and most of them wounded, they were all made 

They were the bravest men of the nation,' and great 
was the consternation at St. Mary's when their defeat 
became known. Fears were even entertained that the 
place could not resist an assault if the enemy attempted 
it ; and the whole of the ensuing day passed in anxiety 
and alarm, the more founded, as the L'oquois were actu- 
ally approaching. To avert the threatened misfortune 
they had recourse to Heaven, and invoked St. Joseph," 


• The Hurons who sallied out 
■were Atinniaoonten or Boars, the 
elite of the Christians of the towns 
of the Conception and Magdulon. 
Their skinnishers in front were 
routed by tlie Iro<iU()is, with loss ; 
but tiiey drove the Inxjuois liehind 
the still standing palisade of St. 

Louis and stormed it, taking thirty 
prisoners, here they intrenched, 
and held it till all were killed or 
taken. Tlie Innjuois lost nearly one 
hundred : Relation de la NouvoUe 
Frano", 104!), p. 13 ; (iohat, Relatio 
Historicn, ]i. 79. 
'' CreujuuB, Hist. Canad., p. 543. 





) the 

I, the 
' St. 


id to 



to a 

t the 

led or 
rly one 


rA-rK/.ii j'OWr! ij-f, aiiiiis.iifj 5. J. 



-wlioso fostivfil occurred on tJio lollowing clay.' Nor were 1649. 

the vows of the afflicted Huppliimts unheard. On tlio '-'^ ' 

morning of tho 10th tidings came tliat tlio Iro(iuois liad 
retreated in disorder, as thougli seiztxl with a panic terror. 
But tho joy inspiied by so sudden a retreat was, ere long, 
changed into mourning, by the afflicting intelligence 
received of the two missionaries who had been taken on 
the loth. 

From St. Ignatius (to which, as already stated, they Fathers da 
were first conducted) they were led back to St. Louis,' and „mu!«'i'io- 
there received as prisoners of war usually are. They 'bu"ued? 
spared them the less, inasmuch as their sentence was 
passed, and it was resolved to carry them no further. 
Father de Brebeuf, whom twenty years of toil well adapted 
to stifle all natural sentiments ; a mental character of a 
firmness beyond proof; a vii-tue nurtured in the ever- 

' Kolation de la N. F., 1049, p. 13 ; 
Uobut, Uelutio Historica, p. 83. 

^ TIitT(! seeniB no authority for 
this. Bressnni (Breve Rclatioiio, ])p. 
10!), 1 10) and Creuxius (liistoria Ca- 
nadonsis, p. ,038) say they died at 
St. Ignatius. Father Charles Oar- 
nier, in a letter of April 25, 1049, 
ways the Iroquois took the mission- 
aries to their fort, a league or so 
from St. Louis. The hodies of tho 
missionaries were carried to St. 
Mary's Iiy Francis Malherhe, after- 
wards a .Jesuit lay brother : C'otem- 
iwrary I ircular in Rapport sur les 
Missions du Diocese do Quebec, No. 
17, p. .53. Tliey were buried on 
Sunday, the 21st of March : Rela- 
tion, KilO, p. 15; Gobat, Relatio 
Historica, p. 114. Their remains 
were subsequently removed to Que- 
bec ; anil the head of Father Bre- 
beuf, incased in a silver bust, is still 
preserved ut the Hotel Dieu in that 
city, and doubtless a ]iortruit, as it 
is said to have been sent by his fam- 
ily. The engraving is from a care- 

ful sketch of this bust, made by thf 
Rev. Felix Martin, S. J. John do 
Brebeuf— called by the Hurons 
ErJwn — was born at Bayeux, in 
Normandy, March 25, 1503, of a 
noble family. He entered the So- 
ciety of Jesus at Rouen. Oct. ,5, 1617, 
and was ordained in 1022. He camo 
to Canada Juiuj 19, 1025, and was 
on the Huron mission from l(i2D to 
1029, from 1034 to 1041, and from 
1041 to his death. He wrote a Hu- 
ron catechism (published si^parately 
and in Chaini)lain), a Huron gram- 
mar, two Relations, and lette-rs pub- 
lished in Carayon, Doc. Im'dits, vol. 
xii. For his life, gco Alegambe, Tan- 
ner, Societas Militans, p. 533 ; Bres- 
sani, Breve Relatione, p. 107 ; Rel. 
do la Nouvelle France, 1049, p. 17; 
Uobat, Relatio Historica, p. 128 ; also 
a manuscript of 1052, " Memoires 
touchant les Vertus des Peres do 
None, Jogues, Daniel, Brebeuf, Lalle- 
mant, (iarnier, et Clmbanel.'' Thero 
is an unpublished life by Father 
F(<lix Martin. 


• < 


proximate view of a cniol doatli, and carried ho far as to 
make it tlio object of his most ardent desires ; warned, 
moreover, by more tluvu ouo lieavenly token that his vows 
were heard, hiuglied alike at their threats and the tortiiro 
itself : but the sight of his beloved neophytes, cruelly 
treated before his eyes, shed deep biitoruess over the joy 
■which he felt on seeuig liis hopes realized.' 

His companion, who had but just entered the apostolio 
career — to which he brought more coui'age than strength, 
and who was of a sensitive and delicate constitution — was 
especially, to his last sigh, a great subject of grief and 
anxiety to Father de Brebeuf. The Iroquois knew well, 
at once, that they had to deal with a man who would 
not gratify them by the least exhibition of weakness ; and 
as though ftjarful that he would impart his iutrei^idity 
to others, they, after a time, separatetl him from the mass 
of prisoners, made him ascend a scaflbld alone, and fell 
upon him in such a manner that they seemed beside them- 
selves with rage and despair. 

All this did not prevent the servant of God from speak- 
ing in a loud voice — sometimes co the Hurons, who no 
longer saw, though they heard him ; sometimes to his tor- 
turers, whom ho exhorted to fear the wrath of Heaven, if 
they continued to persecute the adorers of the true God. 
This liberty astonished the savages, and they were shocked 
by it, accustomed as they were to endure the bravado of 
their prisoners on similar occasions. They wished to 
silence him, and failing, cut off his lower lip and the ex- 
tremity of his nose, applied burning torches all over his 
body, burnt his gums, and finally ran a red-hot iron down 
his throat.' 

The invincible missionary, seeing himself deprived of 

' Relation de la Nouvollo France, 
1G49, p. 15 ; Mcmoiro toiu^hant los 
vurtiia dcs Pt'res do None, etc., MS. ; 
Qobat, Narrntio ilistoricn, p. 87. 

* Uelntiim de la Nouvellc Fmnco, 

1649, pp. 14, 15 ; Creuxius, Historia 
Canadensis, p. 539 ; Gobat, Rclatio 
Historica, p. 103. But there is no 
allu.«inn to the hot iron being thrust 
down Ills throat. 



speech by this lust stroke, lunintaiuocl an assiuotl couuto- 
nauce, aud so firm a look, that he still seemed to give the 
law to his euemies. A momeut after, his compauiou was 
brought to him iu a state eapable of moving a heart Hko 
his, as tender and compassionate for others' ills as ho was 
insensible to his own. The young religious had been first 
stripped naked, and then, after being tortured for a time, 
had been wrapped from head to foot iu fir-bark, to which 
they now prepared to set fire. 

As soon as ho perceived the frightful condition to .r'hich 
Father de Brebcuf had been reduced, ho shuddered, then 
addressed him in the words of the apostle : " Wo have 
been made a spectacle to the world, to angels and to men" 
(1 Col. iv. 9). Father do Brebcuf rophcd by a gentle 
inclination of the head ; aud at that moment Father Lal- 
lemant, finding himself alone, ran to throw himself at his 
feet, respectfully kissed his wounds, and conjured him to 
redouble his prayers to the Almighty, iu order to obtain 
for him patience aud faith, which, as he added with much 
confusion, he saw every moment at the point of escaping 
him. He was instantly seized again, and fire applied to 
the bark with wliich he was covered.' 

His executioners stopped for a time to enjoy the pleas- 
ure of seeing him buru slowly, and hear the sighs and 
groans which ho could not help uttering. Then they left 
him for a season to heat hatchets red-hot, and making 
them into a collar, placed them on the neck of Father de 
Brebeuf. But this new torture did not shake the holy 
martyr's constancy more than the others had done ; aud 
as the savages sought some now torment, to endeavor to 
crush a courage which maddened them, an apostate Huron 
cried out to pour boiling water on the heads of the two 


' T!otU were envolopcd in bark, 
which was set on firo : Kelation, 
ICIU, p. 14; Oeii ins, Historia Cu- 
nadeut^is, pp. 530, 540. Some of the 
duUdltt huri! givon as to Father Lule- 

mant do not appear in the Rolations. 
Tho nt'WB of the dcatli of Daniel, 
Brebeuf, and ijalcniant readied Quo- 
bee, July 20. 1U40 : Journal of the 

I r 


1649. nussiouarics, iu puuiHhment for casting rold wntor ou tho 
licads of otluTH, ami tlieroby causing all tho miseiios of 
Lis nation. Tho Irociuois i"lishit 1 tho ronnsel. "Water 
was hoatod, a)id .slowly pourod over the heads of the two 
confessors of Christ. 

Meanwhile, the dense smoko which rose from tho bark 
iu which Father Lallemaut was wrapped filh)d his mouth, 
and for a time he was unable to articulate a single word. 
His bonds being consumed, ho j'aised hi.s hands to heaven, 
to implore the help of Him who is tho strength of tho 
weak ; but they beat his hands down again with heavy 
blows of ropes. At last, when the two bodies weie all one 
wound, this Hi>ectacle, far from horrifying tho Iroquois, 
only put them in a good humor. They said to one an- 
other that tho flesh of tho French must be good, and they 
slashed ofl' largo slices from both and ate them. Then 
adding mockery to cruelty, they said to Father do 13ro- 
beuf : " You assured us, but a moment smce, that the 
more we suflfer on earth tho more happy wo shall be in 
heaven. Out of friendship for you wo study to im • se 
your sufferings, and you will be indebted to us for it. 

Some moments alter they took off his scalp, and, as he 
still breathed, a ch.'ef opened his side ; and as tho blood 
welled copiously out, all tho savages ran up to drink it. 
Then the same one who laid him open, seeing the heart, 
tore it out smd devoured it. 

Father do ]^rebeuf was of the diocese of Bayeux, and 
uncle to the t.auslator of Lucan's Pharsalia. Ho was of 
commanding stature, and, notwithstanding his extreme 
abstinence and twenty years of a most pauiful apostleship, 
he was quite corpulent. His life was a constant heroism ; 
his death, tho astonishment of his very executioners.' 

As soon as he had cxijired, Father Lallemant was 
led back to the cabin where his martyrdom had com- 

' Relation de la Nouvolle France, '■* Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1640, p. 14. 1040, p. 25. 



moticcd.' It is not oven certain wlictlicr ho ronminod near 
Fatlior do Brtibcnf till the latter breathed his last sigh. Ho 
had been brought there only to weaken his companion and 
bend, if possible, that hero's courage. It is, at least, 
authenticii'.ed by tho testimony of several Iroquois, who 
wore actors in that tragic scene, that Father do Brebeuf 
(lied on the Ifith, and was only three hours at the stake ; 
wliile the torture of Father Lalleniaut lasted seventeen 
hours, BO that ho died only on the 17th. 

Bo that as it may, as soon as ho ro-outored his cabin, 
ho received a hatchet-stroko under tho hit ear, which 
clove open his skull and dashed out his brains. An eye 
was then plucked out, and a burning coal put in its stead. 

This is all that is known of what ho underwent till he 
expu-ed- :ill v/ho witnessed his death contenting them- 
selves with saying that his oxeeutioners outdid each other 
in cruelty. They added, that fi'om time to time he uttered 
shrieks capable of piercing tho hardest hearts, and that 
ho sometimes seemed besido himself ; but that ho was 
instantly seen to rise above pain, and offer ins sufferings 
to God Avith admirable fervor. Thus tho ilesh was often 
weak, and ready to yield ; but the spirit was ever ready to 
raise it up, and sustained it to tho end." 

Father Lallemiint was a native of Paris, where both his 
father and grandfather had held tho office of lieutenant- 
crimiuel. He was extremely thin, and had only been six 
mouths in New Franco. Ho died in his thii'ty-niuth 

' Tho Kelation has nothing of 

' Rulation dc hi Nnuvcllc France, 
l(i4i) ip. K>\ and (Julmt (Hclntio IIU- 
torica, iip. lOti-l'J) say both oycs. 
They describe the bodies as found, 
which gave tlie bi sit tentimony of 
the cruelties pniclLseil. 

' Fatlier (iiiiiiirl I,aleiniuit was 
born Oct. ;!1, Kill), lie entered tlio 
Society of .lesiiB, March 24, 1U130, 

Vol. II.— 15 


nonlli of 



and followed his uncles to Canada. 
III! arrived at Quebec, Sept. 20, 
104(i, but was on tlie Huron niisHion 
only I'nini Aiip;. (>, KilS: Journal of 
Superior of .Jesuits, .July and August, 
1048. His Indian name was Ati- 
ronto. He signed liis name both 
I.aleniant and Ijalenunt, although 
till' other nieiubefs of the family 
used the first furni. 'Phut of Charle- 
voix (Lullemant) has no authority. 






1649. After surli Hcvoro chrcks, tin' Hiuihih iittcrly tltHimirnl 

^"^"y^^ of luMiig a\)\o to hold tliiir f,'niiiii(l ; iiiid in Ichh tlmii a 

Dl.pomion week all tlio towns aniuud St. Pliny's wcic (IcMcrtoil.' Of 
ortiio . ... 

HuroM. nioHt tlu'i't) rciiiiiintil only lli(> site winch the} Imil occu- 

l)ii'(l, the inluiliitants having fired thcni aH thoy rotroatcd, 

Bonio to the forcMtH, others to the neighlioriiig tribes. Ah 

those who remained at St. Mary's (liirst not (^o out, 

beeause they had no doubt but that the [nxjuois still kept 

the field, famine was soon felt in tho town, and there was 

no apparent lueaim of a speedy remedy. This gave tho 

missionaries the idea of gathering the scattered reninanta 

of the nation in some (juito remoto sjiot, that they might 

live exempt from fear of being disturbed there by an 

enemy whom they were no longer in u position to resist.' 

Mont rotlro Thev proposed Manitoidino Island, which lies north of 

to St. .lo- J I I _ _ ' 

scph'H liil- Lake Huron. This island is about forty leagues long from 

east to west, but very narrow across. The shores abound 

in fish ; the soil in many \)Ioces -cry good ; and as it was 
not inhabited, it contained an innnense cpumtity of deer. 
Still the missionaries' jiroposition was not received, for 
tho Hurons could not bring themselves to so distant an 
exile from their country, which they were loth to abandon, 
though without courage to defend ; and tho missionaries 
were obliged to yield to their wishes and follow them to 
St. Jo.scph's Island, which is but a short distance from 
tlic mainland where they were.' 

This transmigration took ^ilace on the 25tli of May ;* and 
in a short time there voho on this little island a town of a 
hundred cabins — some of eight, others of ten, fires — with- 
out counting a very groat niunber of families scattered in 

' St. Mary'B wm situated on tho 
River Wyo, near Pcnctanguislieno : 
Martin's JJicsHiiiii, p. i)0. 

' iiri'Bsani. Bri'vi- Hclntioms p. 
123 ; IJcIiitio.^ •'.!■ la Nmivi'llc Franco, 
l'i4!», !).•,>.") ; Golmt, IM. llif-t., \>. U)[). 

' Uol'itiim dp lu Noiivcllo I'Vanrc, 
1C49, 11.27; Creuxiuw, lliatoria C"a- 

nadonsis, p. 667 ; flobat, Relatio 
U Ktiirica, p. 113. ('hutiiiKinot, in 
lii.s letter of June 1, 104U, ti'xws tho 
Indian unme, AhHi^ndoc. According 
to Rev. r. Mariin. it is the prcHent 
Clmrity or Cliristian Island, near 
' May l.j : Rcl. do X. F,, 1049, p. 30. 



tlio nni^hltorhood niul iiloiiR tlio Hlioro, for gi-outor cast) in 1649. 
hunting ami fishing.' TIh» Huninior woro awny peiii'cfully ^■^^r— 
cnoi'gli ; fervor grow up iiinid tliJH tnuisiilant li (.'hristiivn 'rimirfcr. 
Hock ; and tho niissionarii'H liad tlio i-onwolatio.' of baptiz- 
ing RH many aH tiirco tliousand idoIatcrH. iJiit ns tlioy 
planted littlo or nothing, an tlm fiHliory was unproductivo, 
and tlio rcsoureos of the chaHo soon oxhauHtod, tlu^y had 
not gone far into the autumn before jinvisitmH began to fail. 
They w»a-e Hoon after reiliieed to extremities wliieh horrify 
U8. It is enough to mention that they were driven to dis- 
inter half-docayed bodies, to devour them ; that mothers 
nto the baboH that starved to death on tlioir breasts ; and 
children did not shrink from feeding on tho bodies of 
those to whom they owed their being.' 

A famine, productive of such terrible scenes, could not 
but entail great diseases. In fact, maladies broke out of 
a contagious eharaeter, and tho more d«>structivo among 
people who cauuut control themselves sufhciently to avoid 
contagion. But it was amid this very desolation that tho 
evangelical laborers gathered tho most precious fruits of 
their labors. All these scourges and horrors of death 
ever before their eyes, found among tho Christi ms only 
submissive hearts. There was not ono of these neophytes 
who wavered tho least in tho most perfect resignation to 
tho orders of Heaven — who did not kiss with respect, 
and even with thanksgiving, the hand that smoto him.' 

These are the virtues to which tho Indians are most 
inclined by their oalm and patient character. Their natu- 
ral sloth and indolence dim somewhat tho lustre, and they 

' On Iciiviiif!; St. Miiry'a, Juno M, 
1(>40 (Hfliition, Kino, p. ;)). the niis- 
Klnnnries Kut fire to nil tlieir luisHidti- 
buil(linf;s, tutally dcRtroying tho 
fruit of tluiir lonj; lubom of nino or 
ton years : Cniixiiis, Hixtoria Ciiim- 
d<'n8is, p. 557 ; HolntiDn ilo In Nou- 
vello France, 101!), p. 30 ; l(i50, p. 2. 

' Relation, KioO, p. 4 ; ("iirnyon. 
Documents Ineclits, p. 848 ; Creux- 

iii8, HiNtorin CanadensiH, p. 5G0 ; 
Hressani, Urevo Holatione, p. 124. 
lM>r an aceount of tho KutVerinijs, 
seo also Chaumonot, Autobiogro- 
j)hie, \)\i. 02-4. 

■' Kelatidii, 1050, p. 4; Ih'issani, 
Hreve Hektione, p. 125 ; ('arayon, 
Documenta Inedits, xii., p. 240 j 
Cieuxius, lliBtoria Canadunsis, p. 



f I 


1649. aro perhaps tlie only Cluistiaiis to -wliom it conlJ be said, 
^■"■~Y-~-' " Do for self-iircscrvation what you arc doing for tlio sal- 
vation of your soids." Tct it is soiiie-vvhat marvellous to 
see mcu, just fresh from their old prejudices against Chris- 
tianity, not relapsing into them on an occasion so apt to 
throw them back ; and their faith must have been solid 
indeed to stand unshaken amid so many disasters, which 
the enemies of the gospel never failed to ascribe to its 
En8hnp.8of To crown their misfortunes, it was heard that threj 
of St. I'ohn. hundred Iroquois were in the field; and as it was dlu 
known m which direction they would turn their arms, tho 
sachems of the nation sent in all directions to warn tho 
people to be on their guard. This advice especially 
regarded the Tiounontatez Hurons,' who, after the evacu- 
ation of St. Marj-'s, were most exposed to tho incursions 
of tho enemj'. Th'jir canton was one of the most popu- 
lous, the single town which bore tho name of St. John 
containing more than six hundred families. The enter- 
prise of the three hundred Iroquois war, there regarded as 
a bravado ; and to show that they did not fear them, 
all who could carry arms took the field in search of them. 
The enemy, soon informed of this imprudent step, re- 
solved to take advantage of it. Adopting a false route, 
they advanced by a circuitous march, and arrived in sight 
of St. John's at daybreak." Father Charles Garnier and 
Father NataUs Chabanel had for some time directed a 

' This tribe, the Tionoutates — or, 
ns our early writers give it, Dinon- 
(Iftdies — were not ralk\l Ilurons l)y 
tlie early French. Snjrard, iu his Dic- 
tidiiary (verlio ^(Uionii) gives them 
as a distinrt nation, " Les Petunonx, 
Quieunontati'rononb." boo also Ilis- 
t(.ire du Cumidii, !>. 209. Their 
country lay i' ilienKnintiiin8((?»(V«- 
iiontiiui'' meiins )iiiniiil<iiii), on the 
B.jores of Lake Huron, tliirty-tive or 
forty miles from St. Mary's : Bres- 

sani, Brevo Relatione, p. 6. Thoy 
raised and sold tobacco, whence tho 
French called them Petuns or Petu- 
neux. Tliei r t wo were, Ekaren- 
niondi or St. Malhias, and Oliarita or 
St. John the Evangelist : Letter of 
Father C. (Jaruier, Aug. 15, 1048. 

' Creuxins (llistoria t"auad("nsis, 
p. rAU) says that the attack was 
made towards evening. lirc-^saiii 
(linve Kelationo, )i. Ill) and tho 
Itelation do la Jsoiivelle Franco, 



Humorous Cliristian congregation tliero ; but two clays 
before, tlio latter had been called elsewhere, and Father 
Garnier remained alone. He was actually visiting 
cabins, wlien the Iroquois raised the warwhoop. 


the Their town 
f^ . isdoKtnivod 

beemg i,y Uic I'ro. 

at a glance that all was lost, he first ran to the chapel, ''""'"■ 
which he found full of panic-stricken Christians. He told 
these that there was no safety except in flight. Ho ex- 
horted them to lose no time in bootless deUberation or 
unavailing tears. He said that he would himself go and 
die to faciUtate their escape, and that as long as ho had a 
breath of life he would not abandon those Avho should 
need his ministry ; and he begged them never to forget 
the lessons he had given them.' 

He immediately went out and returned to. the cabins. Heroic 
some of which were already o-. fire. He baptized all tlie Fiuher'("L 
catechumens whom he met, and at last reached the open "'"''• 
square, where naught but dead and Avounded were to be 
seen. Some implored him to retire, but this counsel ho 
utterly rejected. He remained amid the carnage, animat- 
ing his beloved neophytes by his presence and words to 
die well. The Iroquois seemed for a time to admire and 
respect him ; Init at last one of the savages discharged his 
musket at him. One ball entered the lower part of his 
chest ; the other, grazmg the belly, sank into his thigh. 
He at once fell senseless, and his nnirderer, believing 
him dead, stripped him. Eecovering .some time after, and 
hearing no one near, he raised his head ; and perceiving, 
some ten paces from him, a Huron who was breatliing his 
last, he made an efibrt to rise and go to absolve liim, but 
he feu instantly. Again he rose, but he was unable to 
take a step ; and at that moment an Iroquois ran up, who 
twice sank his tomahawk into his vitals, and he expired 
on the spot, in the act, and, so to say, on tho very bosom, 
of charity.' 

1050 (p. 8; muke tlic error of t]u: Po- Crcuxius, Hist, ("nniid., ji. 5(!.t ; Bretj. 
tuns to liovo b('(>n in not waiting. sani, Bievo Rcliitiono, ji. 114. 

• Relation de la N. F., 1050, p. 9 ; ' Relation do la Nouvollo France, 





Death of 



. I 

Father Garnier was a native of Paris, and to enter the 
ajTOstolic career had sacrificed a brilliant fortune, resisting 
the tears of hid family, who loved him tenderly. He made 
this sacrifice too generously not to merit from God the 
grace of consummating it in the most heroic manner.' 

Father Chabanel had been, as wo liavo seen, recalled 
from St. John's two days before the desolation of that 
town, the motive of his recall being that the Superior did 
not wish to have two missionaries at the same time iu a 
place so exposed as that to the inroads of the Iroquois. 
But they were both equally ripe for heaven ; and if one, 
by obedience, escaped the steel of the Iroquois, this very 
obedience obtained for him death in another form, which, 
while it possessed less lustre in the eyes of men, was per- 
haps none the less precious before Him who judges accord- 
ing to the dispositions of our heart, and who accounts no 
less what Ave have ciesired to do for his sake than what we 
really accomplish and suffer. 

Father Chabanel left St. John's on the 6th or 6tli of 
Decembe", accompanied by some Chvistions. The night 
that followed Father Garnier's death surprised them in a 
wood ; and all his fellow-travellers having fallen asleep, 
he heard the yells of Iroquois and the death-song of 
Huron prisoners. Ho awakened his party, who needed no 
second counsel to escape. He atti'mi)tud to follow them, 
but not being as fleet of foot, soon lost sight of them ; and 
from that time it was never known absolutely what 
became of him. Some time after, a Huron apostate said 
that he had met him on the bank of a river, which he 
helped him to cross, and that they then parted ;"but there 
were subsequently many gi'ounds for suspecting the wretch 

1650, p. 9 ; Creuxius, Historia Cana- 
densis, p. 505 ; Cuiayon, Doc. Iiif'd., 
xii., p. 248 ; Mcmoires, otc, p. 247. 

' Fatlicr ( 'Imrlcs ( inmii'r was born 
at Paris, in I (!()."), of a (Jistin;r"rj'mil 
and oininontly pious fdmll.-, several 

of the members having entered re- 
ligious orders. After a holy youth, 
he entered the Society of Jesus, 
Sept. r', 1C24, and thrcniglioul Ida 
ili'o seems to have imi)ressed aliko 
the cultivated white man and the 




of having killed him, either to secure his effects, or out 

of mere hatred to religion.* ^ ^-y—-^ 

While the Iroquois were thus desolating the Huron Somoiiu- 
church, a new storm, excited by Hurons themselves, had '"spiro"" 
well-nigh swept away the remaining pastors, and with "fi'itsloi'i*!* 
them all hope of any restoration of Christianity. Idolaters *""*■ 
of that nation, which still formed the majority in a town 
to which the missionaries had given the name of St, 
Matthew, concluding that the only means of putting an 
end to their misfortunes was to rid themselves of the 
preachers of the gospel, resolved on the step. The better 
to carry out their design, they undertook to bring Chris- 
tians into it, and with this view declared that they had 
seen belts, sent by the governor-general of the French to 
the Iroquois cantons, to urge them to drive the Hurons to 
extremity— assuring them that the missionaries who were 
among them would deUver the Hurons up into their 

After what had occurred, the calumny had not even a 
show of probability. But is this always required of 

untutored Indian with a sense of 
his more than ordinnry holiness. 
After his arrival in Canada, in KiSO, 
he was at oneo sent to Upper Cana- 
da, and spent all the rest of his lil'o 
on the Huron mission, entirely dis- 
engaged from earthly things, and 
devoted to his great work : Creux- 
iuB, Ilistoria Canadensis, pp. 5C7-73 ; 
Bressani, Breve Relatione, p. 114; 
Relation de la Nouvelle France, 
1C50, pp. 9 15 ; Tanner, Societas 
Militans, p. 539 ; Memoiies sur les 
Vertus, MS. ; Lettres Ini'(lit(>.s du P. 
Charles Qarnier, MS. ; Alegambe, 
Heroes, p. 059 ; Drews' Fasti, iv., p. 
295 ; Chaiinionot, Autobiograpliie ; 
Eulogium P. C. Unrnier, 1(M9, MS. ; 
Ragueiieau, Vie de la M. Catherine 
de St. Augustin, p. 54. His Indian 
name was Oaracha. 

' This missionary was, as subse- 
quently proved, killed by Louis 
Honareenhax, a Huron opostate : 
Ragueneau, Menioires gar Ics Ver- 
tus, etc. Father NiUalis Chahanel 
was a native of the south of Franco, 
born in 1013. He entered the So- 
ciety of Jesus at t\u', age; of seven- 
teen. He was sent to Canada in 
1043, and labored among II iirnns and 
Algonquins — nvcrconiing an intense 
repuirnanco to the Indiau.s and tlieir 
life : Relation do la Nauv. France, 
1050, p. 10 ; Creuxius, Ilistoria Ca- 
nadensis, pp. 573-8 ; Bressani, Breve 
Relatione, p. 115 ; Martin's edition, 
]). !J75 ; Ragueneau, Vie de la M. 
Catlierino de St. Augustin, p. 54. 

' Relation d(; la Nouvelle Franco, 
1050, p. 19 ; Creuxius, Ilistoria Ca- 
nadimsis, p. 580. 




Tho firm- 
ness of two 
oftlio i\\- 
tbuir mcn- 

Einsulnr iii- 


ol I'rovi- 

deiioe in 




calumniators before crediting tlieir words' And have 
tho most polished nations a right to reproach savages on 
this point ? There is, then, no very great reason to 
wonder that these words made an impression on people 
who no longer knew to what to ascribe the misfortunes 
that overwhelmed them. Moreover, those who circulated 
tho reports took care to cloak their design with a coloring 
of zeal for the pubUc good ; and in fact, they asked of 
those whom they seduced only not to oppose them. 

A few days after, two missionaries' arriveJ at St. 
Matthew, and on entering the village were much surprised 
to hear the cries usually made when prisoners were 
brought in. They kept, however, an unmoved coimte- 
nance, and • oiie durst lay hands on them. The conspira- 
tors contented themselves with hooting, which the mis- 
sionaries despised. They visited all the cabins, and heard 
aU that had been said about them. They saw the great- 
ness of the peril in which they were, but betrayed no 
alarm. This assurance, and the conviction felt by many 
that the God of the Christians had bound the hands of 
thoir enemies, opened tho eyes of the most prejudiced, 
and before tho close of the day no less than seventeen 
sought baptism.' 

From time to time. Heaven gave striking manifestations 
of visible protection over the pastors and theii' flocks. A 
Huron, taken in battle, was on the point of being bound 
to the stake, to be burned. He fervently asked God to be 
dehvered from that terrible form of -death, and his prayer 
was instantly heard. He was unbound, and his life 
spared, to the great astonishment of all. Even those 
who spared him could not explain why they had done so.' 

A good old woman of St. Joseph's Island — who, of all 
the prayers that they had endeavored to teach her, had 

' Father Leonard Garreau and Fa- ' Relation, 1 050, p. 20. The seven- 

thor Adriiin (irelon. Tho Inttorsub- teen woro not l)!ii)ti7,(!d the first day. 

Boqiu'ntly, in Cliina, met one of his The miMio.mrics were not so rnpid. 

old llurun liock; Journul, p. 00. ' Peter Outoiire ; Rel., 1050, p. 21. 

\ i 



been able to retain only tlicse words, " Jesixs, have mercy 1650. 
on me'" — while sailing on Lake Huror, was overtaken by '■""~y^-' 
such intense cold, that all who accompanied her died. 
She said her ordinary prayer with all the fervor of her 
heart ; and she afterwards declared, that every time she 
repeated it, a sensible warmth animated her, which lasted 
till relief came. If this result is not attributed to a 
miracle, we must recognize in it a fervor of mind strong 
enough to act on the senses, which is one of the great 
marvels of grace.' 

Famine, and sickness, its inevitable sequent, had driven New mis- 
this woman and many others, persons oi every age and tho Uurona. 
sex, to leave St. Joseph's Isle in midwinter. They sup- 
posed the ice strong enough to bear them ; but it broke 
under them, drowning many, while others perished of 
cold. Several other bands took refuge in out-of-the-way 
places, where they thought they would be secure against 
the pursuit of the Iroquois ; biit these savages discovered 
their retreat, and committed a fearful carnage among 
those wretched people, who, happily for them, had not 
left their island without putting in order the affairs of 
their conscience.' 

Those who remained at St. Joseph's, not amounting to 
three hundred in number, learning tho sad fate of their 
brethren, had no doubt but that the Iroquois would attack 
them Avithout delay ; and after holding many councils on 
their best course to adopt in order to avoid the same fate, 
they came to this conclusion. The most imjjortant men 
went to Father Eaguoneau, who then governed the mis- 
sion, and told him that in the deplorable state to which 
they were reduced they could see but one single means t 
preventing the total ruin of their nation.* This was, that 

' Jesous tftitonr. p. 579 ; Rap;uoiioau, Lrttcr of Mnrcli 

' Relation do la Nouvello Franco, 13, 10/iO, iu Ciirayou, xii., p. 202. 

1050, p. 2;S. * H<Oation de I'u \. F., 1050, p. 24 ; 

' Relation tie la Nouvellt; France, Rrcssani, Bicve Relatione, p. 125 ; 

1050, p. 24 ; Crouxius, Hist. Canad., Creuxius, Hist. Canadensis, p. 584. 

Many de- 
seciiii to 





1650. tho Fathers slioulil pvit tlicmsclvos at tliou' head, iinito all 
""~f"~^ the dispersed Hurous who could bo got together, and lead 
EmiKrntr to them to Quebec, where, under tho jirotcction of the French 
fort, and of their father, Ouonthio, they could peacefully 
cultivate the lands that might bo assigned to them, and 
where they would only think of employing in God's service 
the days that were spared to them.' 

Before replying. Father Eagueneau wished to consult 
the other missionaries who wore in the neighborhood, and 
all agreed with the Indians. This seemed, in fact, the 
only resource left to this ill-starred peojilo. All the comi- 
try was in the utmost consternation. Nothing was to be 
seen but towns destroyed or abandoned, already begin- 
ing to swarm with wild beasts, whoso ^ilaco in the forests 
and mountains the men, women, and children had gone to 
occupy. There was not, indeed, a moment to lose, if they 
wished to save the sad remnants of a nation once so flour- 

They accordingly began their march* without further 
deliberation, and without very well knowing how to livo 
by tho way ; but famine stared them equally in the face if 
they remained in tho island or the woods. The danger, 
too, of falling into the hands of some Iroquois party was 
equally great ; for it is true that the smallest force of war- 
riors would have sufficed to cut to pieces all this confused 
multitude, panic-stricken and reduced, by hardships and 
disease, to extreme weakness. They chose the route by 
tho great river of the Outouais ; and although fi-esh trails 
of Iroquois were met day by day,^ they were so fortunate 
as to escape being discovered by those savages. About 
midway those poor exiles met Father Bressani, who, 

' Relation do la Nouvcllo Franco, 
1650, 1). 24; Creuxius, Ilistoria Cor 
nadcnsis, p. hSo ; Bressani, Breve 
Rclntl<)iio,^|). 1313. 

^ lit'liitiim do lii Nouvelle France, 
1050, p. 25 ; Cri'usius, Uistoria Car 
uadeusis, p. 586. 

3 They left St. Joseph's Island, 
June 10, 1050— Bressani (Breve Re- 
latione) myn, in May. They reached. 
Quel)ec, July 28, 1050 : Relation de 
la Nouvelle France, 1050, p. 28. 

■* The country was almost a des- 
ert : Relation, 1050, p. 20. 



Deiilh of 

having wintered at Quebec, wus returning, pretty well 1650. 
atteniled, to hia old mission, utterly unconscious of its 

Ho had been escorted for some distance by forty 
Frenchmen, but a few days after the departure of ihn 
escort, had been surprised at night by ten Iroquois. 
Atironta, a famous Huron chief, a brave man and a good 
Christian, was killed on the spot, and the missionary 
received three arrow wounds while ho was running around 
to rouse his party ; but the Iroquois having been tardy in 
effecting their retreat, were at once surrounded, six of 
thorn killed, two taken, and two escaped. The Hurons, 
who lost seven of their party, continued their march, 
mortified to have been thus surprised by a handful of ad- 

They were still more alarmed when they learned the How they 
desolation of the country. They saw that their best Ztl\aX 
course was to retrace their steps with the other party, 
and so they did. They all arrived together at Montreal, 
where nothing was forgotten to retain them ; but they did 
not deem themselves secure enough there, and, after two 
days' rest, re-embarked, and reached Quebec on the 28th 
of July, 1650. Mr. d'Aillebout gave them a cordial wel- 
come ; but there were so few persons of means in the 
colony, that after the communities and some of the chief 
men of the town had undertaken to support a number of 
families, in proportion to theu- ability, there rcimained 
more than two hundred souls, with no resource but Provi- 
dence. Nor did Providence fail them. They subsisted, 
for a long time, without its being possible to conceive what 
enabled them to .subsist." 

' Relation do la NouvcUo Prance, 20 ; Cre'ixiijg, Hist. Caniul., p. nS8 ; 

1050, p. 27 ; C'rouxiua, Hist. Cimad., liflmnnt, Histoii-c dii Canada, p. T). 
p. fiST; Ragiiciicau, Vie do In M. ■■ Heloiiou di' la Nouvcllc France, 

Catherino do St Aiigu.stin, ]> 54. ]()50, p. 2S : Crcuxius, llistoria Car- 

^ Tlio escort did net leave Brcs- ni'.'lcnsi.s p. 58!) : Juclu'roau, His- 

sani : Martin's lircssani, \>. U ; l{cla- t(/iro de lUotil Diou, p. 7i) ; Los Ur- 

tion de la Nouvello France, 1050, p. sulinos de Quebec, i., p. 143. 





The fato of those who could not brhig tliomsolvos to 
abautlou thek uativo hiiul was vory sad. Some throw 
Tiio fato of themsolvos iuto tlio hauda of uoif,'hbonng natious, on 
whom they aoou drew the arms of the Iroquois.' Others 
wout towards the Eughsh, and settled iu what is now 
called Po'msylvani ' A large party, drawu by the Iro- 
quois iu; .1 ' .dead'), under pretext of treating with 
them, de. • i... tiO perfidy of those savages, met strata- 
gem by a *!!'!:■;; which succeeded. They surprised 
those who ex^j jted tc V -'o them by surprise, killed mauy, 
then went and encamped v. n Mauitoualin Island, whence, 
soon after, they descended to Quebec, to join their coun- 
1650-1. Almost all the inhabitants of the two towns of St. 
Michael and St. John the Baptist took a very perilous 
course, which was, nevertheless, attended with success. 
They voluntarily i)resentcd themselves to the Iroquois, 
offered to live with them, and were well received.* At last 
the enemy, kno\\ing that many were wandering up and 
down, unable to settle anywhere, set the young men after 
them. Almost all were taken. No quarter was given. 
And to show how far the terror of the Iroquois name 
had seized all the nation, not only the Huron country, 
but also the whole course of the Ottawa Eiver, which 
had been so thickly peopled a few years before, ^vero 
almost entirely deserted, without its being possible to 
say what had become of most of the people.' 

At least the Hurons who had taken refuge at Quebec 
would, it was hoped, be beyond the reach of the miseries 

1 r, 
1. t- 

^ ', ' 

' These were the Attiwandaronk 
or Neuters : Creuxius, p. 58C ; de- 
lation (It? la Nouv. France, lOol, p. 4. 

'' Anionic till- SuKiiucliaiinaa or An- 
dastcH, later known ua Conestogas : 
Creuxiu!*, p. .j'.JO ; IJeliitiou do la 
Nouvelle France, 1051, j). 4. ^ 

■' 'I'liiti imrty was led by Stephen 
ABnaotaLa : Kelatiim de la Nouvellu 

France, 1051, p. 5 ; Creuxius, Histo- 
ria Canatlonsiw, p. 590. 

■* Kphiiion, 1051, p. 4 ; Creuxius, 
HiHt. Cnna<l., p. 5iJ0. Those formed 
the nation. Their town, in the Sen- 
eca Cduntiy, WHS (iandouuanie. 

' Relation, 1051, p. 5. The Ni|)is- 
sings were nearly destroyed ; Rela- 
tion, 1050, p. !iO. 




Tho Hu- 

T' rwnr 


Uu ... 

wliich overwholmed tho otbors. Nothing was apparently 1650-1 
easier tlian to put tlioin in a condition to have tho noccs- ^^^ — 
Bitioa of life witliout becoming a bunhni to tho colony, 
which might in time have drawn some udvajitiige frt)m 
them ; and Father Jerome Lallcmant, tho superior-general 
of tho missionH, went to Franco' exju'esHly to consult tho 
directors of tho Cauadn Company in regard to their case. 
Ho warmly represented tho importance of not allowing so 
many Christiana to perish, after they had thr(;wu them- 
selves into our bosom ; tho facility of providing for their 
support ; and the advantage to bo derived, both for the 
increase of trade and the defence of tho colony. 

He spoko in vain. None listened. The consequence 
■was that, as we shall soon see, tho French colony fell into 
such contempt, that for several years tho Irorpiois acquirou 
tho same ascendency over them that we had allowed them 
to assume over our allies. The latter, en their side, actfi » 
badly. A vertigo seemed to seize these Indians. Nc 
sooner were they beneath tho guns of Quebec than thoy 
passed at a bound from tho depths of discouragement to 
the height of presumption. They thought themselves 
now invincible ; and although thoy had very few warriors 
among them, they proposed nothing less than retaliating 
on tho Iroquois all tho injury they had received. 

They induced the inhabitants of Sylleri to join them, 
and formed a war-party, before which they imagined tho 
Five Cantons would never stand.' The Algonquius of 
Three Rivers, and some Hurons who happened to be at 
the same place, also swelled the force. This army 
marched against the Mohawks; and as they were all 
Christians, they gave their expedition the air of a crusade 
by announcing that they took up arms only to force the 
implacable enemy of Christianity to retire from the lands 

' Lalemant sailed, Nov. 2, 1650, on 
tho Chasseur, with Brossaniand s<iiik) 
brothers : Hngucncau, Journal, Nov. 
2, 1C50 ; Kolution, 1050, p. 48. 

° Exaggerated. See IJelntinn de 
la N. P., 10,50, p. 30. It Viis an Al- 
gonquin war-party, under John Ou- 




; I 

I 1, 

1650-1. of tho faithful, and tlius onivblo the missionurios to luiiko 
■~"~~*'"~^ trno Tiiligion flourish. 

iiiHnstroim As thoy aiipi'oiichcd tho villaj^o where they resolved to 
ill wiiiih ' make thciir first attack, a Huron and an Algoiiquin wore 
Cliri"t'iiu'« detached an Hcouts. Thoy separated, and the Huron fall- 
'"""' '■ iuf^ into the hands of an Iroquois party, without hesita- 
tion betrayed his faith, his nation, and his allies, to save 
his life. " Ilretiir.m," said he, on approaching tho enemy, 
" I have long sought some of you. I set out for my 
country, where I know tho Iroquois and Hurons are now 
only one people, and have only one land. To travel moro 
securely I joined an Algonquin party, which I mot on tho 
war-path against you. I loft it, two days ago, to warn 
you to bo on your guard." 

The traitor did moro. Ho acted as guide to the Mo- 
hawks, who, advancing on tho Christians, found them all 
asleep. They woke, indeed, onlj' at a volley of musketry ; 
and as tho enemy had time and opportunity to choose 
where to strike, the bravest of the allies lay dead on tho 
spot, before any of the jiarty had time to fly to arms. Yet 
many fought bravely, and under cover of their resistance 
a considerable number escaped in the woods. All the 
rest were killed or taken and burnt at the stake, except 
two, who escaped, and brought in all the details of this 
sad adventure.' 
Aeeoiiiit of All the other captives honored their religion, in defence 
ouin, imnit of which they had taken up arms ; but tho most dis- 
^quoia."^" tingnisliod among them was a young Algonquin, Joseph 
Onohare.' He had been brought up almost from child- 
hood at Sylleri, and although naturally of a hard and 
haughty disposition, grace and education had entirely 
corrected the defect, and ho attained a degree of perfec- 
tion uncommon in the very heart of Christendom. A year 
before his death an event befell him which deeply im- 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, apiiarently Louis Skandnrliictso : 
1050, p. I'O ; Crouxius, Ilistoria Ca- Lalcmant, Jo\inial, Juno 15, 1650. 
nadensis, p. 503. The traitor was '' Onabare. 



prcased thoso wIkj witno.sHud it. Ho liiul joined a war- 
l)aity, iindor a icnowiu'd chiof— an idolater, however, i nd 
very aiii)t'rHtitious— who would not take the field without 
couHultiug hJH nianitou. Oiioliare in vain employed every 
effort to divert him. The chief called a inedicine-niau, 
who put up his sweating-cabin, and had no sooner entered 
it than it began to shako in the most surprising manner. 

The man — to whom, even, the thing appeared most 
extraordinary— proceeded, notwithstanding, to utter his 
usual cries and howls ; but some time after ho suddenly 
changed his tone, and calling to Ouohare, who was not 
far olf, assailed him with furious threats. The noble 
Christian at once a])proachcd, and, convinced that it was 
the de\d who spoke by the mouth of his minister, ox- 
claimed : " I adore Him who, out of nothing, created 
heaven and earth. He is my SovereigN Lord and yours ; 
and in spite of yourself you are com])elled to acknowledge 
Hiui as such, even as I do." While still speaking, al- 
though thf!ro was no one near him, he felt himself struck 
so violently on the side that ho almost lost breath and 
movement. Three days after, still feeling great pain, he 
fervently implored God to restore him. His prayer was 
heard, and ho set out on tho war-path with the rest.' 

Durhig the march another Lulian, who had ai)])arently 
had a bad dream, came to him one morning in great 
excitement, and told him that ho wus very soiry ho had 
started on that expedition with him — that his obstinate 
refusal to consult the sjjirits would inevitably draw down 
some reverse on the party, Tho fervent Christian took 
pity on tho blindness of this man, and endeavored to dis- 
abuse him of his errors. While they were speaking, they 
perceived two Iroquois, and rushed upon them. Onohare 
overtook one and killed him at a single blow. Tho other 
escaped. The young Christian then returned to his com- 
rade, who had not made any very earnest endeavor to 



> Relation de la N. F., 1050, pp. 31, 32 ; Creuxiue, IIiHt. Canad., p. 590. 





Fervor ol" 

tlio Clins- 


roftoh tlio euoiuy, iind told him tlitit liirt nmiiitoii luul 
(luulitlcNK wiu'iu'd liitii u^'iviiiHt any uuduu cxpoHiuv of IiIh 
poiHDii. " Know, then, oner for all," In lullod, " tlmt a 
CIiriHtiiiii who Ih fiiithfiil to hm (iod fi'iirw nothiiif^, uud 
tlmt your ilLUioiiH cuu rouder 110 uasLstuuco to thoao who 
iuvoko thorn." 

It wiiH in till) closiuf,' net of this iieoph} Ic'h lifo that ho 
ivpiiDari'd tlio gri'ati'st. llv had prciJUicd for it hy 11 gou- 
eral coufoHHion and fri'tjuont c iiinninions. From tho out- 
set of tho expedition in which ho wiih taken, he had a 
presentiment that ho would never return ; and aH it was 
to battle a^^'ainat the enemi(!H of Clod, he eonwoled himwelf 
with tho hojje of martyrdom. Filled with this idea, his 
joy increased at the thought of the suH'erings he might 
have to undergo ; nor was ho wanting to himself in the 
midst of his tortures. He constantly exhorted his com- 
panion to patience ; and his executioners wishing to silenco 
him, he boldly told them that it was not in their power 
to jiroveut his jjublishing tho praises of his God and 
laboring for His glory. This reply roused them to fury ; 
but in vain did they devise the most unheard-of tortures 
to force him to silence. Thoy eoidd not shako his courage 
or extort a sigh. Ho ceased to bless tho Almighty only 
when ho ceased to live.' 

This groat defeat, and many other less important 
checks which followed in quick succession, caused inex- 
pressible grief to the missiouuritiS and those who took an 
interest in tho progress of tho gospel and the advance- 
ment of tho colony ; but what somewhat consoled the 
former was, that the relatives and friends of those who 
fell in that engagement were moved by no mere affections 
of flesh and blood in tho regret which they showed for 
their loss, but displayed only sentiments worthy of their 
religion. No murmur was hoard among them against the 
Providence of a God who indeed put their faith and virtue 

• Relation do la N. P., 1050, p. 33 ; CreuxiuB, Hist. Canad., p. 598. 

\> „. 1 



to a scvoro tcHt, but who hUowccI HiiiiHilf no loss power- 1650-1, 
ful, or loss 11 Futhor, by iiiHpiiing thorn with a huruio 

Tliosi) rotlcctioiiH, mado by tlio iufulols thouiHclvos, con- 
vcrtocl nmny. Tho most HtilF-uockcd, in tho very midst of 
their iuvo(!tivc'!t, felt Muddtiily chaiigcHl in a manner which 
aHtoiiished them ; and the rrnquois Imd, (hiring' a wliolo 
year, an exanii)lo of that great i>(»\vt!r of graeo wliieh 
Bevel ;tl of them couhl not bnt reeognize. They had 
among their j)riHonerH a l)lind young Algonquin Hqnaw ; 
and although she was utterly ii,,apal)le of rendering them - 
any service, they let .her live, without well knowing why. 

A Christian, well inntrueted in her leligiim, she tho 
courage to aH8umo among her cou(|ucror8 tho ollieo of 
catechist ; and Clod wrought many conversions by her 
miuiHtry. Some of these excited great attention, and 
exasperated the sachems of tho vilhigo against her. Sho 
was not insensible to tho danger to which hor zeal 
exposed hor, but nothing could diminish its fervor. She 
was seriously warned to be cautious in her ])roceedings ; 
threats were made against lier, and she had every reason 
to fear their being carried into effect. Nothing, however, 
deterred her ; and God, whom she served with so much 
courage, continued to protect her in a manner incompre- 
hensible to those who, able to crush her by a word, 
never dared to attempt her hfo or cause her the least 

This was attested then by all who hved in New Franco 
or made any stay there, and wo have even soon witnesses 
of it who could not bo suspected of exaggeration. I have, 
perhaps, dwelt a littlo more on these details than will 
please some who will read this history ; but I have deemed 
it neces8)i>y, in order to give a just idea of this ludiau 

' Relation Ae lo NouvoUo France, « Ri'lntidn do la Nouvollo Franco, 

1(550, i>. ;!)! ; Crtni < ius, IDstoria Ca- KJoO, p. M ; Cruuxius, IliBtoriu Ca- 

niidcnsis. p rm). nadonais, p. 509. 

Vol. I1,-1U 



coino 11118- 

1650-1. clmrcb, some wrilors, who siuv it only in its dcclino, liaving 
^"■"^'""^ cnuiJtivorod to iliiu its lustre' Wiiatovor may liiivo boiui 
Uu;ir motives— ami I lotive tho juilgmont to Him wlio 
iilouo has tho powov ami ri}j;ht to sound tho heart — what 
creilit can bo given to tho authority of mon who have had 
no other proofs for treating as false Avhat occurred far 
from them, or before their day, than the fact that they 
Aveve not witnesses ? 
T)io v.raiidy At tlio timo of Avliich I spoak, fervor was still evcry- 
ni'iiH to where very great, and told of tho per.secxitiou and adver- 
'"""fers iii""^' sity wliich are almost always its attendants. Yet there 
began to be some disorders among the Christians who fre- 
quented Tadoussac ; and, to the shame of tho Europeans, 
it was they who gave occasion to tho disgrace, while sav- 
ages, scarcely baptized, used every exertion to arrest it. 
This was especiall}' intoxication, for which the Indiana 
have a tendency, which they did not know before they had 
means to gratify it, and of which they can scarcely bo 
said to bo masters when they have begim fo form tho 

The heads of tho colony hud too much religion and zeal 
not to oppose a trade which served as a bait to vice and 
fomented it ; nor were they suspected, as some of their 
successors have been, of desiring to swell their incomes ;'t 
the expeuje of religion and order. But at Tadoussac 
there were only missionaries without commandants, bo- 
cause we had never luui a permanent settlement there ; 
and whatever inllnence these religious derived from their 
character, their virtue, and the orders of tho governor- 
gmieral, they felt daily how feeble a rein an unarmed 
authority is against certain passions, and that tho interest 
of reUgion is a motive almost incapable of touching hearts 
ruled by cupidity." 

' ('httrli'Vi)ix nlludt's, proliably, to toiro dii rAiiu'riquo SopU-ntrionalo, 

Le Cli'irii, KliililiHsi'inciit dc la Koi, i., \). ;!0M. 

i., p. ri;i:l ; 1,11 lloiiliiii, veil, i, p. ^l ' Ucliitiiin di' la Ndiivrlli' I-'iuikm^, 

mill pii'laic ; l>i' la I'dtlurii", lli»- llioO, p. 10. The iiiisHinimiii ;. strug- 



Tlio ovil, ill a sliort liiiic, iiiiKio siicli |>rofj;ross Hint tlio 1650- 
IiuliiUi chiefs eaiiicslly lu'S()iiL;lit Mr. ilWillcboi'il to build 
a jirisoii, to coiitiiu' lIios<' wlio, by tlicir sc;iii(l,ils, would 
tr(mbl(> tlio ))ii'ty of tlit'ir bri'tlircu.' licsidcs liic INIoii- 
ta{j[iu>/, who wi'i't^ the iiiitiv(> iiihiibitaiits of the iici^^hbor- 
liood of Tfidoussiic, lh( ri" wi'io also ofti'u si-cu, at this 
s.'iinc post, Borsianiili'S, Papiniu-hois, and OuiuainioucUs.'^ 
Among all theso wov Christians who \vi'i(> iiidi'btt'd for 
lh(^ tirst knowledge) of the tni(> (iod to I luliaii converts, 
and whose instruction had been conipleteil at Tadoussac, 
where the niissiouaries never failed io hv at the trading; 

Tilings were, in every resp(>ct, on .v lietler footing at 
Three Hivers, where tliere was a vigilant and zealous gov- 
ernor, jMr. J^ui)Iessis r)Ocl.,,ii; where tli(> desiiits had a 
house; and where severad iiortheni nations canu! (U)wii 
for tlio fur-trade. They wero es[)iHMally attracted liy tlio 
Attikaniegues, and tli(> great exaniiiles of virliie of tliia 
good people ]>i{>pared their hearts for tlie impressions of 
griico. A certain number wen- bajitizinl every year, anil 
these neopliytes did not d(>em themselves fiuly Christians 
till tliev had nnuh' con(|U(-sts for Christ. i\l(H'eover, the}' 
saw uotliiiig in the comluct of the l''ieiicli that did not 
timd to edify. Tlie prec(>ding winter Father Dreuilletti'S 
liad visited idl the districts lying north of Tlir.'e liivers. 
Jle met Christians, and Christians jierfectly instructed, 
where li(> did not expect to tind even men. lie increased 
the number, adniinistered the sacraiiients, i>roiiust'd to 

{fled long biit iiiisiiiri'SHt'iiUy iiirninat Id,")!), p. -lO ; Crouxiiis, UisNu'ia (V 

tlic Hrlliiij; of siiiriluoiiN li(|ii()i;) t^) iiailciiHiH, p. (iO.5. 

till' iTidiiiiis. 'I'lii'v siicc(';i|i-(l, how- • Till' ItiTNiiutiUi'S n\v not iiu-ii- 

oviM-, only ill (IniwiiijT o,|iniii on lidiicd in tin' U'l'liilion, Ki'id, p. .11. 

tlu'luwlviK. Si'i' Sluii, DiM'ovciy 'I'lii'V were next Io 'liKloiissiic. iiiul 

1111(1 Kxi)lorulinii of 111!' Missiw-ippi tlic I'lipiiiiu'lmis liilow ilinii, on llio 

Viilloy, ]). 7'1 ; llisloiic dc llviii St. Linviviin' : Urlatioii. liiil'.', p IS. 

tlo-VIo en ('uiiiula, Qm hci', ISIO, Tin' Oiiiiimiiioiiik liiy udiiiid, iiortli- 

l>.'i'.l I'lisldf 'rudoussiic : lifliilion dc IftN. 

' Ui'liitioii dc l.i N'ouvillc l'"riili(i\ I'"., Kl")'.', p. 20. 



1650-1. visit them as soon as possible, and loft tliom' in a dispo- 
^-^-y^-^ sition from -wbich he could, he believed, derive every 

Mr. do ]-ftn- At last, the year 1C50' — so fatal to New Franco by the 
eriior^Joii- aliHost Complete dcstraction of the Huron nation, and by 
"i'ranoe?™^ all the misfortunes that resulted from it — closed -with a 
change of governor-general. Mr. do Lauson, one of the 
leading members of the Canada Company, was .apjjoiuted 
to succeed Mr. d'Aillebout, whose three years had expired ; 
but ho did not reach Quebec till the next year.' Mr. 
d'Aillebout left without regret a position in which ho 
could only be a witness of the desolation of the colony, 
and to whom they afforded no means of maintaining his 
dignity. The new governor had always been more inter- 
ested than any other in the affairs of the company. It 
was he chiefly who had effected in England the restoration 
of Quebec. Hif. piety, his uprightness, his good inten- 
tions were known, and he had always seemed to take a 
deep interest in every thing that concerned Canada. 

' Relation de la Nouvello Franco, 
1650, iip. 33, 49 ; ib., 1048, pp. 27, 
82 ; (."reuxius, Ilistoria C'nnaduusis, 
p. 522. 

' 'Hiis should bo 1051. See Pro- 
vision de Gouverneur de la Nou- 
vello Franco iinur lo Piour do Lau- 
zon, .Ian. 17, lO.")! ; Can. Doc, II., i., 
p. 172 ; Commission, March 20, 1051 ; 
ib , ]i. 202. Coniiilcni. dcsOnl., ]>. 10. 

' Holiuont, Histoiro du Canada, 
Quebec, 1010, p. 0. John de Launon 
■was one of tlio leading men in the 
Company of New France, and, as 
member of the Coimcil of State, had 
Ions taken a deep interest in the 
colony. In 1(127 he was made in- 
teiulant of New France. Ho was 
Bubwquently sent by King Louis 
Xlll. to Ktifiliind, to obtain the res- 
titution of ljuel)ec, alter its capture 
by Kirk: CnuixiuH, Ilistoria Cana- 
densis, p. 02i>. Ho was president 

and superintendent of the new com- 
pany (Ij(; Clercq, Etablissenient do 
la Foi, vol. i., p. 4;);i), and as such 
opixised the return of the RecoHects : 
lb., pp. 453-7. Ho was appointed 
governor, on the nomination of tlio 
company, January 17, 1051, and ar- 
rived at (Quebec October 13, 1051 : 
Ragueneau, Journal ; Relation dc la 
Nouvello France, l(i51, p. 1 ; Creux- 
ius, Ilistoria CainuU'nsis, ]) 020. lie 
was governor till 1050, wl en he re- 
turned to France and became sub- 
dean of the King's Council and re- 
sided in the cloister of Notre Damn 
with one of his sons, a canon tliere : 
Ferland, Ilistoire du Canada, p. 431 ; 
Memoir's et Documents jmlilirs ])ar 
la Soc. Hist, de Montreal, p. S3. Ho 
died at Paris, Fob, 10, KiOO, aged 
eighty-two : Ragueneau, Vio do la 
Mire Catherine, p. 320. His cancr 
in Canada was not happy. 




But ho foniul it in a state oven far more deplorable 
than Father Lallemant had represented, and the colony 
■was daily wasting away. The Iroquois, emboldened by 
their recent victories, began to regard our forts and 
intrenchments as barriers no longer capable of stopping 
them. They spread in great bauds through all the 
French sctthnuents, and men were nowhere safe from 
their insults. A sad event had also just increased their 
insolence. One of their parties having approached Three 
Rivers, Duplcssis Bochart, the governor, marched out 
against them in person. In vain representations were 
nuide against his useless expostire of his life, when all 
his valor was unavailing against an enemy whose chief 
strength is in surprise, and whom their natural agility and 
the neighborhood of the forests always atford a sure 
retreat ; and that, in fine, there was nothing to be gained 
in lighting men who had nothing to lose. He turned a 
deaf ear to all ; but he paid the penalty of his obstinacy. 
He was killed ; and his death not only deprived the colony 
of a good olHc(U' and a Morthy man, but it gave new lustre 
to the arms of the Irocpiois.' 

The war which they unrelentingly continued against the 
feeble remnant of the Huron nation, and against every 
tribe that oft'ercd thetn shelter, daily increased the terror 
of their name, and their forces increased l^y the number 
of captives whom they brought in from all jiarts and used 
to replace those of their braves who fell. At last, Sylleri, 
become no longer safe with palisades, had to be sur- 
rounded with walls, and cannon mounted there. The 
most fearful deserts and most impenetrable cantons of the 
North no longer afforded secure retreats against the rage 


riivHt't's ill 
tlio North. 

' Du Plessia IJocliart Qu(u"bodo p. 400 ; Memoires et Documents 

Imd tilled important olHces for ovit ])u1plii'f, etc., p. 87 ; BiliiKint, Ilis- 

twcnly yi iirB. His wife wus ICtien- toire du (\niida, p. 7; Relatinu do 

n.tie des Pres. As id him, S('(! Ka- la N. F., KiV,', p. :!."). The iiarty at- 

gueiieau, Vie de la Mere CatlKM-ine, tacking was Oneidas, with a few 

p. 54 : Ferland, tVure d'Histoiro, i., Mohawks. Besides du Plessis, ono 



t ' 


16^2. of those s.av.'igcs and tlio clrojysicil thirst for liuman blood 
^^""^ ' which iinpcUod thoni.' 

Fatiior r.ii- Faili'.'r Jjinics Ihitciix luid spont sill the sprhijj; of 1051' 
tiio Atiiiiii- in visitiiiff (hc^so vast distriots. H(\ found all tli(> Attika- 
niogucs CJinstians or catocliunicns, no ])rH>st had 
ever rosidi'd among them. Their innocence charmed him. 
They had erected a chapel, where thoy assembled rogn- 
larly to oft'(>r up their ])rayers in coiinnon ;" and after tho 
missionary had gratified tiieir eagerness to hear tho Word 
of Ciod and ])artake of the sacraments of tho Church, thoy 
conducted him t(5 a nation still nioro remote,* where this 
religious had the hai)]iiiiess of making our holy Law 
appreciat(>d by a small nundjer of tho elect. 

He confidently expected to complete next year what ho 
had as yet oidy been al>lo to sketch ; but ho had scarcely 
returned to tho colony when tlu> Iroijuois" made an irrup- 
tion into tliose remote parts, filled tluMP with blood and 
carnage, and did not leave a singli; village whoso inhab- 
itants wer(> not butcliei'cd or dispersed. Tho tidings hav- 
ing reached jNlr. do Lauson, convinced him of the neces- 
sity of presenting a barrier to tliis torrent ; but ho had 
brought no re-entorcement from France, and he was ;" r 
from linding in tho colony forces sullicit'iit to rest. ..0 
l'n.i;i,..^ „f security and tranquillity. The only vart of New Franco 
aiming: "t I i'(i M'liere the Iroquois had not dar (l and never dared, to 
'^^'"' '■"*' carry their victorious .■'.rms, Avas lie c-n: try occupied by 
the Abenaqui natii)ns. Fatliiv iyieiuliettes had, as wo 
have seen, tluii'o laid the foundations of a church which 

soldier was killcil and oiii' iiKirtally 
wounded, 'rwolveweru tali(!ii: Ua- 
pucniKu, .lounial, Aug., 10.')3. 

' Butiiix iiic'iitiiiiisdii'Iation, 1(^51, 
p. 2(1) that tlii'v penetrated to Lalie 
Kisakunii, wliiili, hi- would havi^ 
8ii])|iosc'd, they could ncitlier dis- 
cover nor reach. 

■•' He wt out March 1'7. Ki.TI, with N'orinanviile : Welntion, ITtl, 
p. Hi; ('reuxiu.>;, HiKt.daU., p. H'iO. 

■' Relation do la Nouvello France, 
]0."il, p. 20; Cnuixius, llistoria Ca- 
nadeiiHiH, p. 02'J : Marie do I'liicar- 
nation, Lettres IliHtoricpies, \). 1 11. 

' Father Ihileux nieritionn visits 
to two oilier gat lieriiip< of Indians, 
(i|ipareiitly .\llikuiiiegues (lielation, 
l(i5!, i>. 24), although he sjiealiH of 
belts given to the Krigoiiecliknk. 

'• Relation de hi Nouv(.llo Franco, 
K;-,!, p. 2'!: I(;."i2, p. I 



gavo groat Jioih's. 1 ]va\o hmm uual.lo to ascertain tlio 1652. 

reasons which imluccd liim to iiiterrni)t his apostolic ■ ' 

labors among tlicst! trilics,' in order to go and exercise his i-n-frress of 
zeal in tlie furthest extremes of the North. Bnt it is ,!',',';, ''^'ulo 
certain that no missionary then labored with greater fruit '\'utioilH.'' 
in Canada, because Heaven had rendered him powerful in 
woi'lvs as well as in words. 

The Indians who aecomi)anied him in his excursions 
spoke of nothing l)ut the wonders wrought hy his means, 
which, joined to the eminent virtues which they saw him 
practise, facilitated all tnat he undertook for the glory of 
God. The Fnuich liad the same opijiion of his sanctit; 
and his intluejice with the Almighty. I knew a lady a't 
Three Kivcrs— Machamo de Cournoyer, wife of a captain 
in liie marine forces— who, having during her infancy 
fallen into a languor deemed by tlu; physicians incurable, 
was liealedUie moment the servant of (Jod made tlie sign 
of the cross on her foreluiad. Tlie circumstances of the 
case were stated to me by the inothep of the lady herself, 
who held her in her arms when she was restored. 

It s(>ems, n-'verlheless, iliat Fath(>r Dreuillettes never 
entire.y lost sight of his beloved Ab/iuupiis, among wliom 
his ciedit became so great, that the i'^nglish, mIiosc inter- 
est led them to ju-opitiate these Indians, then neighbors, 
thought it their duty carefully to cultivate his friendship ; 
and they always showed great regard for him. t)n his 
side, he corresponded in a, manner that satisfied them 
fully ; and ho availed himself so well of this good under- 

' Sec nntc, p. 20;!. FiUlicr Dniil- 
li'ltcH wvnt to thr Abmikis in 11150, 
Sept. 1 : J{cl:iti(m do In Nouvi'llo 
Frall^l^ Kl.")!, p. |5 (Uafruiiu'iui, 
Joiininl, Sept. 1, Ui'iU). and aj,'«in in 
Jiuii', l(i.-)l, iiftor ii two week"' stay 
in tho colony: Hclation dc la Nou- 
vcllo France, Kio;.', p. L'3. 

' Mndanie d(! Mnctot, wife of a 
n\ajor of 'i'lirei' HiverN, who was u 

son of Mr. Uodefroy, wlio Iind lieen 
anilias.sador to Boston with Fatliur 
l>reuill( tli's.— 6'/(»/-/( i-'iij; lie prob- 
ably confounds John I'aid (iodi^froy 

of (.^uclicc with .lolm Uodefroy fi i 

Linclot. in Ihe ]iays de Canx, \n 
resided at Three Uivers, and was tlie 
ancestor of tiie (iodcfroys <le J,in- 
tot : I'V-land, Notes sur le Kegistro 

lie tiurliec, p. Ob. 

- i 



i6i;2. standing to ftdvancc tlio work of God, that in a short tiiuo 
^""Y-—^ lie bchfkl himself at the head of a minierous and flourish- 
ing church. lu tho sc(iucl, when the Abinaquia Avero 
attached to the French by the bond of religion, New Eng- 
land had every reason to repent her having unwisely 
made them irreconcilable enemies.' 
Father liii- About tlio samo timo some families of Attikamegues 
nonhttiiril invited Father Buteux to accompany them to their eoun- 
j)ro's"ii"i- try, in order to assemble the sad remnants of the nation. 
iiu'wm' Mot He consented the more willingly, as several other tribes, 
return, ^^.j^^^ jjj ^,,j. j.^j_ know Christ, were to be at the rendezvous 
api)oiuted by the Attikamegues. The day of departure 
was fixed for the 4th of April, 1652, and the evening 
previous the missionary wrote to his superior a note 
couched in these terms :' " They at last give me hope, 
Eeverend lather, that av- are about to start. God grant 
that the}' do not change their purpose, and that Heaven 
miiy be tlie bourn of our journey. Our convoy is coni- 
posetl of sixty persons, men, women, and children. All 
aJG iu extreme languor. As to pro- I.-:ions, they are in the 
hands of Him who nourishes the birds of heaven. I set 
oi\t buideued with my sins and my misery, and I greatly 
need prayers on my bcihalf. My heart tells me that tho 
time of my happiness approaches. Dominus est : quod 
bouum est in oculis suis faciat."" 
He is killed There N.'iis need, indeed, to bo prepared for any event, 
^quois.'^^' to undertake such a journey. After the religious had suf- 
fered for a month all the hardships of want of provisions 
and most fiiglitful routes, it was deemed best for the 
party to separate, both to subsist more easily and to be 
better able to avoid hostile war-parties ; but, before sep- 
arating, all wished to confess and receive the Sacrament 
of the Altar. Father Buteux retained with him only a 

' Father Gabriel Dnii'lettes ar- 
rived in Ciinada, Aujj;. 15, 161o. Ho 
(liud at Qui')/fc, April 8, 1C81. 

'' Relation de la Nouvello Franco, 
1G52, p. 3. 
^ 1 Kings, iii. 18. 



young Frenchman and a Huron ; and, as tlio rivers began 1652. 
to bo navigable, tlicy bnilt a .small canoo and embarked.' ^^-v— ' 

The next day they were obliged to make sever.'d port- Ponth of 
ages, and they were engaged on the third, Avlien the Unilux. 
Huron, who was somewhat in advance, felt himself sud- 
denly seized from behind. The missionary and tho 
Frenchman were at tho same time stretched on the ground 
by a volley of musketry. The former received two balls 
in tho breast ; a third broke his right arm. He had but 
time to say two words to his comiianion, mIio was no less 
severely Avounded, to exhort him to die well, and to offer 
voluntarily to God the sacrifice of his life. The Iroquois 
at once dis2)atched Ijoth, stripped them, and flung their 
bodies into tho river." 

The Huron was desthuid to the stake, but he had the 
adx'oitness to effect his escape. Ho reached Three Rivers 
on the 8th of Jime." A body of young Indians were at 
once ilispatched* to look for the missionary's bodv, but 
they could not find it. Thus scarcely a 3'ear passed that 
did not see the soil of New Franco bedewed with tlit! blood 
of some missiouai-y. In fact, the destruction of the Huron 
towns had left several unemployed ; biit they were almost 
all spent with their toils and labors, and no longer of an 
age to acquire new languages, so that they were obliged 
to return to Europe.' Among these was Father 13res- 

' Ri'lation (le la Nouvcllo France, 
165'J, r 2 ; Crciixius, Uiatorla t'lina- 
dcnsis, ]). G5T. The Friiichimm was 
Fontnrabiu, aud tlio Huron, Thomas 
'I'sondoulannen : Hagueiu'au, Jour- 

^ Relation de la Xouvdlc Frnnco, 
lO'ii, p. 1 ; Crcuxiiis, Historia Cana- 
densis, p. O.JT. Father James I5u- 
teux was a native of Abbeville, in 
Picardy, born in April, KiOO. He 
entered the Society of Jesus at 
Rouen, Oct. 3, 1030, and was scut to 
Canada in KiiU. He was eighteen 
years a missionary to the Moutaguais 

and Algonquins. He was a man of 
prayer, mortification, and zeal. He 
was killed, May 10, 1«.")3 : Relation 
dela Xouvelle Franc(\ l(i.j3 ; Creux- 
ius, llistoria Canadensis, p. O,")? ; 
Tanner, Die Uesillt-clialt Jesu hiss 
ziir Vergie-sung ilire.s IJlutes, etc., 
Prague, Ki^i, p. (J!M. 

■' Ragueneau, in his Journal, says 
May 38, though the Relation gives 
June 8. 

^ Not from Three Rivers, appar- 
ently, but from the Attikameguee' 
camp : Relation, Ki.'ii, p. :!. 

' No missionoriea returned in 1053. 

) \i ' 



1652. saui,' who afterwards i)roiicliocl in the greatest cities of Italy 
'"'"^''""^ ^\■it]l an apiihvuse, duo hiss to his truly pathetic style tliau 
to his eliurai'tcr of confessor of Christ, and the glorious 
marks which lie bore on liis body. He also produced 
everywhere the greater fruit, inasmuch as ho could with 
more justice propose Christian morality in all its i)urity, 
and say with the apostle — " I bear the marlis of the Lord 
Jesus in my body." (Gal. vi. 17.) 
Pro«res9 of The Isle of IMontreal did not suffer less from the incur- 
ofMo'ii'-^ sions of tlu; Iroquois than the other quarters of New 
Franco, and IMr. do ^Mnisonneuve was obliged to go to 
I'aris, to seek the relief that ho failed to obtain by 
his letters.' He retiuiied in 1(553, Avitli a re-enforcciiicnt 
of a Imudi'ed settlers ; but the most fortunate acquisitiou 
which he miule on this voyage was that of a virtuous vir- 
gin, Margaret Bourgeois, a native of Langi'cs, whom ho 
brought to Montreal to take care of his liouse, and who 
subsi'ijuently rendered her name dear and worthy to all 
the colony, by her eminent virtue, and by the institute of 
the Sisters of the Congregation — an institute whose utility 
increases daily with the numl)er of those who have em- 
braced it. I have spoken more at length of it in my 



In Kino, Brrssnni, Lnlpmant, Unnin, 
(iri'slon, r. I'ijiirt, Duiicron, and 
liniiin returned: .Inuniiil, Sept. — 
Ni)v., IG'jO. 

' Brcssani wuut, really, Nov. 2, 

» lie went in IfiSl : DoUier do 
Caswin, llistoirc de Montreal, 1(150- 
1 ; Jitlninnt, llistdire du C'aniidii. p. 
(i ; Fnillon, llistoire de la Colonic 
Frani.aise, ii., p. llil ; Vie de la 
Su'ur Hourgeojn, 1818, p. o3. 

' l'"iullon, wliile stating that Mar- 
garet liourfieoys did act as hoUBe- 
keeiiir f'oi' Muisonneuvo tor lour 
years lllistoi:'!' de la ("olouie Fian- 
(;ai8e,-ii , p. 217), kIiows (ib., p. 170, 

and Vie do Marguerite Bourgcoya, 
i., p. 114, etc.) that she came to teach. 
Margnret Bourgeoys was Imrn nt 
Troyes. in Chamyiagnc, April 17, 
1020 — her father, Abraham Bour- 
geoys, an honcbf shopkeeper, and 
her mother, tiuillemetto (inrnier, 
being by no means wealthy. Her 
iiicliuaiion was for tlie nligious 
state, but ditliculticH intervened, and 
she eiKleavored, though unsuccess- 
fully, to form a congregation <■( Sis- 
ters in the house of Madiiuie do 
Chuly, sister of Miulame de Chonio 
d<^y, to whose residence she retired 
also ou her father's death. The visit 
of Maisonneuvi' seemed to ofler her 



of Italy 

Ic tllilll 

lid with 
10 Lord 

c incur- 
of New 

3 go to 

tain by 
lous vir- 
lioiu ho 
lud who 
ly to all 
titutc of 
;o utility 
lavo em- 
t in my 

o to teach. 
s born at 

April 17, 
mm Bour- 
■epor, and 
3 GnrniiT, 
Itliy. Tier 
( rclifrioua 
vincd, ami 

tioii 111' Sis- 
ladiiiiic do 
dc Clioiiiii 
she retired 
. Tlie visit 
to offiT ber 

Soon after Mv. do Mnisonneuve's return, nii event oe- 
curred in the isliind whieh wa.s rej^'iirded 1)y all the colony 
as an elt'ect of the visible protection (jf tlie Mother of (iod, 
to whom it was eHi)ocialiy consecrated, and whero all 
really Hved a life to merit her favors. Twenty-six men 
were surprised and surrounded by two hundred Iro(|uois, 
who fired several vollevs at them, witliout wounding a 
man, while not one of tluar 'shots failed to tt;ll. Tiio 
astonishment of the Indians was extreme. They did not 
think it wise to give the French time to load again, but 
fled in all haste.' 

The governor was takuig steps to prevent S'ldi sur- 
prises, when sixty Ouondagas appeared in view of liis fort. 


a field for her dtsi^'ii, and she em- 
barked with him iiiul liis new rom- 
panv of settlers, June 20, KiHo, on 
thii St. Nicholas, of Nunt<'s, Ca|)tuin 
Peter lo Hi'sson. Thi'y readied t^ue- 
boc, Sept. as. She opened her school 
in a Ktulilo at Montreal, Nov. 25, 
lU5r. Two years after, witli other 
ladies Avium idie hnd induced to 
join lier in France, she foiindi'd tlio 
conf,'re;;ation olOnr l.ady, recoj,'nized 
in KKIU, anil formally uKtalilished in 
1(!7(!. After seeinji; her order exti^nd 
on every side the blessings of edu- 
cation, she died, .January 12, 1700. 
See Vie du lu f-'a^ur Ucjurp'oys, 12o., 
Montreal, 181S; Vie di' la So^ur 
Bourjseoys, Fondatriee do la Cou^j-re- 
gaiion de Nctre Dame ue Villemarie 
en Canada, Paris, 2 vols. 8o, 1852; 
Histoid; de I'Motel I )ieu de Quebec, 
p. 12u; liU Clercq, Etab,, ii., p. ."iil. 

' Mem. de la S<;c. Hist, de Mon- 
treal, p. l:j| ; Kelation, 1(15;?, p. 3 ; 
Crouxius, Hii-t., i>. (i(i;j. Evidently 
tlio action of October 11, Ki.W, d,-. 
scribed by HolUer de Cassun. M, 
des Musseaux. govi ruor of Mcmtreal, 
sent out Major Lambert, with 
a scouting party of twenty four. 
Three in the van weri' suddenly 

fired up(m, and one killed. Another 
eseaix'd to a wret<lied house, in 
w hich the ri'st of the party also took 
refuge, with a colonist. Here they 
held out, doing terrible execution 
on the enemy until their ammunition 
was nearly exliaiLsted. Then, 
a brave soldier, made Ins way to tlio 
fort, and brought up a re cnforce- 
niriit of ten men, with two small 
cannon loaded with grape, liy tho 
belli of these 'i^' reached safo- 
ly. When the lro(|iiois had sus- 
tained a few more deadly volleys, 
they fled, having, out of two hun- 
dred, lost (says de IJelmont, Ilis- 
toire du Ciinada, jip. 0, 7). twenty 
kille<l and fifty woundrd. Mother 
Jucliereau (Ilistoiro do I'llotel Diju 
de Quebec, p. ;>') gives an account 
of a gallant action of .Major 
("osse, who, at the head of 
twi uty, nrcucHl four who were be- 
sieged in a redoubt, and in the 
action killed thirty-two Iroquois, 
losing only four. She gives no date, 
and it may be a fuller Version of 
this same affair ; though Mr. Fer- 
himi (llistoire, vol. i.. p. 400) seems 
to idi'ntily it with an action of .limo 
1^;. liiol ; Jesuit Journal, July ;J0. 




Nuw ncyo- 

tiuliniiH t'«r 


I 4 


S(imo (Ictacliod from tlio body, and approaclihig with f,'reat 
c'oiilidenco, mado signs that they wishi'd to siKJiik.' Their 
Hiiiull inmilior 1(h1 to tlicir Ixiiig adiiiittnl witiioiit dilVi- 
cully into tiio fort, and thoy dt'chired that tiicir canton 
was disposod to peace, if the French wonld treat witli 
them. They aeoonipanied this proposition with pn^sents, 
and ^Ir. dc Maisdnneiive, on accepting th^m, called tiicir 
attention to tlie fact that the I'n.'ncli nation was far from 
tliat pertidy whicli had so often made them abuse the con- 
fidence placed in tlieir Avords — that he might on this 
occasion resort to reprisals and treat them as spies, nil 
their past conduct giving him the right — but that Chris- 
tians act on far ditl'erent principles. 

Thoy admitted all this, and declared that the French 
would soon have certain proofs of their sincerity. They 
accordingly set out to convey the governor's propositions 
to thi'ir sacjienis, and passing homeward through the can- 
ton of Oneida, tliey iudu(;ed the chiefs of that canion to 
join them. That of Cayuga did tlie same, and even sent 
deputies in its name to Montreal, with a belt, to warn, 
the governor that there were five hundred Mohawks in 
the field, aiming at Three Rivers.' Mr. de Lanson, to 
whom do Maisonneuve imparted this intelligence, dili- 
gently armed all the Hurons whom ho coidd assemble. 
The Hurons, coming up with a considerable body of Mo- 
hawks, well posted, attacked them so resolutely that they 
killed a great number, caj)turcd the chief and several of 
the leading warrior.s, and put the rest to flight.' 

Another party of these Indians met with better success. 
It advanced to the gates of Quebec, where all sunnucr 
long it gave constant alarm, committed great ravages ou 

' June 30, 1653 : Relation de la ' Tliia exploit of the Hurons is 

NouvoUt! Franco, U>5o, p. 4 ; Murio ajjinuently tlint (IcsitUhhI as havini^ 

dcl'Incnrnation, lii'ttri'.St'pt.0, 1(153. occiirrcil at Montreal, August l.j: 

' Relation de la Nouvcllo Fniiicc, Relation di; la Nouvcllc France, 1(1."):!, 

IC)"):!, 11. 4; ("reuxius, llistoria Ca- pp.5,!); Lo Murcier, Journal, Aug. 

niiilcn.>iri. |>. (iii:;. 21, 105;{. 





all sides, iirnHHacrod several of tlio Froiicli, iiiul inailo soino 
piisoiiLTH, iimonf,' whom was Fiitlier Poiicct." Tlii.s inis- 
Hioiiiu-}' wiiH ^^ri'iitly l)cl(iv<>(l in tlio colony ; autl it wiih no 
sooner known in tli(> eiipitul that ho wuh in tlie hiindm of 
tlie Iroquois, tliiiu forty Fr( iicii nnd many Indians took 
up the puvHiiit of the Mohawks, determined not to como 
back without rescuing him. They were, however, re- 
tained at Three Ilivers, to re-enforce tlie garrison of that 
post, whi'.h tlie enemy hekl l)loekaded on all sides." 

Bt.'f iUg that town tlu»y percieived two heads 

drawn m the trunk of a tree, with Father I'oucot's naino 
bi'low, and that of a Frentihman who had been taken with 
that religious. They also found on the gnmnd a littlo 
book, in whicli the niissionary had written these wonld : 
" Six Hurous, naturalized as Iro(piois, and four IMnhawks, 
are carrying us ofi", and have not yet done us any harm." 
He could not say as much a few days after ; for he was 
not spared, any nion^ than Father Joj^'ues and Father 
Brcssani had been, in similar circumstauecs, either during 
the march or ou his arrival in tho Mohawk canton." 


Captiiro of 



' F.'itlirr r-Tospph Antliony] Poncet 
[do 111 liivii're] wixa uncle of the liiti' 
bishopot'UKCz. — C/iiirlcroix. He was 
a native "f Paris, anil Ktuilitl at 
Kouie : Chaiinionot, Aiitol)iou;raiiliie, 
p. :jO. He was instrumental in in- 
elucinp Mother Mary of the Incarnn- 
tion to come to Canada, in which ho 
arrived, August 1, 16o0. lie laliored 
in tho Huron country at Montreal, 
and esiieeially at Quebec : Helations ; 
Charlevoix, Vie de la M. Mario do 
rincariiation, ]>. l!li!. He was taken, 
Auf;. liO, l(55o, above Sillery, whil(! 
endeavoring to get a jioor widow's 
field reaped for her : Helation de la 
Nouvelle France, 10"),'), p. 9 ; Creux- 
iuH, HiBloria Canadensis, ]>. (iTJ ; Lo 
Mercier, Journal, Aug. 31, Ki.")!? : 
Belmont, llitrtoire du Canada, p. 7. 
Alter his captivity, he was again 

pastor at Quebec till U>r,7, when the 
Abbe de Qiieylus, aHsuiuing juris- 
diction, dejirived him. He was then 
sent to Onondaga, but recalled, and 
returned to Krauce, Sejit. IS, 1057 ; 
l)e(|uen, Journal (MS.) lie then 
labored in Uiittauy, and was French 
penitentiary at Loretto, and after 
si'veral years' udssiou lifo in tho 
West Indies, died in Martinique, 
June 18, l(i7."), aged sixty-live ; 
Champion, Vie du P. Itigoleu, p. 78 ; 
Amerikaiiisches Martyrologium in 
DieKatliolisihes Kirche in den V. 8., 
Hegeusburg, 18(,4, ]). Xii. 

'' Father le Mercier, Journal, Aug. 
21, l(ir):j (M.S., ; Hi'lation de la Nou- 
velle France, 1(15^, \>. 10. 

^ Helation de la Nouvelle France, 
l(>5o, ]). 10 ; Le Mercier, Journal 
(MS.) ; Mario de llncarnatioii, Let- 



w \r ^ 







^ >^ 






ill I.I 

^^% 12.5 

|30 "^ ■■■ 



IL25 III 1.4 







(716) 872-4503 





1653. Oue (lay, wlicn thvy wore assoml tlcil to iloliberato on 
lii« fiito ami lliat f)f his coniiMUiioi!, a woman prcsentctl a 
HinHiiffur- l)riiiicli of wiimjnu)!,' to obtain jxTmission to cut off 0110 of 
his liuf^iTs ; ami liavinj^ st'curcil it, an Indian a])proac'hecl 
the missionary and took his right liaud. While he was 
examining liis lingers, one after the other, tlio missionary, 
who had a presentiment tiiat ho would not be put to 
death, asked the Almighty that his left rather than his 
right luiiid sliould bo mutilated. The Indian instantly 
drojjped the hand whieh he held, took up the otlier, and 
made a boy cut off the forefinger. During the operation 
the seiTant of God chanted tlie Vvxilhi ; and at its close, 
the branch of wampum was hung around his neck, and 
his finger given to the wonuin who had solicited it.' 

The next day ho was led from village to village,' and 
everywhere had much to suffer, especially from the yoimg, 
to wht)m lie was abandoned, and \.ho treated him with 
more than barbarous petulance. At last a council was 
held, which decided to burn the young Frenchman, and 
put the missi(mary at the discretion of an old matron, 
whose brother had been captunul or slain. The young 
Frenchman was at once executed, but Poncet's mistress 
sj)ared his life.' Three days after, an Iroquois came from 
Three Ilivers, and reported tliat they were on the point of 
concluding peace ; that Onouthio demanded, as a jjrelim- 
inary, tlie liberation of Father Poncet ; and that it had 
been necessary to give him hostages, whoso lives depended 

tre, Sept. 6, KWS ; Cn-uxiug, Hi»- 
toria CanadrnHis, p. 078 ; Bolniont, 
llintoiro du Canada, p. 7. 

' A brand) of wampum is a long 
thread, on which Bcvoral beAcls of 
wunipum art! strung. — Chnrltrcur. 
The wampum, or rlRni-slirll beads, 
am calliHl by Charlevoix, ax l)y ear- 
lier French writers, jwirelaine, ai>- 
parently from their reseiiililancfl to 
thi> porcflain iH'ads which iiad long 

been madt! in Franco for tho trade 
on tho coast of Africa. The esprca- 
sinn, hrnnrhe de purcclnine, corro- 
8|M)ndB, apparently, to the fathom of 
wampum of early Now York writers. 

'' lielation de la Nouvelle France, 
16.')!1. pp. 10-12. 

^ Poncot mentions but one of the 

* Illation de la Nouvelle Fntnce, 
1653, p. 14. 



on tlio inissi(juftry'i(, and that be had coino iu all hiisto to 1653. 
give infonuation.' ^— v^— ' 

This inti'lli},'c'«co in a moment chanj^od the prisoner's llo is ddw- 
position. Thcv first took him to Oraii},'^,' to have clothes 
made for him— f(ir his own had been, according to custom, 
torn to pieces. On returning to the Jlohawks, he was led, 
in a kind of triui)i]ih, through several towns, and every- 
where greeted with marks of the sineerest friendship. At 
last, on the luth of October,' he set out for (Quebec, with 
a deputy from the canton, who bore presents for the 
governor-g(!neral and the superior of the missi(ms. They 
had been two days on the march, when they were over- 
taken by an express, sent to tell the deputy tliat tlio hos- 
tages who had been placed in the hands of the French 
were in irons, that some had even been tomahawked, and 
that he should como to a decision on the matter before 
going any further. 

This information embarrassed the deputy ; but as ho DanRorthst 
esteemed Father Poneet, he contented hiiilself with the ''i,i""v".y°" 
missionary's assurance that no harm should befall him, 
and continued his route. This alarm was followed by 
some others, which would have put tlie missionarj- in 
great danger, if ho had not had to deal with a man ])re- 
possessed in his favor. Those familiar with the Indians 
are not surprised at these incidents, for nothing is more 
ordinary among these savages than to spread such l)aso- 
less rumors. They sometimes spring from the mere iteh- 
ing to announce something new and unexpected, or fi'om 
the mere love of talk and of mischief-making.' 

back to 

' Rulation de la Nouvelle France, 
1653, pp. 9, 14. 

' lie was thorn Sept. 20, and com- 
plain>< of tlie coid n'c<'|>tion given 
him by tho goviTuor of Fort Ornngo, 
although a IntU'r from Governor do 
LauHon was handed to that olficcr 
by an Iro<|uoiB. 

' He luft the last Iroquuiij town, 

Oct. 8: Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, Id.W, p. 10 ; Cniuxius, Ilis- 
toria CnnadenHis, p. 081. 

* Relation de la Nouvtdle Franco, 
lO.'i;), i)p. 10, 17. An event belong- 
ing to the year 105;i may Ije inserted 
here from tlic Ji»iiit Journal. Fa- 
ther Raguont^au nays, under tho 
month of May ; " The ','Oth. a coua- 




Peace con- 

It is most fioiiuciitly to (li>fcjit Homo oporfttion tliat tlioy 
do not approvt' ; uiul it is most proluililc tlmt, in tlio 
present ciise, tlio autlior of this minor souj^Iit only to set 
all at varianee. Tlie faet was, that an Al;,'on(|uin had been 
put in prison at Ijnebee for infoxieation, and that not ono 
of the Iroijuois hostaj^'es Inid Iteen molested. Father 
Poneet, fortunati'ly delivered from these perils by tho 
confidence which his conductor had in him, nearly por- 
islud in i)ort. While shootinf^ tho Sault St. Louis, his 
canoe struck, and ho was in f;reat dan<^er <jf drowning. At 
last, on th(! 5th of Novendtor, he reached Quebec, wlu're 
he was received, as it were, in triumph, and where, during 
the eiitir(> term of his captivity, tlio}' had not failed a 
single day to ofl'er public ju'ayers for his deliverance.' 

Peace was alri'ady conchuled ; and in spite of post 
experii'uce of the levity anil ])erfidy of tho Iroquois, the 
people chose to Hatter themselves that it would be dur- 
able. The Five Cantons had conui to tho step without 
any concert with each other, and the Mohawks had made 
advances at a time when they seemed most embittered us and had nothing to fear on our side. This 
made all regard it as the work of Him who alone can give 
peace to the world ; but He, apparently, wished but to 
suspend for a brief period the fury of the enemies of His 
name, who had not executed all the sentences of His jus- 
tice, and give a colony, where Ho had u great number of 
true worshippers, time to breathe.' 

cil was lu'M at the fort with four 
Indian<!on<, oc w> from Nt-w 
England, who ha<l l)nniglit a letter 
from Mr. Jolin Ileliot, minit<ter of 
thow' (nmrteni, which letter wit- 
neiwtHi tlint tlie four Indiann, talien 
prisoners of war the preceding au- 
tumn !)>' tlie Algonquins Atontrato- 
ronons, wen* neither Hokokis nor 
Inxiuois, but were allies of tlie Kn^- 
lisli. . . . The rexiilution of tho 
oiuncil was, that tiiis nation waa 

friendly, and remotely allied to the 
Monta^naiH. The»w' amliai<8a(lor8 
brought thirty-six tino large iH'lts 
for the ])resent8 which they made; to 
thank us that their |ieo))lo bad not 
bwn tn'nte<l hostilely." 

' Kelaticm de la Nouvelln Franco, 
KWS, i>. 17 ; CreuxluH, Historia Ca- 
nadensis, p. (J82. I^! Mercier (.Jour- 
nal) says he reached (iuel)ec, Nov. 4. 

' Ui'lation de la Nouvello France, 
lOSit, pp. 17-lK). Tho Mohawks 


The next yoar, Fiithor li- ^Mcjync was sent to Onondaga 
to ratify tlio tix-uty in tho nanio of tlu; governor-gcufial, 
ami all pasHoil with great natisfaction on hotli Hides. Tho 
uiis-sionary told tho Indians that ho wished to have his 
cabin in tlu;ir canton, and his oiler was not only accepted, 
but a site was marked ont, of which ho took possession. 
Ho was then feasted in several towns, loaded with pres- 
ents on behalf of all tho sachems, and taken back to 
Quebec according to their promise.' 

But tlu! joy in8i)ired by tho happy success of liis nego- 
tiation was nothing compared to that whi(!h ho felt at tho 
sight of a multitude of Huron captives, who formed amid 
tlic heathen a church quite similar to that of the Jews 
during the captivity of Uabylon. Their faith had boon 
put to the severest tests, and was only the more lively.' 
Tho example of their virtues, and the pathetic exhorta- 
tions of some of th<'ni, had inspired the Iroipiois with an 
exalted esteem for the rehgicm which they professed. 
Several even seemed disposed to embrace it. Father le 
Mojne baptized some ; and his extreme desire to see an 
IrotpKjis church well established, as soon as possible, 
made him, on his return, observe silenc t as to an event 
which befell him on his route, and which was only subse- 
quently learned from the Irocpiois themselves. 

He was in a canoe with two Onoudagas. Hurons and 



Fiitlicr la 
Miniiu (jooK 

til OlKili. 

cIhi;ii to 

ratiiy the 


Fervor of 
the lliirDti 


niiKintt tliu 

mndc tlii'ir prcHonts, Nov. 0, niul 
tlicy wen' rrturncd on tlii) 0th : L« 
Morcicr, Journal ; M. Murie de I'lii- 
cnrnation, LcttrcH Historitiui's, yi. 
2'J(l. A Inrn<' IriMjuoiH jiurty nu'ii- Tliri'o Uivers, but tlioy 
biiiiight to tiTiiiB of iM'iico by tho 
dt.-feat of u party near Montri'nl by 
thc! Huron cliu'f, Aiinontiiliii or Kii- 
nontagn. Thi' bravo Huron took 
pri»oni'r» wvcrnl great war-cliicfn, 
and went to Three Uivers to pro- 
pose negotiation : Ia^ Mercier, 
Journal, Aug. H, Ifir)!) ; Dollier do 
C'aB8on, Hittoiru de Montreal (MS.) ; 
Vol. n — 17 

Belmont, Histoin; du Canada, p. 7 ; 
Faillon, Histoire do la Colonie Fran- 
(.aise, J). 103. 

' lie left tiuebee, July 2, ir..-|4, and 
returned to it, Sept. 11 : Helation do 
la Nouvello Friinci', lfi.")t, p. 11 ; 
Creuxius, Hiistiiriu ('unadensig, p. 
70,') ; M. Marie de I'lni'iirnatiim. I^et- 
trcH lli8tiiri(|ues, p. 2'.>li. lie at thia 
time discovered the Onondaga nalt- 
Kprings : N. Y. !)<«•. Hint., i.. p. ;j:i. 

' Helation de la Nouvelh- France, 
H!.')4, p. 1;!; t'ri'uxiuH. IliMtoria Ca- 
nailensis, p. 707 ; M. Morie de I'ln- 
carnaiion, Lcttres Hititoriiiues, p. 228. 



1654. Algonquins followed iu otliors. As tboy apitronchi'il Moii- 

^"""^""^ treal, tlioy wore quito HurpriHod to hoo tlr uihoIvoh mir- 

Ailventiire rouudod by several canoes, full of Mohawks, who poured 

Mojiif, by upon them a volley from nil thch* muHkots. The Hurons 

"il'th.! and Algoucpiins wi-re all killed, as well as one of the Ou- 

ondagas — Father le Moyne being taken and bound as a 

prisoner of war. The surviving Onondaga was told that 

ho might return home ; but ho protested that ho could not 

abandon the missionary, who had boon confided to him by 

the sachems of his canton, and ho menaced the Mohawks 

with all the wrath of the Upper Iro(piois. 

At first they laughed at this threat ; but when thoy saw 
that the Ononilaga held firm, they changed their tone, 
unbound the prisoner, and put him in the hands of his 
faithful conductor, who took him to Montreal.' Mother 
Mary of the Incarnation, iu her well-written and highly- 
esteemed letters, full of excellent notices of these times, 
relates the event somewhat differently. She adds, that 
the conduct of the Mohawks was disavowed by their can- 
ton, who threw tho blame on a Hcdlauder, born of a Mo- 
hawk mother, who had been brought up in his mother's 
cabin, lived with tho Indians, and is known iu oui* llela- 
tions only under tho namo of Batard Flamand — tho 
Flemish Bastard.' Bo that as it may, this accident, 
known quite late, made no alteration in tho an-angement 
made by tho treaty of peace concluded between tho two 
nations. This was not even the only insult received from 
tho Iroquois, and as to which it was dtiomed prudent by 
tho French authonties to closo their eyes." 
There ^vero then six huuilred Hurons in Isle Orleans, 

' Relation do la Nouvelle Franro, 
1654, p. 33. Crousius (Higtorin Ca- 
nadensis, p. 71."i) RuppoHes tliiM to Im3 
on liiH return from Onomiaga ; but 
there in iiotliing in the Uelnlion to 
malic U8 Hupixitie it to Ix'ho. It wub 
apparently going from liuelpee to 
Montreal, 8ub8e<iuently. 'I'lie Jour- 

nal of le Mercier is lost for this 
p«'rio<), and the Relation of KJ.'t.'i was 
currii'd off by robbers : Ferland, 
('ours d'Uistoire, i., p. 419. 

' Relation de la Nouvelle Franco, 
1(;.")4, p. 11. 

' t'opie de deux Lettrefl, 1055, 
p. -i. 

iriS'l'dHY OK Ni;\V I'llANCK. 

wlmro they bi-^'ivn ti) suppnit tlirniHi-lvi-H hy tln'ir own 
liilior. Ah tlicy wcro tlic flower of tli»> CliriHtiiiiis of that 
nation; ns they Iiad not alMiii.loncd tin- Lor.l in the I 
uiiHoricH wlin-cwith he liad jti'iniitted tlicni to lu> aHlictod ; 
and an they had l.oinr the Kcanthil of tlin (Vosh with 
putiencf' and n'sij,Miation, csjMTially iidiniialilr in n«!o. 
pliytcK, it is caHv to roncrivc their fervor at a time whin 
••very thing h'd tiieni to >,niititude towards Him wlio givetii 
death and (|niikeneth, always for the i^nnd of His elect, 
IJesidoH, they hieked no aHsistanee which conid Hervo to 
Monrish their i)iety. The most fervent had heen formed 
into two sodalities, one f(jr men and lh(> other for women ; 
and those associations '[n-udueed among these fervent In- 
dians the sumo fruits of holiness that wcro then admired 
in all parts of the Christian world wliero they wore ostab- 
lishod.' And tins wo say, notwithstanding what is written 
by an author who had every reason to distrust his inior- 
mation, and whoso profession shotdd havo rendered hini 
more reserved in spooking of things as to which ho cou''. 
not bo p(>r4onj-.!ly informed.' 

Th(3 desire of i:uitating the Queen of Virgins modk ,. 
nnnd)er of the young women embrace (u-libacy ; and tho 
edifying conduct of thes(> spouses of Christ invested with 
respect, in tho eyes of tlu> Indians, a state which had, a 
few years before, boon dtisjiised. The other sedentary 
missions gave no less e'diacation to the French ; and tho 
tranciuillity brought about by the peace gave hopes that 
all tho nations of tho North and East would soon end)race 
Christianity— nothing, it seems, any longer pn.'venting 
their approaching us, or our missionaries visiting them. 

Meanwhile, tlio Mohawks were laboring undtM-hand, and 
sought an opportunity to tr()ul)le the repose which wo 
and our allies enjoyed. Interest, a motive hitliorto little 
known among these people, but which had been inspired 

' Relation do la Nouvello Franco, » Le Cl<rcq, Etnblibucment do la 
1054, p. 80. Foi, I., p. rm. 



'irly of II18 

IlllfMlin ill 




1654. hy Europoftu coinniorco and exftiiiiilc, wftg tlio iiiaiii 
'""""'""' giKiiiul of tlmir tliscontout ; aud their jealousy against tlio 
Till' Mo- other cuntonH had wowed tlie Heeds of gntut contentions 
to iiriuk .itiini<)nf,' fheni. As long as the war lasted, that nation had 
lu iniKc. j,.n,j,,(| (.xclnsively with tho Duteli, whieh greatly dirt- 
jjleaH«(l tho I'pper Cantons, because the trail which they 
wore obliged to tako to roach Orange was very long, and 
eouipelied them to pass through tho lands of tho Mo- 
hawks, who thus held them in a kind of de})endence ; and 
besides, tho Mohawks, supported by their propinquity to 
tho Dutch, woro ablo to dictato terms to tho whole 
Tiipyro- All those advantages ceased with tho iicacc, which 
tiiiiiun, mill opened trade between tho French an I tho lippor Cau- 
luj-broiiitr. tons. It is not, therefore, astonishing that tho latter 
showed so much eagerness to conclude tho treaty, or 
that the Mohawks nianifostod repugnance, and repented 
as soon as they had concurred in it. Moreover, they 
iiover wished it to extend to our allies • ">d, in fact, they 
did not arrest, or discontinued for only a brief term, their 
war-parties against them. Tlu y soon wearied of observ- 
ing tho conditions agreed upon by them with us, and 
•which consisted in their not appearing in arms in tho 
colony, and not disturbing tho niissionaiies in their func- 
tions. A Jesuit lay-brother, John Liegcois, was found 
near Sylleri, pierced by two musket-balls, his head sev- 
ered from the body, and the scalp gone.' 

It was then evident that there was no longer any room 
for temporizing with such an enemy, who was without 
self-control ; and it was deemed necessary to reduce him 

' Copio (le deux Lcttrcs, lOSr), p. 3. 
See also Helatinn de la Nouvello 
France, 1(I4«, pp. 1(1, 17. 

'' Copif df deux Li'ttres, IfiS.'i, p. 3 ; 
M. Marie de I'liirurnatioii, Ijcttri-s 
Histori(]iU'P, p. 230 ; ("reusius, Ilis- 
toria Ciinadonsis, p 7;(3. Bnither 
Liegeois wag killvd. May 30, 1G55. 

He had been in the colony from 
1034, and rendered importimt ser- 
vices. Ho hud ju8t put up a fort or 
blockhouHi- at SiUiTy, and went into 
a wofid to see whetlierthere were any 
signs of the enemy, when he was 
Buriirisi'd and killed : Sketch in Jes- 
uit Journal, close of 1050. 



it tlirt 
I hud 
' dis- 
,', and 
) Mo- 
; and 
lity to 


ty, or 
, thoy 
t, they 
, their 
s, and 
in tho 
r func- 

d BCV- 

: room 

;e him 

ny from 
tiint ser- 
n fort or 
fcnt into 
ho was 
!h in Jes- 

in all lia.sto, while thoro waa a liopo that hr would not lio if.,-4. 
suslaiiic'd by tlm utlicr cantoiiH. Aoconljni^ly, so many ^— y— ' 
di'tachnu'ntH were sent out, that tli.'v lin.ilh sucicfchd iu KvpLimf 
insiiii-iu},' those .savages witii alarm ; and nntliin-, ixTJiaps, ^'"i',;)J;;,';. 
contriluited to thin more than the exploit of an Algoutiuin 
Wjuaw of Sylk'ri. Hhc was in tho field with her huslxuid 
and ciiildren, when five Mohawks suddenly started ui), 
nished on her unsusi>ecting husband, and hound him. 
The children were too small to escape, ami for the samo 
reason they neglected to bind the woman. The Moliawks 
paid dearly for this confidence. At a moment when th(>y 
least exi)ected it, tho courageous (.'hristian seized a 
hatchet, drove it into the head of the eiiicf of tho parfv, 
and then tomahawked another who ran up to his assist- 
ance. Tho remaining three, astonished at such boldness, 
at once fled, leaving our heroine with her husband, whose 
bonds she cut, and her children, whom she touk back in 
triumph to tho village.' 
These reverses disgusted tho Mohawks. They once more ^, .. 

T "1. 1 11. ^ **" 

soJiciteil peace, and this time without any restriction ; and i'»«i<Hro- 
as tliey were very earnest to have a missionary, and l"'"''- a 
Father le Moyne still more earnest to ol)tain permission ut'iven'io 
to go among them, their wishes were gratified." Tho mis- """"' 
sionary was well received, and this was suflii-ient to con- 
vince him that the Mohn-^^ks really wished to live on good 
terms with all the world. He was not disabused, even 
after one of those savages, taking the part of a maniac or 
possessed person, ran the whole night long through the 
various cabins, tomahawk in hand, yelling that he meant 
to kill Ondesson. This was the missionary's Irocjuois 
name, and had been borne by Father Jogues before him.' 
This madman would, apparently, have cunied out his 
threat, had he found minds at all disposid to approve it ; bnt 

' Copie de deux Lettres, 1C55, p. 8 ; ' Ondessonk : R.-lniion, Kiii!), p .';;!. 

Creuxius. Hist. C'anad.. p. 743. It was also tlir Ilur.m umii.. of Tob- 

'Co|>io de deux Lfttres, Uir^, p. souat or lo Hort'iie do I'Isle: Hila- 

2; CruuxiuB, Ilist. Cauud., p. 743. tion, 1037, p. \40. 

( ' I 




1654, no iiiir iiiovrd. Ah to FatluT If Movii*', lu-itlu'ran iiiciilint 
"■""■v— ' hlioMiii;,' HO foiuliihiNrl} tlmt it wuh not yvi tiuit* to tiUHt 
t<i tli(« MolmwkM. nor niniiy ollu-r rvciits, coniiii},' in (|uick 
hiu rcsHioii, i-uiiid iuiii< I't'ivi' liiiii. I'ui'Hintdi'il tlmt, \>y iliiit 
of oultiMitiiij; tlmt siiviif,'e ponpli', i\wy would ultinmlcly 
tiiiiif tliciii, lie did not titko painH cnougli to Htudy tlii-ir 
clmriiitrr 11 study \t'i y ncct'HMitry to any one wlio foriiis a 
|Mnj(i-t so dilliiult as that of d»'stio_\ ing all tla; incjudicutt 
of llic mind and all the pasHions of tlic heart.' 
Twnntlitr '^'"' dx'ndagaH mscnn-tl to act with more fi'aukn«>HH, and 

*!"""""■ Fathtis Clmunioiiol and !)al»lon were Htiit to them.' Tho 

iirii-K |«rt»- 

wf.l iM <ii.- foiin,.!' was of Italian orii'in,' and at the time the oldeHt »)f 

llll.luifll. . 

the missionaries in New France, where he lal»or»'d to au 


extreme oKl agt! with unwearied iSeal, and whuro his mem- 

' ('(i|ili> ill' il*Mix Li'itrrK, lil'iO, |i. 
2; M. .Murir (li< 1 lui-uniutioii, l^'U 
tn* lliHiipriiiuc'H. PI". ',M."> 1). Tlicy 
iiri- iiiil MCI w'Vcri' nil li' .Moviir. 

' ('•i|ilc (If (li'iix l.iilrfx, ll!"i5, pp. 
\i-ti ; CriiuliiK, lliHioriii ( uiiuili'iiHii), 
p. 74ii. riiuiiiiioiKit lin Ills .\iiti>- 
liiiiirriipliii', p. 1X1) NivH tlmt .Mcimrd 

WIIN HcllCllsl, llllt tlmt III' WItH IMilt 

at till' iii-tiiiiri' III' (iiivrriiiir <li- Luii- 
Hill : .M. Marii' ilr riiicurimtioii, Litt- 
tri'x IIiHiiiri<pii'H, p '.' Id. 

■' I'litT .liiwpli .Mury ('Imtininiiiit 
waMKil III liuliuii nri^'iii. Clmrlrvoix 
WUH liiislnl liy all alliiHinii of Dalilmi 
to IiIh Italiait Htyli'. Krimi IiIh iinii 
vi'ry t'lirioiiH ucdiuiil of Iiim lifo it a|> 
|M'ars tlmt hi' uiitt iMirn m-ur CliHtil- 
liiii-Hiir Si'iiic, ill mil, ami afttT 
niniiiii^ uwny, and ni'i'tin^ tiiaiiy 
»lrun>;i' adviiitunw, ciitrri'd ihu Ji'U- 
uit iiii\ itialf in KiiiiH', on tliu 18th 
iif .May, l(i:t'J. Father I'oncct in- 
dui'i'd him Ut solicit thi- Aiiicrican 
niiMMiiin, and tlify cami' mil tnKi'ihtT 
in Kht'.l. Chaunioniit wax at oiii'it 
fMit III ihr lliiriin miMHion, and tluTu 
Hpiiit ilcvi'ii yrarc, vihilin>r llurnnH, 
I'l tiiii.'^, and Ncutt-rii. llo fuundud 

till- rolony on IhIc Orli'Hn*. Aflt'r 
hid ri'liirn Imm Oniinda|;a, \w ro- 
Niiinrd hiu cari' of ilif IlnriuiH ut 
CJih'Im'C, li<'aiiport, and linully at 
l.iiri'tli', wliirli III* tiiiiiidi d. lUiriu^f 
u vihit III .Moiitri'ui, III' I'KtubiiKliiHl a 
Htill HiiliMihliii^; riiiil'raliriiity ul' llio 
lliily Kamily. lli' ilji'd, Krliniary 
^1, Hilllt. iliH Indian nainr won 
Iji'clion. lifvidi'H IiIh Autobio^'ru- 
phytwitli Bri|iU'l, .Vi'W Voik. isriSi, 
liii wriilf u llmriiiiKh Huron ^t-ani- 
iiiur, of wiiich u traiiHlation hna 
Ixin piiIiIIhIk-iI in tin- 'I'ranHuctionii 
of the (jiU'Im'C Literary and IliHtori- 
cal Society, vol. il , and wvcnil Ict- 
tiTH, prt'HtTvi'd In the Hi'ltttionH and 
in Curayon, DiM'tinuntM lui'ditM. 
Claudii Dalilon >vaH apparently fmni 
DieinK'. Ho arrived in Kirir), und 
after lalMjfinK atOnondafj^a, explori^ 
the l'ii|x'r Siigiienny, and attempted 
to reach HiidiMm'H Uay. In lIKIH ho 
wan sent to Lake 8u|K'ri()r. He be 
euinu HUperior of the niimionH in 
lliTU, and wuH in olllce in UWH. Ho 
dii-il at yueliee, in Il!!l7. He Ih tho 
author of tho liulatiuDH fur 1U71 to 



ory JH Htill ill bfiiodittioii. Futlicr Diililon Inul luit jumI 1655. 
arrived from Fiuium', and nipidly iiiM|iiir»d 11 liij,'li nputii- '-^y-^-' 
lion for wihdoni and virtue. 'I'hesr two luiioierH set out 
from (Juel>er, Si'iitenilxr !!•, Km'*, with tln' dtiputies of 
OiioinlaKii wlio iiad eoiuo t«» invito tlieni, atteiidid \>y a 
giciit nuinluu- of IndimiH of tiio Hanio nation. Tliey did 
not even wait till tiiey reached tiu'ir missionary (hstiiia- 
tiou l)efon> coinnnnein^,' the hiliors of tiie apostolate.' 

Th»' fiiHt (hputy was aeeonij)anie<l i»y his wife, who was 
extremely deli^'hted with hU that hIui saw anions' tho 
ChristiaiiH, especially in tlii) two communities of nuns. 
She incessantly (juestioned Father Chauinonot as to our 
ceremonies and mysteries. Seven or eij,'ht Iro(iuois united 
with her to roceivo instructions. They wcro touiluHl hy 
tho missionary's words, uud on reachinn their country 
■were in a condition to receivo baptism, which was admin- 
istered to tiiem with great poinj). What tlu^ examples of 
French i)ioty had produced in the heart of tho Jrocpiois 
woman just uientioucd, tho fervor and zeal of tlu^ Huron 
captives produced in the dilVereut towns in which they 
liad been dispt-rscd, and tho missionaries everywhero 
fouiiil a sincero aj)pr(U'iation of Christianity and hearts 
disposed to einbraeo it.' 

They reached that canton on tho 5th of Novemlxrr, and Tiiey ,.i«.it 
they had every reason to augur well for th(! future from " '"'"■"""• 
the rec»4)tion extended to them in the principal town. 
Tho presents which they bore, in tho name of :Mr. do Lau- 
8on, wore accepted with rosjjoct, and presents ch'liverod in 
return.* A site was then assigned to the missionaries for 
a rosidonco ; and as soon as they were lodged, tho Fathers 

' Coi.ic (If dfux l-.'ttr.'H, p. :t ; lie- in tlif N. Y. D(HMim.-nt«ry History, 

Intion (1(1 la \. K., 1(!5(J, p. 7 ; ('mm- i. Tho woman referred to is Teoton- 

ius, IliHtoria CaniidenslH. p. 74H. ImraHoii : Heialion, UiM, pp. 15, 23; 

■' They Nil out from guebi-c, Sept. CreuxiuH, Hint, ("miad., p. 701 ; U-i'. 

19, KIM ; left .Montreal. Got. 7 ; and tres IlJHtoriipicK, p. 'J4I. 
reaclied Onondaga, Nov. 5 : U,,la- ^ Ueiatlon de la Nouvelle France, 

tlon d(i la Noiivell.. France. l(l.5tl. pp itm, p. l") ; ('reuxiiw, Jiistoria C»- 

7-iJ. This full diary is in English nadensis, p. 701. 


f r 


\\\ti'V{>H\ OK NKW riJANCK. 



Frultn of 

their tlrnt 


inrortiiftl till' Hiu-hciiiH tliiit tlirv drHirciI to ilcclaii', in full 
coiiiicil, iiiid, if |ius>ilil(', ill a ^('ll( ral iihsci ililv of the can- 
toll, tilt* iiitciilioiiH of tlioht; who had Miit th'-iii. Thin 
I)ro|ioHition wiih wi>ll risccivi'd, uiul tlio UHHciiibl^' wuh u 
very liirj^o one.' * ' 

Fiitiu'r Chaui'ioiiot tlurc discoursed of tlm C'lirittiau 
faith in a iiianiur uliicli lillcd all his heaiciH \Nitli astoii- 
ishiiu'iit. He iiisist(>d stroii^dy on die iiiarvclloiiH chaii^o 
whivdt Christianity works in the hearts of those who 
eiiiliracc it siiieerely, and the ttlVtct of this ])art of his 
address derived additional v.ei^^Iit from the fact of their 
haviiij,' evident exaniples lu-foiv their eyes. At the eloso 
of his di-icoiirse, an orator thanked him, in the name of 
all, for the zeal which ]'" showi il for leading them to an 
eternal felicity, and told him that, compared with the 
French, other Kiiro))eaiis did not know how to talk.' 

They at once iie^an to i)nild a clia})el ;' and .m> many 
lent a hand, that it was finished in one day, and that very 
day u < 'echumen vtas liaptizetl in it.' Thenceforward 
the nii.'^sionaiies exercised all their functions with the 
Hamo freedom as thuu^di they wire in the midst of the 
French colony, and they found many hearts cjf which the 
Holy Ghost had already taken pos.session. A youiif^ 
luaideii, not yet hajiti/.ed, rtfused the two Itest niatdu's in 
Ler tuwu, for the solo reason that hur HuitorH wuru idul- 

' Ki-lati<in (If lo Nouvi'llc Frnnoo, 
KUiO, p. 14. !)«' Lhum)!) liiul eoiiciMicd 
t<) thrni 11 trnct tfii ieafiut'M ciiuuri', 
nt or ni-nrOiioniliiga ; Arrhivcn, Hii- 
ri-nu (li-H Ti'rn-K. 

' Tlio iiicuting at wliich tlm pn-n- 
cnt« wtTi' ffivru. and thr oiiu wluTo 
C'liaiiniiiniit ^ijkjRi' hi) al>ly, were the 
Baini- : l<«-lntioii, )>. !.'> ; CrciixiuH, p. 
'('01. ' lif Onundaga i)r«'Hriit« wero 
givt-n ill till- naiiio of the SiiffiK'hicn- 
da^jurir, calli'il by our writi-rs Ato- 

* The comparison wm with the 

Diitcli : lii'lation dc la Nouvf'.io 
Franc.', laid, p. 17. 

* Tim pri-wntB wrri' rctiinu'il on 
till- llltli. nnd l)i(> cliBiii'i i|Uotiiin 
taken up till- ITtii : Itrlntioii de la 
Nouvclle Franro, l(J.")(l, p 'M ; Crcux 
luH, lliHt. Ciinad., pp. 7TII, 771. 

' {{elation do la Nouvelle Fmnee, 
l(i5(i, p. 'iO Tbieo c'lilldreii wero 
baptized, Nov. Is, tlic day of itH 
erection: CreuxiuH, Iliittoriu <"nn»- 
deuHiH, )i. 771. Cbniimonot (in IiIh 
Autoliiofrrapliie, p. (!7) gives inter- 
VHtiug dutttila, 




fttiTH. A f « w <lii}M after, II wiir-rhiff ImviiiK in viiiii 1655. 
Holiciti liii' t(i Mill, n-suitcil to violciu-j' tii (-(iniiicl lur ; '"'<'"' 
l>iil till nolilt^ cnnvcrt liiui tlu' foititiidi' to wn-wt licisilf 
from liJH liaiiils, uiid csciiiu' to. a plu''/ fn<i- from IiIh 
jirfHceutioiiH. After muli a trial, Fatlier ('liamiionot 
thoiinlit it wroiif,' to liesitiite nuy longer to confer liaptiNMi, 
which she Holiciteil with ^,'reat eariieNliiesM ; aiiil he hail 
tlie I'ohHohition of hearing,' the heatlieUM tiieiiist 1v«h my 
that Hh*) tlewrvi'tl to la.' a ChriHtian- u (UHMMive testihiony 
in favor of u n-li/^ioii wIiohc sanctity i .>t ovon Hhertina^o 
ami lianliieHH of heart coulil Mreveiit niou from ackiiowl- 

A woniun, much eHtfomed iu tlio canton, waH ouo of t!io 
firHt tu tako l<cr placu amon^ th<' poHUiIant. for Ixiptism, 
and her wjiole family followed her exaniph. Some .if tho 
heathen wiHlunl to persuatle jier tjiat sin wouid ie^,'ret it, 
and, HJiortiy after, hIhi Mank into an exireiii; Ianf,Mior. Sho 
had a f^randnon, ten or twelve yearH old, to whom she was 
«rentlv attached. This cliild wuh attacked \>y the saino 
disease as his j^'randmother, and so(-ii wasted away to such 
nil extent that his viiy si^ht insiiired Jiorror. Th( ene- 
mies of Christianity did not fail to turn these accidents to 
necount ; luit their triumph was Inief enough, (iod in- 
spired tlie sutVerers with a constancy and 1 siijnaliou 
wiiich hei ume the topic of conversation and the admira- 
tion of till whole town ; and the moment thev received 
baptism, they recovered perfect health." 

This marvel, which was followed by several oth-rs, did 
not, however, save the two reli^'ious from expel iencini^ 
many contradictions and ruiiiiiiij,' many risks, chietly at 
the hands of some Hurons, who, bein^' hardened in heart 
while they were m their own country, ke]it con.stantly in- 
Binuatinj,' in tho minds of the Iroquois, that if they per- 
mitted tlie introduction of this titian^t! relij,'ion, it would in 

' Relation dr la Ncnvi'llc Fraiioo, ' The WDiimii Ihtc rcf'nrcd to is 
IfWd, p. 'Si; Crmixius, Uiaturii; Ctt- Tooloiiliarusmi, tlirir Ii<)>iihh : Hila- 
nadonHiB, p. 774. tion du la Nouv. Frauco, 1000, p. ^3. 




1655. tinio foinuiit i\w saiao riivaj^os us luul boon soon evory- 
^■""'r— -^ whoro that it liatl boon proailu-d :' ami as UDthiiij^ niakos 
a givator iinprossioii im llio luiiul of thoso nations than 
droaius, llioy iiiia^'int'd now ones ovory ilay,' to ondoavor 
to bring tho Onondagas to tlioir obj(>ct ; bit tlioy did not 
snooood, beforo oaro had boon taken to I'orowain tho 
Indians on this point. 
Pcgirnc- It was about tho samo tinio that tho Inxinois ooninU'tod 
Krio niitioii. thou' dostiiiotion ol tho nation oi tho Lrios or of tho Cat. 
This war had not ^a tirst boon fa\orablo to thoni ; bnt 
thoy woro not dishoartom d, and at hist got tho ui>[)or 
hand so (•oni|>lott.'ly, tliat, but for tiio gnat hdio wliioh still 
boars tho nanio of that nation, wo should not ovon know 
that it had existod.' It was roast)nably foarod that this 
now suoccos would mako tho Iroipiois rosumo thoir ;or- 
luor haughtinoss towards tho Frouoh, but tho Onomhigas 
only appoarod bottor lUsposod to unito thonisolvos nioro 
olosoly with tlioiu. To this vm\ thoy niailo advanoos 
which woro doouiod siuooro, inasmuch as at bottom thoir 
own interest dictated tho stop.* At last Father Dablon, 

' Ui'lntiim ill' In NmiVfllK Fraiici', 
1(I5(>, p. 'i'} ; I'mixiuH, llisloria t'tt- 
nnilriisin, p !''>. 

' Hi'lation dc In Nouvcllo Frnnci', 
Itlod, p. 'i') ; Crcuxiux, lliHtoriu Ca- 
nnilondiH, p. 770. 

■'TIm' Kiii'lirdiiium (Kclnliim, lll.'">4. 
p. U), KiqiK'liriiiiiioiiM ( licliilioii, I(i(i0. 
|). 7) — ^misiJiiiiUHl liif,iien'!iiiiin, Uc- 
lulidii, Midi, J). ''','•> — wiTi' culliJ, 
cviili'iit'.y, V:i.v by llic lliiroiis, niul 
Uiiiuc by till' t)iuiii<ln>rns. Tlu-y nt 
oil'' tiiiu' ilwi'lt on tho wiutlii-rn 
Bhi'ic III' liuki- Kric, but wcri' coin- 
ix'Ufil to ritiii' vi'i-y i'nr iiilnml 
by wi'Hlcrii t'ln'inicH. 'I'lii-y luul 
liiaiiy towns, ciiliivali'tl tlir I'uitli, 
and HjxiUi' n diali'i't »!' the Huron : 
Ki'lntion. l(i-18. |i. 40; Uri-nnnni, Uii'Vo 
|{uluti()ni', p. (i. Tliry witc cnlUd 
hy tliu French C'nt uution, from tho 

nuniU'r of wild-cntH in their coun- 
try : Ue'.ntioii, IImJ, p. 10. In 1054 
tlii'V were »uppone(l to have two 
tliouMind brnves, excellent bowMen, 
with poiioned arrowH : lb. None of 
the Helations jjivc any inori' definite 
inl'orniation a^i to their location, and 
of their towns but one name, Kentai- 
I'Uton, has been preserved, and that 
cannot In' idenlilied. Catharinu 
(ianneakteiui, foundn'ss of the In- 
dian vilhifTP at l<a I'rnirie, wils 
from this town: t'hnucheliere, MS. 
■* This colony to Onondaira was 
proniii^ed in thi' spniif; of 1(104 (Ue- 
lation lie la Nouvelle France, p. Ill); 
bill de hauson had no means to 
ert'ei't it. and he sent missionarirs, 
chietly to gain time. A council held 
Feb. 'J'.t, H!."i(!, in which a ruiiiiiro 
Wtt« thrctttouoil, made it noces.'sary 



in coticort witli tluMii, jnocccdcnl fo (Jiicbco, to o\u\oti\or 
ti) iiuliu't' ISfr. ill' JiHUsun io sfiul ;i ^'ooil miiiibrr of Ficiu'Ii ^ 
aiiiouj; tliiMii.' 

Ho sturtoil 1)11 till' 'ill of ]\[iiroli, IfiaC), with a muui'ious I 
nsi'ort, ami rt'iu'lu'il (^)iii'lt(r only in tlio eiirlv part of , 
Aiiril." Ill' hail no iliUii-nlty in briiij^'iiij^ Mr. ili' Jiansoii 
into tlin vii'ws of tlio Iroqnois ; ami imtwitlistamlin^ all 
that was told that gciioral by a llnroii. who had livi'il 
long among tho C)nonilagas, (o dissnadf him from trusting 
to tliosi Indians, lu> fonld not alti-r his ri'solvi-.' J''ifty 
Fronehmi'ii wi'iv rliosi'ii to go and fonn tho proposoil set- 
tli'ini'iit, and tin- Sii'iir Duiuiys, an olVu'rr of thi> garrison, 
was assigiu'il to tiii'in as I'ommamlaiit.' I'atht'r l''rani-is 
lo ]\riri.'ii'r, who had siu'ci'i'ili'd Fathor Ji'ronu' 1 alli'inant 
in tlio ortJi'o of siiporior-gi'iirral of ihi> missions, wisiird to 
condiii't in lU'ison thosi' of his ri'ligious whom hi> had 
si'loett'd to ostablisli thi' first Iroqnois i-huivh. Thi'so 
were Fathi'rs Fniuin, Mosnanl, and Dablon." Tlu'ir 
di'parture was lixi'd for tlu' 7th of May ; and although tho 
harvest had bi-i-n by no nit'ans iibnndant, the Siiur i)u- 
puys was plontifnlly sni)plii'd with nii-ans to sni)port all ■ 


riiji'.'l "f a 


for nul)1<Mi 111 {TO. oih'cinllv Hs llicri- 
wiiu a it'inMt tliat OiKmilii'rns witi' 
illl|>I'i^^cllU'lial Moiiti'i'iil : ('liiuininiiot 
Autohiiijfriililni', \>. (iS ; Ht'liilinu ilf 
111 Nouvi'lli' Kraiii'i', Kl'id, i>. ;!."i ; 
(."rruxiuK, Hist. ('iiniuli'nsiK. ]>. T!M. 

' In July, h!")."), tin' Diikfilc' naiiii*- 
villi', ('(itiiit lit" liinm, wa.s ajiaiii 
iiiaili' virn-ivy of New Franc': Mem. 
Hist. Soc. .Miiiitiinl. 11. 111). 

' lie miilii'cl .MiHilfral. .Man h lit), 
Ili.")(! : C'ri'iixiii.-i, Uist.Caiiail., p. 70)1. 

' Ui-laliiin (If la N. K., Ki'iti, p ;;s. 

* /adiary dii I'livs was (■oiuniaii- 
liaiit of t'li" I'orl lit IjucIh'c J-'ciliiinl, 
Cdurs il'llisloi/r. i., p. .'.'(I* aii.l lif- 
cniiic si'lwipuiilly .Major ot' .Muii- 
tri'ul : Faillim, ii . pp :lHS.."il 7 ; .Mirii. 
8<)f. Hist. Mnnlr(;il. p. l;i:i M .Mary 
of llio liu'anialiiiii siualis liif;lily(if 

liim: liitti.'s Historiipiis. p. T);", llo 
liKiktcn siililicrsof llic jrarri.siiii (tl-'t., 
Ki.lS. p. ;i), ami apiMirciilly forty othiT 
I'riiiclimcii : IJ.Iatinii. !(;,")(!, ,i. ;;tl. 

■' rr:iiii-is li' Mcrcicr I'litin-il tho 
onli'rOi't. It, lll'.'O ; came toraiiada 
in lll;!."i ; was on the llurnii mission 
till its ruin ; Sii|K'rior iVoiii l(;,"i:! Id 
1(l-"iil. aiii' from liiC..") ti' l(>70. and as 
smh ]aililisliril six Ki'lalions. llrwua 
for a time dinrtorol M Mary of tho 
Incarnation. .M'u" l<'«\ iiifi; I'Hiiada 
in lli7;' was will lo tin- West Iii- 
diis a.s visitor, and ilii d at Marli- 
iiiipii', .lull.' r,', lii'.lli. Jiionio l.alo- 
iiiant. Ii irn at I'arid in l."i!):i, laino 
in Canada in Ili.iS; on lliiiiiii niirt- 
sioii till llil.'t; Siiprrior from Kill to 
l(l."il) ; in h'laiHi' floin li;."ill lo lll."i',) ; 
iipiiii Superior, H!")!) to llKi.") ; died 




1656. his party duriug a wliok' year, as well as seed to sow the 

^—''^f~'~' lands of which he should take possession.' 

iioxtiiity of The uows of tliis enterprise having sjjread around, gave 

imwktt. the Mohawks much serious thought, and reawakened all 

their jealousy of the Onondagas. A general assembly of 

the whole canton was held to deliberate on this affair, which 

seemed of the highest imiDortanco. The conclusion was, 

to resort to every means in order to thwart the new 

settlement. In consequence of this deliberation, a party 

of four hundred men was raised and sent out, with orders 

to scatter Dupuys' troop or cut it in pieces. They mis8i3d 

it, however, and then, in revenge, plundered some isolated 

canoes, and even wounded some of the occupants. After 

that, these traitors, pretending to be mistaken, said : " We 

did not know that you were Frenchmen. We took you 

for Hurons or Algonquins."' 

They carry It was not deemed by the French at the moment politic 

tlio'^furons to follow up this iusult, in hopes of being soon in a posi- 

("iruulw" tiou to render their vengeance more certain ud decisive, 

if the Mohav, ks did not spontaneously make reparation ; 

but they soon after showed that nothing was further fi'om 

their thoughts. They approached Isle Orleans, and one 

morning," before sunrise, they fell on a oand of ninety 

Hurons, of all ages and sexes, who were at work in a field, 

killed six, bound all the rest,* and putting them in their 


at Quebec, January 20, 107;i. Jiimes 
Freniiu was aiiparontly recently ar- 
rived. He was in Onondajija from 
ICifi to 1058; then at Miwou, 
Three Hivers, and ("niie de la 
Madeleine. Selected tor the Cayu- 
ga misBiiin in l(!(ili, he wa.* mis- 
sionary on the Moliiiwk fnmi l(i07 
to 1071. He died nt Quebec, July i, 
lOlH. Two lay-brotliers. Brother 
Aiuhrosi' Broiir and Iholher Jose|iIi 
Bountier. alw) w(!nl : Helati(Ui, 1(150, 
p. :!H ; Hclation, 1057, ]).!); Crcux- 
ius, Historia Canadensis, p. 7!)4. 
' 1 do not lind this in the Hela- 

tion, 1057, and from p. 11 it Bcems 
that tlu'y did not take provisions 
enough to last till they got 10 Onon- 

' Relation de la Nouvello Finiu-i", 
1057, p. i). A lay-brotlier is iho 
only one mentioned as wounded. 

"May 20, 1050: Rel.. 1057, p. 5; 
Chauraonot, Autol)ii)graplne, p. TA. 

* The Relation for 1057 does not 
give the total numhcr or that of 
the kille<l. It says indefinitely (p. 
0), " Our loBR was seventy-one jKir- 
sons, with a great number of young 



canoes, pasaoil hanj,'litily bcforn Quohen, inakinj^ tlicir 1656. 
prisoners sing in front of tlu! fort,' tin if to dofy the gov- 
ernor-goncnil to oomo iuul rescue tlieni from tlieir luuids, 
curried them off to tlieir village uiiinn'su(>d,' l)urned the 
chief among them, distrihutcul the rest among the cantons, 
and rctain(>d them in a harsh captivity.' 

Mr. do Lanson has heen severely censured for having 
put up with such insolence : and his inaction, it must be 
confessed, while they were carrying off, so to say, from 
between his arms, allies whose preservation e(pially con- 
cerned the honor of the French name and that of religion, 
casts a stain on his memory which all his virtue cannot 
efface ; but it is because there are misfortunes which men 
do not forgive, and which, to their way of thinking, dis- 
honor a man as much as the greatest cowardice. The 
Hurons, in consequence of a presumptuous confidence, 
had allowed themselves to l)e surjirised. To rescue them 
from the Mohawks would have recpiired the calling out of 
five or six hundred men ; and even if the governor-general 
had had them ready, the time necessary to arm and em- 
bark them would have given the savages a greater start 
than was needed to baffle any efforts of a pursuing party. 

A young Huron* of this ill-starred band, who escaped 
from the village where he was a captive, subsequently 
gave most edifying details of the piety and constancy of 
these fervent neophytes, many of whom were treated with 
unparalleled inhumanity, especially one of their chiefs, 
whose tortures lasted three days, during which he never 

" I'crrot, Memoirc, etc., p. 106. 
Do la Pothcrie devntcs only one 
pnge (Ilistoirc de rAui(Tiqui> Si>])- 
tentrionalo, i)p. 125, I'JO) to the 
liistory of the Uiinms. 

^ Rt'lntion di' \a Xouvt'llc Frnncc, 
1057, p. ; Perrot, iMivurs, ote., d( s 
Sauvages, p. 84. ("olden 0" hisi "i»- 
tory of the Five iVations, N. Y., 1727, 
p. 17) alludes to this surprise bh a 

" great hattel, in which the Quato. 
gliics (i.e., Hurons) ucrc entirely 

^ iM. Marie de I'lnoarnation, Let- 
tres Histori(|ues, pp. Wi, '>'■]:]. The 
details of tins suri>rise were ascer- 
tained from Joachim Ondakout. wlio 
was relieved by the colony going to 
Onondaga ; Helation, 105?, p. 11. 

* Joachim Ondakout. 




tiiiii xl'tlio 



'"5"- coascil jjraisiiig tlio Loril, ultliougli he discovereil from 
the outset that it was lii« perse vol auce iii this holy exer- 
cise which irritated his torturers tiud made them prolong 
his iiuirlyrdom.' 
A'lventiires A fortnight after the occurrence of this misfortune, 
"minis iii'u'r tliirt}- Ottawas' landed at Quebec, guided by two French- 
men,' and loaded with fars. 13ut before enter'vg into 
the results flowing from this voyage, it will be well to 
resume matters a little farther back. 

The Iroquois had no sooner expelled the Hurons from 
their country, tliau they undertook to inflict the same 
treatment on all their allies. The Ottawas were of this 
number ; and as they saw themselves no longer in a jjosi- 
tiou to resist the conquerors of one of the bravest and 
most powerful nations on the continent, they did not deem 
it proper to wait till the Irocpiois came to burn their towns 
and butcher them there. 

Some had already retired to Saguinaw Bay, others to 
Thunder Bay (^both on Lake Huion), a number to Mani- 
touaUn* Islantl, and that of Micliillimakinac ; but the 
mass of the nation remained on the banks of the great 
river' which bears their name, till the eutii'e destruction 

' KclHtion do la Nouvelle Franco, 
1057, p. ;.',-). 

^ Tlie Fronch form is Outoouais ; 
but as it will be of constant occur- 
rence, the ordinary Knfflish form 
will be adopted hiTt-afn^r. 

■' 'I'heso two Frenclnnt'n had set 
out, Aug. 0, lfl')4 (Relation de la 
Nouvelle France, 1050, p. !58), and 
returned in the latter j)art of August, 
1050 : lb. ; Pcrrot, Mobutb, etc., 
p. 83. 

* These were all appari'ntlv old 
resorts. Thunder Hay is said t« bo 
called from a chief of that name. 

' Charlevoix hero follows out his 
erroneous idea tliat the Ottawas 
were on the Ottawa River. See 

ante, p. 8. The Ottawas, a small 
tril>e allied to the OutchipoueB, or 
OjibwHVs, always resided west of 
tlie Hurons. They are first called 
AudatahoUat (Sairard, Dictioniiaire, 
r. Nations ; Histoiro du Canada, p. 
200); Ondatauauiit (Hre8«ini, p. 0) ; 
OndatAouatouat (Relation, 1054, p. 
0) — a Huron term, jierhaps from on- 
data, wood, and e<iuivalent to Gens 
dee Bois. Uu ("reus, in his map, 
places ilicm on Manitouline Island, 
a.s does Champlain (map, p. 7), 
Brtssani (Urovo Relatione, p. 0), 
and the Relation de la Nouvelle 
France, 1071, p. 'M. The Hurons, 
at a later date, gave this name to 
the Illinois : Potier (MS). 





; iuto 
eU to 

i from 
>f this 
, posi- 
3t and 

ors to 
it tlio 

a small 
out's, or 
west of 
t called 
aada, p. 

i, P-6); 
1654, p. 
rom on- 
to Gens 
is map, 
I Island, 
p. 7), 
, 1'- 6). 
name to 

of tlio Hmou towns. Then tlioy joined tho Tionnontatcz 1656. 
Hurons,' with whom they penetrated far iuto the soutliern ^— '^'^"^ 
regions. Tliey first fornied an alliance with the Sioux, Tho ott«- 
tlu'n fell out with tlu-ni, and, to their cost, trained to 
war that nation, till then by no means brave, and little 
known east of the ^Mississippi. They then broke up into 
several bauds, and the wretchi^d state to which they were 
reduced spread everywhere tho terror of the Irotjuois 

At last, in consequence of their wanderings in those 
vast countries, and their division into several bands, 
some of which have never since apjjearcd, both were bo 

' Some of till! Hurons fled to Mani- 
toulinu (Ik'lation, KWl, p. ')); the 
Tiouontntcs to Micliillimakiuac 
Islniid (liclation, 1(571, p. 87). In 
IG*)* tiiry were at 'I'luoiitoiai — V llu! 
Nixjuet Islands — (Urlation, 1(17^, p. 
85 ; I'errot, ji. «()), and tlie next 
year were about to retreat iuto Lake 
SuixTior, to Aotonatenilii' (Hugue- 
neau, Journal, July, 1(>5!5), near 
the great lake whicli wo call " of 
the I'uants" ^lielatlou, 1054, p. 'J) — 
probably the Puinte du St. Esiirit, 
Chngoiinrgon (Ucl., I<i07, p.!) ; W>-i, 
p. 35). In 1U58 tliey were unioiin- the 
PottawutaudeK(Uilati()n. KiSs, p. ^1 1, 
anil in 1()5!) they \ver<! on the Mib- 
eisi'ippi (Kehition, KUlO, p. 12 ; I'er- 
rot, !>. bli). Here tlicy came into 
couliict with tho Sioux, anil liilling 
out with them, ascemled Black 
Kiver (I'errot, p. M7), olthough tho 
Ottawas, who had till then kept 
them company, marched on to Cha- 
goiraikon (I'errot, [>. 87). Here Me- 
nard evidently found the Ottawas, 
and was going from their village to 
that of the llurons on Ulack River 
when he lost his life (Relation, 10(i;j, 
p. 21 ; I'errot, p. 91) A rcmuunt of 
the Neuters was aiiparently blended 
with these Tionontates. After the 

overthrow of the llurons and Tio- 
nontates, six hundred Irixiuois, in 
11)50, attacked the .Neuters, but were 
routed liy Tahnntaeural, who killed 
two hiiiiilreil (K'iii;'iieiieuii, Journal, 
April, 11)51). Anotlier iKiqiiois iirniy, 
of twelve Imndreil, invmieil tlie Neu- 
ter territDry the next winter (ib.) 
Thete took Te Otondiution, and des- 
olated the Neuter country (ib., Sept., 
1051); but the Neuters formed uu 
idliance with the .\niliistes, and 
gained such ndvantnges that the 
Seneca women ami childri'n fled 
from tlieir towns lil)., .April 111, l(!5'i). 
Till! last Neuter town was oiijHjsite 
Detroit (I'errot). After this a rem- 
nant of eight hundretl fled to Skan- 
ehioe, and in tlie fall of 1(15;! were 
preparing to join the Tionontates at 
Aotonatenilie, three leagues beyond 
the Rapid Skia.o or Sault St. Mary, 
which was a general resort of Otta- 
was, I'hippeways, Nipitisings (Jour., 
July, l(i5l!). Here we h)se trace, 
and cannot tell whether they actu- 
ally united with the llurons or sub- 
mitted to the Iroipiois. Most i)roI>- 
ably they did iMjth, as, some years 
later, they formed a considerable 
part of the Senecas. 
' Perrot, Memoire, pp. 80, 87. 




Tlio Ottn- 

roilucpcl in imiubcrs, tlmt it mny bo said that not a tw»^n- 
ticth part n )w exists.' It was oi"' r,f lu«»«.i detached 
bamlrt of the Oii.-.^viv nation, wli', luul been joined l)y somo 
Hnrons, that tlio two Fieneliinen just mentioned had 
brought from tlio shcu'cs of lialce Mieliigan to Quebec, 
wliens their weU'ome was the more cordial from the praiso 
b( stowed by their guides on the treatment which tliey 
had received. Intercourse witli tlie HurouH had some- 
what improved the manners of that people, one of tho 
rudest in Canada, and had even given them some slight 
tincture of Christianity.' 

The two Fri'nchmen, who were worthy men, had bap- 
tized some of their children at the point of death,' and 
these little innocents went to take possession of heaven in 
the name of their nation ; but notwithstanding these fair 
hopes, tho assiduous care of the missionaries never 
could induce the Ottawas to relish the things that are 
of God. There are few nations on the whole continent 
where more etlbrt lias been made to produce Christians 
and more unsuccessfully ;' but thevo was then no reason 
to judge so, and the peltries, with Avhich those who had 
just arrived at Quebec were loaded, nuide Mr. de Lauson 
believe it his duty not to neglect this occasion of extend- 
ing the trade of the colony. 

Thirty young men ottered to accompany the Ottawas 
on their return ;' and Father le Quien,' who governed the 
mission during the absence of Father le Mercicr, allowed 
himself to be persuaded to give them Fathers Dreuillettes 
and Garreau, with Louis le Boesme, a lay-brother, who 

' Neither the Relations nor Per- 
rot convey tliis idea 

^ Kelation de la Nouvelle France, 
1G50. p. 39. 


* The present missionaries have at 
last succeeded. 

' Relation .le la Nouvelle France, 
1656, p. 40. 

' His name was John Dequcn, aa 
his own aiitogrnph attests. In tho 
Relation de la Nouvelle France for 
1056, written l)y him, it is printed 
De Qven. He came to Canada in 
10^3, and labored chiefly at Qiiehcic. 
Ho was Superior from lOoO to l(i5'.), 
and died at Quebec Oct. 8, 1650, serv- 
ing the sick in time of ixistilence. 




nr.i .- iiri' 

(.'ivcii to 

MMIir of 


liad 1)0011 I)ron<,'lit up h\ Fiitlicr (lt> Brclxnif in tlit^ Huion i>'>-/>. 
missioiiH. This ('oiivoy stiirtcd from (^)u{'lu'(' ii littli' In'foio "^ ."■ 
inid-Augnst, iiiul the next day, us it approiu-lu'd Tlirro 
llivci's, it was warned by a eauoe, dispatelieil l>y the 
governor of tliat town, tliat thoro was n party of :\r()l!a\vks 
ill the neij^diborhood. Thin jiarty had alrcidy iliscennd 
the Ottawas, and laid an andaiseade for thciii ; Ijiit they 
did not fall into it, and arrived safely at Tliree Kiveis.' 

The French who aceompanied tlioiii then relhcted that 
these Indians were very ill eipiipped, and that they eould 
not cscapt! an eneountur witli a foe whoso forees nii;^]it 
increase at any moment. They accordini^ly resolved (o 
proceed no further; and there were only three who were 
unwilling to abandon the Jesuits." The Ottawas were no 
sooner embarked than tlu>y perceived that the Mohawks 
■were at their heels ; yet this did not induce them to use 
greater luvcaution as they advaneetl. They had i)ur- 
cliased fire-arms, the use of which was new to them. They 
delighted to try them, and so kei)t the IMohawks in- 
formed of their route. Their •i)ursuers thus had time and 
means to choose a suitable place to surprise them or 
attack them advantageously." 

Such an opportunity presented itself on the banks of tiuv nro 
the Lake of the Two :\rouiitains, which is the discharge of "'Xi^Mo-''^ 
the Great Eiver into th(( river St. Lawrence, above the '"'"''"• 
island of Montreal. Hi-re they intrenched themselves on 
a little hill, which gave tliem a lookout for a great dis- 
tance, and they posted a c(Misideralile immb(>r of men with 
guns in the bushes, on an advanced point close to which 
the Ottawas had to pass. Si-X canoes, containing Hurons 
exclusively, with Futlu r Garveau, were at tlie head of this 
couvoj', and, when they came within n aeJi. the Mohawks 
poured a volley on them,' killing and wounding a trreat 

' Relation de In N. K, 1 (!.•)<!. |,. .|o. ■< Relation do la Xouvfllc France, 

' Relatiiin do lii Nouvc'.li' Fniiico, 1(1.".(;, ji. -10: Cr uxius, llistoriu (.'ana- 

fiSd, ]i. 40 CliarU'Voix dors not drnsis, p. TIMI. 

follow the aulhority i)rocisoly. J Rotation d.- la .N'. F., l(i.")li, p. 41. 
Vol. II.— 18 




Fntlior (!iir- 
roan iiKir- 


many. Tlioy tlion rusliod on, tomahawk in hand, antl 
niado prisoners of all who had not periHlicd at tho first 
volley. Among those; captives was tho missionary, whoso 
spine was broken by a muskot-ball.' 

At tho first sound of tho attack tho Ottawaa pliod their 
paddles to relievo or avenge their comrades. On reach- 
ing tho point where the Huion canocis had remained with 
the corpses of tho slain, they landed without opposition, 
and in the ardor which possessed them liad well-nigh 
carried all the Mohawk defences ; but after a pretty stub- 
born fight, in which nuu-h blood was shed on either side, 
the assailants were obligeul to draw off'. Yet they did not 
retire far, but intrenched on their side, firmly resolved, to 
all ai^pearance, not to leave tho spot till they had satis- 
faction of the Iroquois ; but tho next night they secretly 
d(>camped, and in tho morning nothing was found in their 
intreucluuent but tho two Jesuits, with tho three French- 
men who accompanied them.' 

As soon as tho chief of tho Mohawk party was informed 
of it, 3\o went to visit tho two religious. This chief was 
the Flemish Bastard, already mentioned. His compliment 
rolled entirely on the sorrow which he declared lie felt for 
the wound of Father Garrcau, and ho protested that the 
missionary had not been recognized till after tho first 
charge, in which ho had been wounded. Nothing was less 
fiiuccre than this excuse ; for the missionary had no sooner 
fallen into the hands of the Mohawks than they stripped 
him naked, in spite of his wound, and from that time they 
had given him neither food nor drink, nor oven thought of 
dressing his wound." Tho next day,' the 2d of Septem- 

' Relation, 165(5, p. 41 ; Crouxiiis, 
Hist. Can., p. 700 ; Itelniont, Hist, du 
Canada, p. t) ; I'orrot, Mumoire, etc., 
p. 84 ; Pijurt, Relation (MS.) de la 
Mort du P. Onrrcau. Acciirding to 
Porrot, Father Oarrcau was idiot by 
a Freuclimiin who had joined tho 
Iroquois, but whom the Mohawlij 

gave up to the French to bo shot. 

" Druillettes and the lay-brotlicr 
Oarreau were nlrc^ady in tho hands 
of tho Mohawks : Relation do la 
NouvelU' France, le.jO, p. 41. 

' Relation de la Nouvelle Franco, 
IGnO, p. 43. 

* Hewasshoton Wednesday, Anpf. 

insi'ouY OK NKW rii.wrr:. 




ber, he was tukon to Moutn'iil by unuw Molmwks, who, 

with a wry ill graco, iiresoiitcd two beltH— ono to Hh(jw 

their regivt for having firod upon him, without knowing vmh of 

him: the other to wipe away the tears of his fellow- *■""'" *^"^ 


Father Chiudo Pijart, who was fortunately at Montreal, 
received the Avounded priest, who was now beyond all 
remedy, and who expired on the 4th,' in his arms, implor- 
ing of the Almighty the conversion of his murderers. Fa- 
ther Leonard Garreau was a native of Linjoges,' and New 
France lost in him an excellent laborer. After his death, 
Father Dreuillettes, with their companion, turned back 
towards Quebec, whonco the former soon returned to the 

There was no longer any groixnd for doubting the dis- 
satisfaction with which the Mohawk canton regarded the 
good understanding between the Upper Iroquois and the 
French, or that it sought all means of breaking it off. 
Tlie French, on their side, flattered themselves that, if the 
four upper cantons remained firm in their alliance, the 
Mohawks would be forced, sooner or later, to follow their 
example, or at least remain quiet, for fear of being over- 
whelmed by them ; and gi-eat hopes were based on the 
settlement aboaf to be made at Onondaga. Mr. Dupuys, 
after a short stay at Three Rivers and Montreal, had left 
the last-named island on the 8th of June, and the same 

30, and it was not till Saturday that 
tlu'j- carried liim to Montreal : Kc- 
Intion do la Nouvello France, 1656, 
p. 43 ; Creuxiiis, llistoria Canadensis, 
p. 700. 

' Relation de la NouvoUo France 
1656, p. 42. 

' Ho died on the 2d : Relation do 
la Nouv. France, 1656, p. 42 ; ("reux- 
iu8, Uistorin Canadensis, p. 790 ; PI- 
jart, Relation (MS.) 

' Leonard Garreau was born at 
St. Aredius de Perche, Oct. 11, 1609. 

His father had fought gallantly un- 
dor Henry IV., and wiis renowned 
for his extensive and disoriniinuting 
cliarities. He entered the Society 
of Jesus, Sejit. 37, 1638. He came 
to Canada in August, 164;!, and had 
been constantly and actively em- 
l)loyed in the Huron and .Algonquin 
missions. DuCroux (in his History, 
pp. 790-810) writes somewhat at 

* I find no authority for tlie last 
statement, and doubt it. 

. } 



1656. (l(iy lui fell iiiiuii II Moliiiwk |)aitv, whom he itliindorcil, in 
^'"'"v—-' irtiiliiitioii for tlici fiiiKM'H wliidi tlio8«) ImliuiiH hiul rubbud 

U Hhoit t'iUH' licfol*!.' 

Ttio Kroiich On tlio '29tli, about nino in tlio (evening, tlu; voicu of u 

rcaoli Oil. . I I'll >iM I 1. 

onanga. i'>i'i> ^K p'^'n ^vuH iKMinl 111 tlii) c'unii>, lilt' coniiiiuucliT lit 
unc(t oi'ilcnd the dntiiiH to Ix'iit, and an Indian wuh hvhx 
approaching', though witii great diltifult}. it was tho 
young Huron who had cMfaped, aH aln-ady nlati'd, aftt-r 
tho incursion into Islo Orli'aiiH. Tho skin of his body waH 
half roasted, and for seventeen days that ho had been 
wandering ho had tasted no food but berries. Tiie Onon- 
dagas >vlio accoini)anied tho I'rencii niadt* him a drink 
which soon restored his stomach. Footl was then given, 
and tlio jioor cnuituro sent to Quol)ce.' 

Their r«- Tiio rest of their voyage was prosperous, except that 

ccpton, ti,py H^|J■^,l.(,J consideral)ly from want of |)rovisions, their 
Hupply not having been j)roperly managed. They had 
reckoned, as usual, on fishing and hunting. Both thosu 
resources failed, and tho French, who wore not accus- 
tomed to fast like the Indians, would almost all have died 
of starvation, had not the (Jnomlaga sachems sent out 
canoes, loaded with provisions, to meet them. By this 
means they learned, moreover, that a largo number of Iro- 
quois, of all tho cantons, and many other Indians, awaited 
them on tho banks of Lake Gannentaha;' and Mr. l)u- 
puys, on his side, prepared to make Lis entrance into the 

Beforo reaching tho spot where tho Indians had halted, 

July 11. ho landed five small pieces of cannon, and fired u 
volley. He then re-embarked, and sailing on in tine 
order,* he entered tho lake, whore, in less than fifteen 
minutes, he fired two general volleys of musketry. To 

' Uuliition do la Nouvelle Franco, taha nionnH Material for the Council 

1657. p. 10. Fire. :\Iorgan. 

' Helation tie la Nouvelle France, Their banner was of white silk, 

1057, p. 11. ■with the monogriun of Jesus em- 

•Now Lake Onondaga. Qannen- broidered: Relation, 1657, p. 10. 

nisTony of nrw raANCE. 


jiiilg*} by appoiuaiK'CH, ho wiiw roccivcd in t\w luont ro- 1656. 
Hpi'ctful aiitl I'onlial iimiuior in llio world. HiinmKUca, '-^y '*■' 
l)/>ii<iiH'ls, clmiifM, (iaiicoH- iiotliiiig was KpimMJ. Tlit« next Nt Mi.ry'» 
(lav, July 12, the T.s D.uiii wan rhai.tcd at tlic .low of a '" ui'T"' 
Holunin Mahh ; tlicu thu hhcIu'Ius oft'oii'd tho priHcntH uhu- 
nlly iiiadu iu troaticH of ulliaiico ; and on tlui Kith .;U tho 
rrricli received coniniiiiiion with a ])iety which was au 
exceUent example, and produced a great impreMMion ou 
tho niindH of tho ludianH. Tho next day they began to 
prepare their (piarterH, and Father lo Mercier proceedod 
to visit th(> town of Onond.iga, where ho was recoivod with 
great ceronioiiy.' 

On t!ie 'i'lth a general council was held, and Father C'iiau- 
mouot th<!ro spoko of the Christian religion with the same 
elo(pu>nco and tho sanio HuceesH as he had done on hia 
arrival in the canton.' The same day, deputies came from 
the canton of Cayuga to solicit a missionary, and Father 
MoHuard was granted to them." All was now apparently 
ill mov((ment, in tho canton of Ont)ndaga, to enibraco 
Christianity, and it became necessary to increase by more 
than one-half tiie chapel, no longer abh» to hold all who 
Bought instruction hi our mysteries. In the month of 
August there were exeoHsivo heats, which caused great 
maladies, but, by tho good caro of the Indians, all tho 
sick .soon recovered.* 

This last mark of affection on the part of this pooplo 
convinced the most incredulous that tho Onondagns could 
be depended upon iu future ; yet the wisest thought 
precautious necessary, at least against fickleness, and it 
proved fortunate that their advice was followed To hold 
this canton in check, and by its means the rf r>i, required 
only tl i erection of a fort. But all the resources of Can- 

' Relation do la Nouvollo Fraiici!, •' Relation de la Nouvellu Franco, 

1C57, p. 14. It is represcnteil uh fivo 10.57, )>. 10. 

leagucu from St. Mary's. Lo Mtr- ' lb. (p. 19) dots not state I lie day. 

cicr was called, by the Ououdagas, ■* Kelulion do la Nou voile France, 

AchieDdaao. 1057, p. IU. 



i6;6. ndn would not liiivo hiiHicimI to iiit>rt hiicIi an oxpcnsn, niul 

'"~ T ~^ ' iiiiiont; 111" iiHMncintcH in tlir New I'limcf Cnnipiny \w ono 

hml K'HH credit, or wii.s Ii'mm Imiirkcntd to, llmu thoHo who 

WL'i'o host infornu'd aH to tho country. 

Bciincdfiii* Wliili) tln'Mi' thing's wiTo piiHsinj,' at Onondaga, tlio 

'"'/l*,*'|J"i""' llumns on Islf Orleans, no longer deeming themselves 

jMn'iIie •*'''-''"^^'. '""k refuge in (Quebec ; atid in a moment of .-esent- 

M..iiuwi<n, „„,i,t, nt having been ahandoiied hy tho French, thoy Heut 

•uJ rollout. " •' . . 

Hccrttly to itropost) to tlic Mohawks t(j receive them into 
their canton, ho aH to form only one peo]iU' with them.' 

They had no sooner taken this step than they rejK'nted ; 
but tho Mohawks took them at their word, and seeing 
that thoy en(U'avoroil to withdraw their proposition, re- 
sorted to measures to compel tliem to adhere to it. Thoy 
began by letting loose u[)on them several parties, who 
butchered or carried oil" all who went out apart in tho 
fields ; and when they supposed that thesi! hostilitit's had 
rendered tlu'm more tractable, they sent thirty deputies 
to Quebec to bring them in.' 
Hftughti- Nothing could exceed tlu^ haughtiness with which these 
"Moiiiiwk" t'livoys discharged their commission. They liist applied 
onvoy*. j„ T^jj. jj, Lau.son, and asked to be heard in a general 
assembly of the Hurons and French ; and the g(Jvernor- 
general having const'nted, the chief of the deputation liist 
aildressed the Hurons, saying : " IJrother, it i.y now some 
time' since you stretched out your hands to beg me to 
lead you to my couutry ; but as often as I get ready to do 
so you draw back, and it is to punish you for your incon- 
stancy that I have struck you with my hatchet. Believe 
mo. Give me no more ground to treat you thus. Arise 
and follow me." With these words, ho presented two 
belts — one, he said, to help the Hiu'ons to rise ; the other 

' Rclntion do la Nouvellu France, who encamped three or four days' 

1657, p. 1!). iiiurcli from v^ucbec, nnd went thirty 

' Tlio Relation (10,57, p. 20) does to the Hurons to summon them to 

not ni<>ntion hoHtiliiics. It uuys a go. 

party of one hundred was sent, ' Four years. 



to HMMuro tliciii flmt lioncffni-wiiid tlir >fuImwkH would live Kj^fi. 
^\H\\ tlifiii iiM with llii'ir lnitliii'ii.' 

lit' tlicii tiniiiil (dwiuiIh tlu' i,'( ml, aii.l Hpok.) to liiiii 

ill tlifMf words: " Oimntliio, lift up voiir iinns ai'il h't 
your I'liilihvn i^o, wiioin you liold tliiH|M'd to your hoHoni ; 
for, should th. y coinniit any folly, it is t(, l)o tmrnl, that 
whih; iiitoiidiii;^ to chaHtisf thcni, uiy blows may K-ach 
you. This is to opfu your anus." And lif pr«stnt<'d a 
bolt. " 1 know,' ho continuod, " that tlu' Hiuoii lovt s tln> 
pruycr; that ho urknowlrdjj;(s and a(h)ros tl-.o .Vutlur of 
till thinf,'s ; that in all his lU'C'snitios ho r«'courHo to 
Him. 1 wish to do tlio Hamo. Consent Hiat Ondtssou 
(Fatlior lo Moyuc) - who has loft mo, 1 know not why — 
return with the Hurou to iiistruct mo ; and as I havo not 
canooH (uiough to tako so many, do mo the favor to lond 
mo yours." Ho supported thoso two requosts with two 
othor holts, and rotirod.' 

The rendor will douhth'ss havo much diniculty in und( 



Btanding what oMigo^' Mr. do LaUHcm' to sufFor sm-h inso- "";'," "'' "'« 
lonco at a tiuio wluai no had no othor onomv on his hands 
cscoi)! tho singlo canton of tho Mohawks. Povlmps lio 
wished to soo, before coming to a rupture with them, in 
what way uftairs would turn at Onondaga. 13ut the .'act 
is that ho nnmifostod to tho Mohawks no roscntmcnt at 
tho haughty discourse of their orator. This tho Hurona 
marked well, and they were greatly embarrassed. Tast 
experience and tho conduct of the Iroquois made t'acra 

' Hclutiim Je la NouvtUo Fraure, 
1657. p. 20. 


• T lio acting governor at this tlmo 
was Mr. Charles dc LauHon do Ciiar- 
ny, null of the fjovcmor. Hn cniiio 
to (,'aiia(hi, Jiinn 'i'4, 1(1.53. In Au- 
gust, lli.W, he married Mary I/niisa 
Giffurd, who died in l(l.")t(. Alter 
his father's departure, in the suni- 
raer of 10.10, hu odminintercd tho 
government till Sept. 18, 1057, when 

ho went to France, and having K'on 
ordained, rei;.rn'd in lO.")'.) with 
illHhop Laval. In 1073 he returned 
with IiIh daughter to I'rance . U -l- 
niont, Histoire dii Car.ada, \k ; .Vo- 
nioireM de la Soo. Hist, de Montrenl, 
p. Wl. Juchereau (UiHtoiro do I'Ko- 
tel Dieu, p. 110) is imIh \ken in bui>- 
ixwing that .lolin de !,au!<on, the 
sonedclial, wiiH left aB governor. Seo 
Faillon, llistoiru da L Colonio Fraa- 
i;ni8«>,. ii., p. 2.50. 




I r. 

The wliolo 
Ueiir trib« 
gives itself 
to the Xlo- 

fear the worst, and tlioir destruction sccniod certain, take 
•which oonrse they would. In this perph-xity they divid:jd. 
Some declared that they would not leave the French ; 
others resolved to give themselves to the Onoudagas, with 
whom they had already entered into engagements. Only 
the Bear family kept its word given to the ^lohawks.' 

These resolutions taken, the council reassembled ; and 
although the governor-general had take: . apparently, no 
measures to have his rank rcsjiected, he chose to be pres- 
ent. Father le Moyue, who acted as his interpreter, 
spoke first, and said : " Ouonthio loves the Hurons. They 
are his children ; but he does not keep them in leading- 
strings. They are old enough to act for themselves. He 
opens his arms and leaves them at libei'ty to go whither 
they will. For my part, I will follow them wherever they 
go. If they go to you, Mohawk, I will instruct you also 
in what manner it is necessary to pray and adore the 
Maker of all things ; but I dare not hope that you will 
listen to me. I know you, and know how far your indo- 
cility goes ; but I will console myself with the Hurons. 
A.8 to the canoes you ask, you see well enough that we 
have scarcely what we need. If you have not enough, 
make some."' 

The chief of the Bear family of the Hurons' then spoke. 
" Brothers," said he, " I am yours. I throw mj-sclf with 
closed eyes into your canoes, pi-epareel for every thing, even 
to die. But I wish to go at first alone, with my own cabin.* 
I will not permit othero to embark with me. If hereafter 
the rest of my nation wishes to come and join me, I will 
not oppose it ; but I am glad to be able to let them see 

' The Attignenonhac, or Cord fam- 
ily, resolved to stay ; the Arendar- 
rhonoii, or K(x"k, to go to Ononda^ 
and tlie Attignaoiiautan, or Bear, to 
join the Mohawks : Holation do la 
Nouvelle France, 1057, p. 30. See 
ante, p. 71, n. 

' Relation de la Nouvelle France, 

1()57, p. 21. Le ^foyne's remarks 
closed, not opened, the conference. 

' At«ena or le Plat. 

■* The word cubiii is used to mean 
family. — Chorh rotJ'. The expression 
is not, however, given in tlio re- 
marks of the Bear-Chiff in the Re- 
lation, 1(J57, p. 21. 



first ill what manner you tniat me." He then throw down 
throe belts, wliich liail no object exceijt to induce the Mo- 
hawks to act Iiouorably with him, and omit nothing to 
make him forget what a sacrifice ho made for his sake, 
and also to ease his journey. The deputies accepted tho 
belts, and seemed very well satisfied. They then set to 
work to make canoes, and when tlu-y were comiilcted, 
they embarked, with the Hurons and Father le Moyiie.' 

A few days after their departure, deputies from Onon- 
daga reaclu>d Quebec, to require the Hurons who had 
oftered themselves to their canton to keep their word. 
They were much shocked to Icaru that tho Bear fatuily 
had followed tho Mohawks. Tho Hurons made a poor 
excuse, and were the more embarrassed, as the French 
would not embroil themselves with that canton, which 
took a very high tone. At last, the governor-general told 
the deputies, though in very guarded terms, that they 
were wanting in respect to their Father ; that a part of 
the Hurons were disposed to follow them, but that their 
wives and children were afraid of their weapons, and that 
it was not in the guise of warriors that tlu'\ should come 
to eeek friends and brethren ; that if they wished to do 
things regularly, they should return home ; that the 
Hurons would keep their word with them Avhon they were 
able to regard them no longer as enemies ; and to show 
them that what he said was not a prtitext, the Hurons 
would go to Montreal to await them, and would give 

This reply seemed to appease them. They were feasted, 
and returned in appaien^ s/'.tisfaetion. xievertheless, these 
frequent altercations, the dissolution of a nume;'oas Chris- 
tian body on which tho most legitimate hopes had been 
based, and the hostility of tho Mohawks, caused great uu- 


arrive at 
with tho 

sniiiu view. 

' The Ilurona set out August 31, ' Rulntion do la Noiivc'Uc France, 
and Father leMoyne followed on tho 1057, p. 2;i. It dois not rauntioa 
86th J Relation, 1058, p. 9. tho governor's action. 



1656. easiness both in the governor-general and the mission- 
aries. It is true that the latter had matter for consolti- 
tion in the numerous conversions daily wiought among 
the very tribes which had shown the greatest opposition 
to the gospel, as well as in the treasures of grace and 
virtue which they remarked more and more in their neo- 
phytes. The memoirs of that time are full of most edify- 
ing traits of the fervor of these Indian Christians, which I 
suppress with regret. Thus did the Almighty keep these 
evangeUcal laborers in constant alternations of fear and 
hope, quickening in them the two virtues most necessary 
in the work of apostleship. distrust in themselves and 
confidence in Him whose ministers they were. 



e and 
r neo- 
1 these 
ir and 
s and 


Thk Rolatn.n wl,icl. details the circun-stancos of *J„. ,,eatl, of Cl.amplain 

3, p. , ,„ „„t,c„,^ the l.„,ial of Father Ray„,l,a„lt, states that he was 
■.. n-od near the hody of late Mr. de Cha„,plain, who is i„ a priv e 
van, (sepulehre) erected expressly to honor the n.e.norv of that' 
g« shod personage, to whon> Xew France is under sueh oi,iK,-.tion " 
A register states that tin's was i„ Cha.nplain's cha,,el. Mr Ferland 

tT, t :'Z'f 7 V f "n' ''"'' ''' '' '"^ *"^ ^°^^--"' ^•'••^1-'' «"ac d 
to the Clmrch of Notre Dan.e de Recouvrance, at or near the site of the 
present English cathedral. *''® 

The Abbe Laverdi^re, while editing a new edition of Cha.nplain's voy- 
jos, was anx,o„s to the point. He was soon sati.sfie 1 t fs 

budt n 1(,15 Investigation and the light of docun.ents proved that this 
was .n t e Anse of the Cnl-de-Sac, on a street still called CI a , 
Stiee , where an anc.ent cemetery exists. Arrived at this stage M I 
verd,ere and the Abbe Casgrain, who had joined in his resea' e w " 
overwhehned with disappointn.ent to find that only ten yea 1 « 

m«t "1 ^"" 'r'' ^"^°"^" ^"^ ^--'- Am^HcatioJI^;^ 
the f ' n". -^-t^-^'t-™^— who directed the works, bronghtont 
the fact that he had come, at the foot of the stairs called Little Chan.plain 
Street npon a vanlt containing a coftln and Innnan remains apparently of 
some .I, person ; and that he had at the time preserved a p^an 
of the locahty and sketches of two of the bones. Remains of tEr o 
bod s we..e fonnd near. The body in the vault was undoubtedly Cham! 

B.otI ex J ac.ficns du Pless.s, and of Mr. de Re, known to have been in- 
terred near Champlain's vault. 



Part of the anrii>iit vault was piTservotl in tlic new works, and tlip 
Alilies Lav(;i(liere and (.'asyrain dt'scciidiiig into it, November 10, 18()(i, 
fiitiiid it about oi^'lit feet square, and aliout fourteen feet from tiic corner 
of Sous-!e-Fort Street. The body had lain in tlic direction of Cliam])lain 
Street. They were able on the wall still to trace in part the name S.v.mvki. 
DE Chami'L.\i\. It now remained to find the bones. These had at the 
time been ])laccd in a bo.x and conveyed to the Parish Church, where they 
were kept for about three years, and thei"e being no prospect of their 
identification, the box was, by direction of the Rev. Edmund Langevin, 
buried near the cathedral, with injunctions to mark the spot. This was 
neglected, but hopes are still entertained of its recovery, when Quebec 
will do honor to the remains of its illustrious founder. 

A more curious and persistent search has seldom been made than this, 
so honorable to the Abbe Lavcrd.^re. (See Decouverte du Tombeau de 
Champlain, par MM. les Abbes Laverdiere et Casgrain. Quebec, 1866. 
8o, 19 pp., three plans.) 



Portrait of Champlain (to face title). 




Map of Lake Champlatn 


Portrait op Father Isaac Joqueb 

Map OF MoNTHE.u. 


Bust of Father Brebeut